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Arbeiten und Untersuchungen 
zur Keilschriftkunde 

Herausgegeben von 
Karl Hecker und Walter Sommerfeld 

Band 5 

A Concise Dictionary 
of Akkadian 

edited by 
Jeremy Black • Andrew George • Nicholas Postgate 

with the assistance of 

Tina Breckwoldt, Graham Cunningham, 

Marie-Christine Ludwig, Clemens Reichel, 

Jonathan Blanchard Smith, Junko Taniguchi 

and Cornelia Wunsch 

2 nd (corrected) printing 

Harrassowitz Verlag • Wiesbaden 

Harrassowitz Verlag • Wiesbaden 




Key to abbreviations 

Index of verbal roots 

Concise dictionary of Akkadian 



Die Deutsche Bibliothek - ClP-Einheilsaufnahme 

Ein Titeldalensatz filr diese Publikation ist bei Der Deutschen Bibliothek erhgltlich 

Die Deutsche Bibliothek - C1P Cataloguing-in-Publication-Data 

A catalogue jccord for this publication is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek 


2 M (corrected) printing 

© Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1999, 2000 

This work, including all of its parts, is protected by copyright. 

Any use beyond the limits of copyright law without the permission 

of the publisher is forbidden and subject to penalty. This applies 

particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage 

and processing in electronic systems. 

Printed on permanent/durable paper. 

Printing and binding by WS Druckerei Werner Schaubruch GmbH, Bodenheim 

Printed in Germany 

ISSN 0179-6356 
ISBN 3-447-04264-8 


The idea of creating a concise and relatively inexpensive Akkadian-English dictionary was conceived in 
1989 by Nicholas Postgate. It was plain from the start that it would need to be based on the Akkadisches 
Handworterbuch (AHw) of W. von Soden, who gave the scheme his blessing in the autumn of that 
year. From the start Jeremy Black and Andrew George agreed to collaborate in the venture, and in the 
course of the work we received considerable assistance from other colleagues with Assyriological 
experience. Although the three Editors have undertaken different proportions of the work, decisions on 
the dictionary's content and presentation were made collectively. Our procedure was first to produce a 
drastically abbreviated English translation of AHw, letter by letter. This was then checked against AHw 
by a second collaborator. To reduce the risk of misunderstandings of AHw's intentions either the first or 
the second stage was done in each case by a native German-speaker (Tina Breckwoldt, Marie-Christine 
Ludwig or Cornelia Wunsch). Each letter has been processed at some stage by at least one of the 
principal Editors. During or after the first stage the provisional text of each letter was word-processed, 
and the next major stage was the inclusion of corrections and additions. These came from various 
sources, including the addenda and corrigenda of AHw itself. The principal concern was to take full 
advantage of the material in the encyclopaedic Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD), now almost 
complete, wherever this amplified or corrected AHw. Further to this the reviews of both dictionaries in 
the Assyriological literature were initially harvested by Clemens Reichel, but for each letter responsibility 
for the difficult task of harmonizing or adjudicating between AHw and CAD where they diverged rested 
with one of the Editors. There followed a long period during which the complete text was subjected to 
various editorial and typographical refinements, as well as philological revision and correction. 


It will be evident that our principal debt by far is to Professor von Soden himself. The production of 
CDA has taken all of ten years, and this serves to emphasize the single-minded dedication with which 
the AHw was achieved. Of the collaborators named on the title page Tina Breckwoldt carried out a large 
part of the initial stage of abbreviation and translation, as well as establishing some of the word- 
processing guidelines. At the other end of the line Graham Cunningham has had a major role in 
converting a rather ragged text into a coherent whole, single-handedly re-ordering and re-numbering the 
lemmata, checking all cross-references, standardizing abbreviations and punctuation, proof-reading, etc. 
etc. Both these collaborators put their own time and expertise into the project far beyond the call of duty. 
Our thanks go likewise to Clemens Reichel, to Marie-Christine Ludwig for her considerable input at the 
first and second stages, and to Cornelia Wunsch for her timely assistance with the last of the second- 
stage checking. Jonathan Blanchard Smith toiled indefatigably deciphering the handwriting of much of 
the first draft and committing it to disk. Junko Taniguchi prepared with great thoroughness the necessary 
documentation for the standardization of the logograms with R. Borger's Assyrisch-babylonische 



Zeichenliste. To all these collaborators, who often contributed independent philological improvements of 
their own, we are much indebted, but we must stress that none of them can be held responsible for the 
inadequacies and especially the inconsistencies which doubtless still exist. 

At the very beginning Professor von Soden alerted us to the fact that a Riickldufiges Worterbuch des 
Akkadischen (SANTAG 1; Harrassowitz 1990) was being produced by his colleague and successor at 
Miinster, Karl Hecker. He has supported our project since that time, and at the final stages of the work, 
in 1998, he reviewed the manuscript for us and sent a long list of improvements and additions, 
particularly for the Old Assyrian material. We are grateful to him and Walter Sommerfeld for accepting 
the CDA in the SANTAG series. Several other scholars have given us assistance with particular words 
and issues. Alphabetically, we would like to thank David Brown, Stephanie Dalley, John Emerton, John 
MacGinnis, Alasdair Livingstone, Eleanor Robson, Christopher Walker, and Martin West, as well as the 
authors of anonymous corrections inscribed in earlier drafts of the dictionary used in our respective 
libraries. We would like to say a special word of thanks to Michael Jursa and his colleagues for his 
unwitting contribution in the shape of the lists of words which regularly appear in the Archiv fur 

Given that our intention has been to create a work tool for students, we have striven to keep the cost of 
the volume as low as possible, and the text has been supplied to the printers in camera-ready form. For 
the first nine years of our work, which was done on a series of Macintosh machines, we used a font 
called "Raydia", designed and given to us by Roy Norman. We are very grateful for this: although with 
the passage of time it has been overhauled for technical reasons, his font made a substantial contribution 
to the dictionary. For the final camera-ready version we converted the font to "Assyrian Dictionary", 
originally generated for the Oriental Institute in Chicago. Guy Deutscher gave unstintingly of his time 
and computing expertise in the final stages of producing the printout. For ever-present help with 
computing resources in Trinity College, Cambridge, our thanks are due to Laura Cordy and Peter 
Thompson. Nicholas Postgate would also like to include a special word of thanks to Neil Mitchison, on 
whose verandah in Brebbia large sections of the first draft were transcribed. 

Over the years we have had a great deal of financial assistance for the support of our collaborators. 
Our thanks are due to the British Academy, to the C.H.W. Johns Memorial Fund and to the Master and 
Fellows of Trinity College in Cambridge, to the Shillito Fund and the Faculty of Oriental Studies in the 
University of Oxford, and to the School of Oriental and African Studies in the University of London. 

Jeremy Black 

Faculty of Oriental Studies 

University of Oxford 

Andrew George 

School of Oriental and African Studies 

University of London 

Nicholas Postgate 
Faculty of Oriental Studies 
University of Cambridge 

July 1999 


The purpose of the dictionary 

The demand for a relatively short and inexpensive dictionary of Akkadian is undeniable, especially in the 
English-speaking world. The only complete and sufficiently modem dictionary of Akkadian available 
hitherto is Wolfram von Soden's Akkadisches Handworterbuch (AHw). While anyone working 
seriously on the textual riches of the ancient Near East will end up reading German, it is not encouraging 
for beginners in Akkadian to be told that they must learn German first. The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary 
(CAD) still lacks several volumes (at the time of writing, P, R, T, T and U), and even more than AHw it 
is far too expensive for a beginner or for those with a non-specialist interest in the language. Moreover, 
there is the purely physical consideration that neither dictionary can be conveniently transported in even 
the most capacious briefcase. 

Our experience in our respective universities suggests that for these reasons A Concise Dictionary of 
Akkadian (CDA) will be much used by students, and in their first year or two this is perfectly 
appropriate. Nevertheless, we must stress here that it is in no way a substitute for the two fundamental 
Akkadian dictionaries. Far more than in modem or even Classical languages, these are essential research 
tools, which need to be constantly consulted by anyone working on the original texts. There are several 
reasons for this. The CDA does not give textual references, so that the contexts in which a word is used 
cannot be controlled, which is essential as soon as finer nuances of meaning require to be established. 
Nor can our succinct presentation convey the relative rarity of many words, or indeed the degree of 
uncertainty surrounding their normalization, meaning, or even their very existence. In AHw and CAD 
the writing of the word is given sign by sign for each textual passage. The normalized transcription of 
each Akkadian word is derived from an interactive process drawing on the attested writings and our 
perceptions of the morphophonemic structure of Akkadian. Especially with infrequent words the attested 
writings can often admit of more than one defensible normalization, an ambiguity to which the format of 
CDA cannot do full justice. The actual writing of a word may also include a determinative which can 
help to define the area of meaning (e.g. gis for wooden and kus for leather items), and this too is not 
usually given in CDA. Further, CDA does not list the lexical equivalences, whether with Sumerian or 
synonyms in Akkadian, and these too can play a major role in establishing a word's meaning. 

CAD, AHw and new material 

As explained in the Preface, the CDA is based on Professor von Soden's AHw. This means that unless 
there was a compelling reason to the contrary, we have accepted the normalization and translation of a 
word as given in AHw. We have however used different principles for determining the alphabetical 
order of the entries, and adopted a simplified numbering system for words normalized identically. The 
publication of AHw was spread over more than twenty years, from 1958 to 1981. There are inevitably 
changes and inconsistencies in its format and content. Some of these will be reflected in the CDA, 



though we have of course noted the detailed addenda and corrigenda at the end of the third volume of 
AHw. In preparing these, Professor von Soden took account of relevant volumes of the CAD, when 
these existed; for the CDA we have checked our first draft against all published volumes of the CAD. In 
the Nachwort to AHw (in Band III) Professor von Soden explains that the pressure of time did not 
allow him always to take account of newly emerging philological commentaries or all of the reviews 
devoted to both the AHw and the CAD in journals. We have consulted such reviews, as also the lists of 
words treated in Assyriological literature published in the Archiv fur Orientforschung, and some of the 
principal textual editions which have appeared since the completion of the AHw itself. Consequently 
there are additions and occasional corrections to AHw incorporated in the CDA. The style of the 
dictionary does not permit us to provide chapter and verse in justification of such changes, and the 
Editors are considering how best to make such justification available to colleagues. We must stress that 
there are certainly many more improvements which could have been made on the basis of the 
Assyriological literature published since 1982 but which we have not taken on board, and significant 
fresh material appears every year. We would be grateful to receive suggestions from colleagues for 
addenda and corrigenda for an eventual revised edition. 

Principles for ordering of lemmata 

The words ("lemmata") are arranged in the order of the English alphabet, ignoring any internal brackets 
and using the generally accepted conventions that dotted letters (s and t) follow the undotted letter, and s 
follows s. We have not used the symbol ^ in our dictionary, although this is found occasionally in AHw 
in some Old Akkadian contexts, nor have we used the vowel o, nor a symbol for the velar nasal in some 
loanwords from Sumerian. In our transcriptions and in the alphabetical ordering we use the letter y 
instead of the,/' of AHw (and of CAD, which follows German practice). This means that I and Y entries 
are separated from each other, but in a single volume this should not cause inconvenience. 

Those familiar with other Semitic languages should note that neither /h/ nor /h/ is recognized in 
transcriptions of Akkadian, although there is good reason to think that the difference between the two 
phonemes is reflected in the realization of an underlying adjacent /a/ vowel as a or e respectively. A 
glottal stop indicated in the cuneiform script is often represented in our transcription by an aleph ( '); this 
need not always have been an aleph in origin, and again the difference between a Semitic aleph and 'ayin 
is reflected in the realization of an underlying adjacent /a/ vowel as a or e. This is not the place to discuss 
the realization of other phonemes surviving in Arabic such as the ghayin. 

The only other problem with the alphabetization concerns letters with a macron, for long vowels, or a 
circumflex, for contracted vowels, and words transcribed with an aleph ( ' )• The principle by which these 
are ordered is relatively unimportant to the user, since all words displaying the same basic letters are 
placed together. AHw and CAD have quite different practices, and ours is different again. To satisfy the 
curious our practice is as follows: words are first ordered alphabetically ignoring macrons and 
circumflexes, so that all words containing the same letters in the same order are found together. Within 
the resulting groups of words, starting from the beginning of each word, words containing unmarked 
vowels are placed before those containing vowels with macrons, and both are placed before vowels with 
circumflexes. As for aleph, it does not count as a "letter" for alphabetization purposes, and does not have 
a position in the alphabetical sequence. A word containing an aleph will be placed immediately after the 
same sequence of letters without an aleph, or in the place where that word would be if it existed. 

Following AHw the head-words are presented in their notional Old Babylonian forms, in contrast to 
the CAD which adopts a Standard Babylonian version. This has certain consequences for the order of 
the lemmata, most significantly that words with an initial /w/ are found under W, and verbs with HI as 
middle radical are to be sought under their uncontracted form (e.g. didnum). There are inevitably 
difficulties with words whose root has /w/ as a first radical. In some cases one derivative from the root 
(e.g. the verb) may be attested in Old Babylonian and listed under W, while another derivative (e.g. an 




adjective) may only be known from later dialects, in which case it will probably be found in A. In these 
cases the derivations and derivatives listed at the end of the entries should make the position clear. 

Mimation (that is, the final -m of the nominative case ending) is ignored in the alphabetic ordering of 
the entries; this usually makes very little difference to the order, but note that the final -m of dative or 
loc.-adv. forms is observed, and this can have a significant effect on the position of some entries, such as 

-kum or ahum. 

Words with identical transcriptions, or differing only by the presence or absence of mimation, are 
differentiated by Roman numerals (e.g. kibsu(m)l, kibsuJI). In CDA only the substantive entries 
(shown in a bold font) are numbered thus; where we also list an identically transcribed word or words 
as a variant of a word or words whose substantive entry is elsewhere (shown in italics), a cross- 
reference to that entry is given, but unlike AHw further Roman numerals are not assigned to the 

The lemma 

Nouns are listed in the nominative singular, as are adjectives in their masculine form. A few nouns are 
cited in nominative plural form where a singular is not attested. Verbs are listed in the nominative 
infinitive of the G stem, where that stem is attested (or has been reconstructed for the convenience of the 
dictionary, in which case the reconstructed form may be marked with an asterisk, e.g. *ahu(m)). In most 
instances where a verb is not attested in the G stem it will be listed under the D, S or N form, whichever 
is attested. Note that such forms can be tracked down by use of the index of roots (pp. xvii-xxiv). 
Quadriliteral verbs are listed under their N stem, if this is attested, where the S stem will also be found; if 
only the S stem is known, seek it under S. 

As in AHw the lemmata are presented in their Old Babylonian or Old Assyrian form, where attested. 
In these cases, as with the occasional word attested only in Old Akkadian, the form will normally retain 
its mimation. If the word is also attested in later dialects the mimation is bracketed, e.g. eleppu(m), and if 
it is not attested in any of the earlier dialects, no mimation is shown. As mentioned above, the mimation 
is ignored in the alphabetization. There are special problems with Assyrian forms, and the following 
guidelines, which were adopted late in the day, may not have been applied fully consistently. Where a 
Babylonian form exists it is used as the head-word, and Assyrian forms which differ in accordance with 
regular changes between the two dialects are not separately specified: thus, for instance, the Assyrian 
emddu(m) is not specified in the entry emedu(m) since this is an entirely predictable change, and the 
same applies to short syllables subject to vowel assimilation, such as nemudu for the Babylonian 
nemedu. Nonetheless, in some cases such forms have been mentioned for the user's convenience. 
Where, on the other hand, no Babylonian form is attested, the word is cited in its Assyrian form. Thus 
the verb etaku is known only from Assyrian texts and we have refrained from inventing its Babylonian 
equivalent, so that it is listed as etaku (not eteku). Similar considerations apply e.g. to wazzunum and 
nouns such as uthurum. Again the list of roots (pp. xvii-xxiv) should assist the user in tracking down 
some of these less predictable entries. 

After the first form of the lemma, shown in bold type, other forms may be listed, in italics. These may 
be contemporary variants, or the forms attested in other dialects either as a result of predictable dialectal 
differences or less regular changes. The different dialects are often specified, but the caveats applying to 
the dialectal distribution of the word as a whole (see below) also apply here. In many cases we are at 
present unable to determine the correct normalization of a word, because of ambiguities in the way it is 
written in cuneiform: in such cases the format is x (or v), implying that one or other of the forms is 
possible (but not both). 



Difficulties tracking down a word 

The ambiguities of the cuneiform script frequently make it difficult to track a word down, especially for 
the student starting out. Apart from problems caused by incorrect grammatical analysis of verbal forms, 
most elusive words will be located by trying one of three strategies. The first is to look under e instead of 
i, or vice versa: many cuneiform signs do not distinguish the two vowels (such as li = le), and even 
signs which can (such as mi and me) are often used "wrongly" for each other. In general, AHw and 
hence CDA normalize to e (rather than i) more frequently than CAD, and in particular the rule is usually 
observed that /i/ followed by /r/ or /h/ in a closed syllable is realized as /e/ (see GAG §9b). Hence the 
/pirsum/ form of pardsum has to be sought under persum. A second frequent difficulty is posed by the 
inability of many cuneiform signs to differentiate voiced from unvoiced and emphatic from unemphatic 
consonants. Thus the sign DA may be read as da or ta, AD as ad, at or at, BU can be bu and pu, and 
UB can be ub or up; etc. etc. This is in most cases purely a graphic uncertainty caused by the 
multivalence of the sign, and it is not the duty of the dictionary to alert the user to all these options. (One 
particular problem of Old Babylonian texts is posed by cases where a word with a written h may 
alternate with forms showing no consonant in that position (e.g. (h)aldlu). The real nature of the 
phoneme is difficult to determine, and it is not assisted by the use of the AH sign, which in OB may also 
be used for a glottal stop, and only after 1500 was differentiated from the new sign A'). Thirdly, 
especially in earlier texts the scribes often did not indicate double consonants. Hence those reading 
cuneiform texts need to bear in mind the possibility that where they see only a single written consonant it 
may be shown by us as doubled. 

Further details of the lemma 

Where desirable to avoid uncertainty, a word may be followed by a statement identifying its part of 
speech (e.g. adv.) or by f. for feminine nouns not instantly recognizable as such, pi. for nouns cited in 
their plural form, or pi. tant. for nouns cited and thought to occur solely in the plural. There may also 
follow, introduced by f. or pi., feminine or plural forms of the word; these are usually only given where 
they diverge from the expected. 

The principal meaning(s) 

The meaning of a word is normally presented between inverted commas, thus "elephant". For verbs, the 
English infinitive is used at first, thus "to cut off", but the "to" is not repeated further on in the article. 
Alternative English renderings of the same area of meaning are separated by commas, "to gain control of, 
acquire", while distinct meanings may be separated by semicolons, "to restore; have success". When the 
meaning of a word is not known or unclear, the dictionary states mng. unkn., mng. unci, or mng. uncert., 
categories which obviously overlap. Following AHw practice, single inverted commas are sometimes 
used to convey the "original" or "etymological" meaning of a word, a concept which may overlap with 
"literally". The symbol ~ before a meaning signifies "approximately". In many cases, especially with 
nouns, the broad area of meaning is certain but the precise translation impossible to determine; with these 
generic meanings the broad area is indicated between parentheses, e.g. (a plant) or (a disease). If a 
precise but tentative identification can be suggested we have tended to use the formulation: (a plant, 
phps.) "parsley". 

The periods of attestation 

After the principal meaning(s) are shown the dialects in which the word is attested, unless it is 
encountered generally throughout the Babylonian and Assyrian dialects of Akkadian, in which case in 
keeping with AHw practice no dialectal distribution is given. After Old Akkadian in the 3rd millennium 



BC, we distinguish the two main dialects of the vernacular, each of which is divided chronologically into 
Old, Middle or Neo-Babylonian (OB, MB and NB) and Old, Middle or Neo-Assyrian (OA, MA and 
NA). These main periods may be be further refined by geographical qualifications, such as (N.Mes.), 
(Bogh.) or (Urar.). After about 1500 BC, in a parallel development, a more or less degraded version of 
Old Babylonian was preserved by the scribal tradition in Babylonia, in Assyria, and in the various 
surrounding centres where Akkadian was used as a legal or scholarly medium. This is called 
"jungbabylonisch" by German philologists, which corresponds broadly to the term "Standard 
Babylonian" introduced for the CAD. However, the two terms do not coincide exactly and we have 
elected to retain the abbreviation "jB", partly because it is very familiar to Assyriologists, and partly to 
emphasize that the period attribution is that of AHw. It is probably not necessary to underline that there 
was always a degree of cross-fertilization between the "jB" literary dialect and the contemporary 
vernaculars, especially Middle and Neo-Babylonian. 

There is only one important respect in which our period designations diverge from AHw, and that is 
in our abandonment of the category "spatbabylonisch" (spB). The CAD uses the equivalent term "Late 
Babylonian", but differently at different stages of the dictionary's compilation. The task of establishing 
our own criteria and applying them to each entry consistently was too daunting, and we decided that for 
our purposes the simplest solution was to include all spB (and CAD LB) references under Neo- 
Babylonian. Users of CDA should therefore be aware that NB now includes both the later vernacular 
(after 625 BC on) and other texts of the Persian and Seleucid periods not written in jB or Standard 

It is important to emphasize that these chronological and geographical categories cannot reflect the real 
distribution of each word's usage, only its attestations. The periods listed refer only to the texts from 
which the word is known to us, not to the periods in which the word may really have been used. In the 
course of preparing the CDA one of the commonest changes from AHw has been the addition of new 
period attestations, and we can be confident that as new texts are found many of our words will turn up 
outside their presently known range of dialect and time. 

While mentioning dialectal distribution we should refer to the limits of our textual catchment area. 
Generally the dictionary includes words in Akkadian texts from the earliest Old Akkadian in the 24th 
century BC to the latest cuneiform texts of the 1 st century AD. Akkadian, like 20th century English, was 
abroad church, and under "Akkadian texts" we include even the most divergent products of Human or 
Canaanite scribes. This means that the dictionary does include loan words from other languages (such as 
Hurrian, Sumerian and West Semitic languages) provided they have been incorporated into an Akkadian 
text; however such words are not included when they are listed as equivalents of Akkadian words in 
bilingual or multilingual texts. In general, Akkadian words attested solely in texts in other languages are 
not included, but where a known Akkadian word is encountered, for instance, in a Hittite or Elamite text, 
this may be recorded. 

Amplified meanings 

After the statement of dialectal attestation there follows amplification of the meaning(s), which differs in 
its arrangement from entry to entry. In the case of verbs the entry is arranged according to the_ verbal 
stems attested (G, D, S and N, with tn and t forms of each where appropriate; and the occasional SD and 
R stems). The vowel of class (a/a, Hi, ulu, alu etc.) is usually stated for the G stem, together with other 
details of the conjugation which are not to be predicted. In longer entries where the further meanings can 
be divided into significant groups they may be numbered ( 1 ., 2., etc.). These groups are not intended to 
correspond to similar subdivisions in the corresponding AHw entries. Such numbering is also used in 
cases, mostly nouns, where quite distinct meanings are given under a single entry. 




Logographic writings of a word, usually borrowed from Sumerian, are shown in small Roman capitals 
between square brackets, thus [UDU]. They are usually placed after the dialectal distribution, but different 
logographic writings may apply to parts of an entry only (e.g. to the D stem of a verb, or a specialized 
usage of a noun), in which case they are shown in the appropriate place. No uniformity prevails among 
cuneiform specialists in the transcription of logograms. With rare exceptions we have adopted the values 
given in R. Borger, Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste (3. Auflage, with Supplement; Alter Orient und 
Altes Testament 33/33A, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1986), since it seems best that the work-tools of the 
Assyriologist should be as consistent with each other as possible. Borger's choice of transcription is 
intended not merely to indicate the sign in use, but also to reproduce the presumed Sumerian value 
associated with that meaning. Hence, in contrast to AHw, we write [MA.GURs] rather than [mA.TU] as 
the logogram for makuru(m); this does not imply that AHw was wrong, but is a necessary consequence 
of our exclusion of the lexical section of the AHw entries, from which the user can usually identify the 
"correct" Sumerian values. 

Derivations and derivatives 

Akkadian is unusual among Semitic languages in that our modern dictionaries are arranged alphabetically 
word by word, instead of by roots. This is a consequence of two considerations: there are too many 
foreign imports from languages which do not share the Semitic word structures (primarily of course 
Sumerian), and in too many cases the (usually) triliteral root of an "indigenous" Akkadian word cannot 
be confidently identified. In this respect we have followed the practice of AHw and CAD, but one can 
only regret the consequent separation of closely related words from their close relatives, so that, for 
instance, kinu(m), mukinnu(m) and takittum have to be sought in different parts of the dictionary. As a 
poor mitigation of this separation, at the end of each entry for an "indigenous" Akkadian word are listed 
words "derived" from it (preceded by the symbol >), and/or a word from which it "derives" (preceded 
by <). It will hardly need stressing that one form does not always strictly derive from another, but for 
pure convenience we have adopted the convention that the verbal infinitive is primary, and other forms 
derive from it. In some cases, where two closely related forms are placed next to each other, we have not 
felt the need to state their relationship (e.g. gasisis and gasisu(m)). 

When a word is borrowed into Akkadian from elsewhere, the derivation section merely indicates the 
presumed language of origin (preceded by <), e.g. Sum., Hurr., W.Sem., Ug., Hitt., Elam. etc. 


After the derivatives section (and elsewhere) there may also be cross-references introduced by an arrow 
(-»). These often go back to the "rod-and-ring" symbol adopted by AHw, and like it they are intended to 
draw the user's attention to another entry for a variety of different reasons. Similarly with the many 
italicized head-words which are followed only by an arrow referring the user to a main entry, the form in 
question may not always be listed under the main entry since some are forms not acknowledged by CDA 
but listed solely to assist the user in tracking down the correct entry. There are however many fewer such 
cross-references than in AHw, partly because the density of entries on the page makes them less 
necessary. In particular cross-references to an entry have generally not been included where they would 
have come immediately before or after it. 

Key to abbreviations 


stands for 


abbreviation, abbreviated 


absol ute(ly) 






Achaemenid inscriptions 




adjective, adjectival 
















archaic, archaizing 


architecture, architectural 




astrological, astronomical 




before Christ 






















(subordinating) conjunction 








designation, designating 










divine name 






exempli gratia 














et cetera 




euphemism, euphemistic 








female divine name 

fig. etym. 

figura etymologica 


female personal name 




W. von Sod en, Grand) iss der 

akkadischen Grammatik (3., erganzte 

Auflage; Rome 1985) 






Epic of Giigames 














id est 







































literature, literary 












Middle Assyrian 






Middle Babylonian 


medicine, medical(ly) 










month name 












North Mesopotamia 



nom. unit. 

nomen unitatis 


Old Assyrian 


Old Akkadian 


Old Babylonian 










Old Persian 






















place name 

pi. tant. 

plurale tantum (plural only) 


personal name 










predicate, predicative 










probable, probably 







pronoun, pronominal 


















royal name 

roy. inscr. 

royal inscription(s) 













st. abs. 

status absolutus 



st. constr. 

status constructus 









substantive(s), substantival 






syllable, syllabic(ally) 






temple name 
















Urartu, Urartian 














West Semitic 


writing, written 





comes from 


goes to 




unattested form 

Index of verbal roots 

This index refers the reader to those lemmata which are verbs in which the given root letters occur. It is 
intended for practical purposes, to assist the user in identifying a particular verb and find its entry in the 
dictionary, and does not necessarily carry any implications about the history or etymology of the verb. It 
does not refer to other parts of speech. The aleph sign used here (') stands for all weaknesses, including 
medial a, I, and u, but excluding initial w. 

aparu(m); eberu(m) I; 

epesum I; uppusu II 
epesu(m) II 
eqfl(m); uqqfl(m) II 

aru(m) III.IV.VI; 

eru(m) III; warum II 
erebu(m) I; nerubu(m) 
aradu; (w)aradu(m) 
arat)u(m) MI; erehu 
araru(m) II.III; ereru(m); 


eresu(m) I.H; *warasum 
azu(m) I; esfl 

esebu(m) I; ezej)u(m) 
esehu(m) I; esequ(m) 

eseru(m) II.III 
esu; (w)asu(m) 
esedu(m) II 

esepu(m); wasabum 
eseru(m) II; eseru(m); 

ussuru(m) II.III 


hahu II 


akalu(m); ekelu(m) 





akamu II; ekemu(m) 


alu; e'elu(m) 


ekepu(m); ukkupu 















elu(m) III; utlellu(m) 



apu III; ebu II 










abatu(m) II 









abaku(m) I.H 


alalu(m) II.III; 



abalu(m); apalu(m) I; 

elelu(m) II.III 


ebelu; wabalu(m) 







alapu(m); elepu(m) 


eberu(m) I. II 





uppusu II 


alatu(m); palatum 



abatu(m) I.H 


amOm V; ewOm I; itmu 



ebetu(m) I.II; ubbutu IV 




edu(m) II 







emequ(m) I.II 





amaru(m) I.II; 




emeru(m) I.II 










amasu; emesu(m) I.II 





amasu; emesu 





enu(m) HI 



adaru(m) I.II; ederu(m) 







anahu(m) I.II 



egu(m) III 


enenu(m) I.II.III.IV; 



agagu(m); ekeku; eqequ 

utnenu(m) II 









agaru(m); egeru(m) 






abO(m) II; harju II 








apu III; epu(m) II 






apalu(m) I.II; 




ekO(m) II 

uppulu(m) II 













il roots 




ese'u(m); esu(m) IV.V; 




dararu(m) I.II 



baramu(m) I.II 




esebu; (w)asabu(m) 




darasu(m) I.II; darasu(m) 


asaru(m); eseru(m); 











asasu(m) III.IV; 





ussusu(m) III 






bussumu(m) II 


ga'u; ga'um 


ataku; etaku 










gesu(m) I; gesu(m) I 






gSsu(m) I.II; g6su(m) I.II 






kababu II 




basaniu(m) II.II1 




















galO II 


eteru(m) I.II 


butturu II 


gullubu(m) II 


awOm; ewOm I.II 






azO(m) I; ezfl(m) I.II 




galalu II; gullulu(m) 






galasu; gullusu 






azaru; esefu(m) II; ezeru 






ezezu(m); izuzzum 












da'amu(m) I.II 








gamaru(m) II 


ba'alu(m); balu; belu(m); 


da'apu; depu 



bullu I 





b'r ' 

baru(m) I.II.III; 





beru(m) I.II 






ba'asu; basu(m) I.II; 


dababu(m) II 



be'esu(m); besu(m) 


















babalu(m); wabalu(m) 


dabfl(m) II 












dekfl(m) n 






dakaku(m) I.II 














qararu(m); sugarruru(m) 








batju II; bu"u(m) II 




garasu(m); qarasu(m) 


beheru; bubburu 


dalalu(m) I.n 








gazazu(m); kasasu(m) I 








belO(m) II 


dawflm; dummQ 




nabalkutu(m) II 


















balasu I.II 




balatu(m) II 




babu; biapum 


banu(m) II.IV 


dananu(m) II 


biadu; b>atu(m) 




dapanu(m) II 


bSlu; bialum 




duppuru(m) I 


bapu; b'apum 






bSqu; hiaqu(m) 


baqaru(m); buqquru; 







darfl(m); derfl; durrQ(m) 






darakum II 


bSsu(m) I.II; biasum 


barO(m) I.III.IV; 


daraku(m) I.U.UI 



beru(m) II; bitru II 


darakum II 





Verbal roots 


habu(m) II.III.IV; 


araru(m) III; bararu(m) I; 


kullulu(m) II; 

kubbO II 

subarruru(m) II; subruru 

suklulu(m) II 








habalu(m) Il.m.IV 


barasu(m); karasu(m) 




habaru(m) I.II; kabaru(m) 






habasu(m) I.II 




kamQ(m) II; kawQm II 


habasu(m) I.II 






habatu(m) I.ILID.IV 






hadu(m) III.IV 






hadadu I.II; kadadu 




kamaru(m) IV 


hadalu(m) I.II 




kamasu(m) I.II 




hazOm II 


kamasu(m) I.II 




basabu(m) I.II 


kamasu(m) II 








bahu II 


*asasu(m) I.II 






haifl(m) IV.V.VI 








gananu; kananu(m) 








balflm III; helu(m) II 




kanasu(m) I.II 








alalu II; halalu(m) I.II.III 


basasu(m) I.II 




halapu(m) I.II 


batu(m) II.III 










halasu(m); harasu(m) 










kaparu(m) I.II.III 










batO(m) II 




hama'u; hamu I.II; hawfl 










kapadu(m); kapatu(m) 




hatatu(m) I.II 


heru(m) II; kara'u; 





karO(m) II 


hainaru(m); bemeru 


azQ(m) I 






hazflm II; butenzu 




hamasu(m) I.II; 





kamasu(m) II 




kararu I.n 


hamatu(m) II.III 




hanu(m) II; bunnu(m) 


gS'u; ka"u 






kadu(m) I.II 












kullu(m) III 


kasu(m) III 


hanapu I.II 








kSru(m) I.II 


kasapu(m) I.II 








kanasu(m) I 






hapum; bepu(m) II 




kasO(m) III 


huppudum II 


kubbu II; kubbu'u 




hapapu I.II 


kababu II; kapapu(m) 




haparu(m) I.II; beperu 
















gazazu(m); kasasu(m); 




kabasu(m); kapasu(m) II 

kasasu(m) I 


liaru IV; heru(m) II 


kapasu(m) II 




harabu; harapu(m) I 


kabasu(m); kabasu 










haradu(m) III.IV 












liaramu(m) I.II 




kasasu(m) I.II 


nahannumu ' 












harapu(m) I.II 



Verbal roots 




kataru I.II 


muqqu II 






maru; (w)aru(m) 






mSsu; mesu(m) 


masaru(m); (w)asaru(m) 


kawum II 


masu(m); wiasum 




kazabu(m) I.II 


mSsu; mesu(m); muasu 




kezeru(m) I 










mataru(m); (w)ataru(m) 




matu(m) II 


le'u(m); lu"u(m) II 


madadu(m) I.II 


maza'u(m) II; mazum II 










madaru(m) II 


masarum; masaru(m); 







lemu(m); luamum; 
lummu II 


magaru(m); makaru(m) I; 




la"upum II; liapum 




na'u; na'u(m); n6'u(m) 


la'asu(m); lasu I.II 




na'adu(m); nadu(m) 












naku; niaku(m) 


labu; lawum II 




itulu(m); na'alu(m); 









maku(m) III.IV; 





meku(m) V 


na'apu(m); napu I.II 






naqu(m) I.II 






na'aru(m); neru(m) 




makaru(m) I.II 














na'asu; nasu(m); nesu(m) 




mala'u; malu(m) IV 


netu I.II 


lahamu(m) I.II; lehemu 








malahu IV 


naba'u(m); nabu(m) II; 




malaku(m) II.III 

nebu(m) II 


laku(m) II; leku 


malalu(m) I; melulu(m) 


















manu(m) IV; menu(m) 




lalu II; lullu II 






lawum II; lemu(m) I.II 




nadu(m) III.IV; 





natu(m) IV 


lamamu I.II 


marfl(m) II.III; murru I 














nadanu(m) II 










mararu(m) I.II. Ill 


nadaru(m) I.II 







iq 1 

laqa'u; leku; lequ(m) II 




















mesu(m) II; wussum 


nagaru(m) II 


letu(m) II 


mas ahum 








nagu(m) II 


lawum II 


masarum; masaru(m) 


na^u; nebfl(m) II 


lezu II 


masu(m); (w)ussu(m) 


nahalu(m) I.II 






naharu(m) I.II 




masarum; masaru(m) 








ma'u(m); ma'u(m); 


masa'u(m); masu(m) II; 




mussu'u; sumsu(m); 














in' n 



masahu(m) I.II 





Verbal roots 






pasu; pesu 




nasasu I; nazazu(m) 










padu(m); puadum 
















itmfl; nawum II 








piaqum; puqqu(m) 






paru(m) I.II 




napu(m) II; nepum; 




pesu(m) II 



pasu; puasu(m) 




napadu II 














pagQ(m) II 

P? s 









napalu(m) I.II.III 


pebu(m) II 




nabakum; napaqu(m); 




basalu(m); pasalu(m) 









paharu(m) II 










napasu(m) I.II 


pahasu; pat)azu 


pasasu(m); pasasu 










pakaru; pukkuru 


petu(m) II 




pelO HI 






paladu II 








patanu(m) I.II 




palaku(m); palaqu(m) 


pataqu(m) I.II 








nesu(m) II 






nasahu(m); nasalju(m) 














ga'u; qu"u(m) 








nasasu(m); nasasu I 






nasabu(m) I.II 




qa'alum; qalu(m); 


nasaru (m) 





nasu(m) II 




qapu(m); qiapu(m) 


nasu(m) II; nesfl(m) 










qabu(m) II; qu"u(m) 






qitbulu; qubbulu 


nasaku(m); nasaku(m) 


para'u(m) I.II; 





paru III.IV; purrum II 


habatu IV; qubbutu 




paradu(m) I.II 


qada'um; qadu II 


nasaru(m) I.II 


napardfl II 




nasasu I.II 


para^u; paraku(m); 




natu(m) IV; nentu; 

para'u(m) I 



nuttum II 




qalu(m) II 




naparku II 


qalalu(m) I.II 














natu(m) III.IV 




qamu(m) II; qemum; 



suparruru(m) II 





parasu(m) I.II 




nawu(m) II 








parasu(m) I.II 


qanu(m) II; qenu 




naprusu(m) II; parasu(m) 


kananu(m); qananu(m) 

























Verbal roots 






garadum; qaradu(m) 














qada'um; qatu(m) II 








qataiu II 








ra'u; re'u(m) 


ra'abu(m); rabu(m); 









ramu(m) II.III; remu(m) 



requ(m); riaqu(m); 





rasu(m); resu(m) 


rasu(m); riasu(m) 






rabu(m) II.III; rubbu'um 












redfl(m) I.II 







r g' 



ragabu; ruggubu II 


ragagu(m) I.II 














rahasu(m) I.II.III 

















ramu(m) II.III 




ramamu(m); ramu(m) II 






rapadu(m) II 










raqu(m); ruqqu 






ragagum II; raqaqu(m) 










rasum ' 




rasanu(m); rasanu(m) 




rasu(m) I.II.III 


rasabu(m); rasabu(m) 








retu(m) II 








retu(m) II 












sa'u(m); se'u 


sa'abu; sabu(m) 


sadu(m); sedu 




sa'alu; salu 




sa'abu; sabu(m) 




saru(m); seru(m) 






saba'u(m); sabu(m) 


sabaku(m); tabaku(m) 




subbusu II; sabasu(m) 




sadadu(m) I.II 






sagu I; segu 






















sakalu(m) I.II 


sakanu; sakanu(m) 


sakapu(m) I.II 


sekeru(m) I.II 




salal)u(m) II; 

sala'u(m) I.II.III; 

sullu(m) I; 

salu(m) I.II.III 


salatu(m) II 


salahu(m) I.II 




salamu(m) II 


sullunu II 


salaqu I.II 


salatu(m) II 


samu II 


















sanaqu(m) I.II 




sepu(m) II.III; suppu II 




















zakaru(m); zaqaru(m) 


surruml; zaru(m) II 


saradu(m); seredu 










sararu(m); sarruru 








sataru(m) II 


se'u; sua'u 


sadu(m) I.II 



Verbal roots 



. s't 

setu(m) II 


samabu(m) I 




satu I.II; setu(m); siatu 




sanu; senu(m) 


sapu(m) II.IV; sebu(m) I 


samaru(m) I.II 

; ?'P 

suppu II 




samatu; samatu(m) II 


seru(m); surrum IV 


sababu(m) I.II 


samatu(m) I.II 

; ?'y 



sababu I; sapabu(m); 




saba'um; sabu(m) II; 



sapu(m) II; subbu(m) 

















sabaru(m) I.II 


sabasu(m); sabasu(m) 


sanaqu(m) I; sunnuqu 




sapatu(m) I; subbutu 






sabatu(m) II 






sada IV; tuddu 


suppu II; 





sapu(m) II.III.IV; 


sahatu(m) I.II 





sala'u; selu(m) I.II; sullQ 






salalu(m); sullulu(m) II 


segfl(m) II 
















samu(m) II 


sagamu(m) II 




samadu(m) II 




saparu(m); sitpuru 








samaru(m); semeru(m) 


sabfl II.III; sebu; 





subbu(m) II.III.IV 








sapatu; sapatu(m) I.II 


sapu(m) II 




sapatu(m) I.II 






saqu(m) II.III 
















subarruru(m) II; suhruru 


suqammumu(m) II 




sabatu(m) III.IV 




sararju(m) I.II.III.IV; 


sabatu(m) III.IV; 


saru(m) II; 

surruhu II 

sabatu(m) I.II.III 

seru I.II.III.IV; 





surru(m) II.IV 








sarapu(m) I.II 






sararu(m); sararu(m) I.II 


sakamu(m) I.II; 







sarabu(m) I.II.III 






saraku(m) I.II 












sa'u(m); se'u(m) I.II; 




saraqu(m) I.II.III 

se'u(m); suhtju III; 




sararu(m) I.II.III 



sakatu(m) I.II 




sabu(m); siabum 


sala'um; salQ(m) I.II.III; 




sebu; siabu(m) I 

selQ II.III 




saqum II 




satu(m) II.III 


salu(m) I.II; selu(m); 


salabu(m) I.II; salabu(m) 





salalu(m) I.II.III 




samu(m); siamu(m); 


salamu(m) II 


satapu; sutattupu 

summu(m) II 






senu; *sianum; sunnu(m) 




setu(m) II 








saqu(m) I.II.III.IV; 




sataru(m) II 



salatu(m) I.II 




sa'aru(m); saru; se'eru; 


sawum II; semu(m) I 


sawum II 

seru(m); surru(m); 










samabu(m) I.II 


tamu II; ta'u(m); te'u 

Verbal roots 





Verbal roots 




ramu(m) II.III 





. s't 

setu(m) II 


samarju(m) I 










satu I.II; setu(m); siatu 




garadum; qaradu(m) 


ramamu(m); ramu(m) II 




sanu; senu(m) 


sapu(m) II.IV; sebu(m) I 


samaru(m) I.II 








suppu II 




samatu; samatu(m) II 








seru(m); surrum IV 


sababu(m) I.II 


samatu(m) I.II 




rapadu(m) II 






sabahu I; sapahu(m); 


Sana' u ; 








saba'um; sabu(m) II; 


sanu(m) III.IV.V.VI; 







sapfl(m) II; subbu(m) 









sakalu(m) I.II 








qada'um; qatu(m) II 




sakanu; sakanu(m) 










raqfl(m); ruqqu 


sakapu(m) I.II 


sabaru(m) I.II 


sabasu(m); sabasu(m) 


sanaqu(m) I; sunnuqu 






sekeru(m) I.II 




sapatu(m) I; subbutu 












sabatu(m) II 




qataru II 


ragagum II; raqaqu(m) 


salahu(m) II; 




sadQ IV; tuddu 


suppu II; 






§b r 




sapu(m) II.III.IV; 





sullu(m) I; 


sahatu(m) I.II 










sala'u; selu(m) I.II; sullO 








salatu(m) II 


salalu(m); sullulu(m) II 


segfl(m) II 




ra'u; re'u(m) 


rasum ' 


salarju(m) I.II 








ra'abu(m); rabu(m); 













rasanu(m); rasanu(m) 


salamu(m) II 


samu(m) II 


sagamu(m) II 








sullunu II 


samadu(m) II 




saparu(m); sitpuru 




raJu(m) I.II.III 


salaqu I.II 










rasabu(m); rasabu(m) 


salatu(m) II 


samaru(m); semeru(m) 


sahfl II.III; sehu; 




ramu(m) II. Ill; remu(m); 




samu II 



suhhO(m) II.III.IV 













sapatu; sapatu(m) I.II 


requ(m); riaqu(m); 


rasas u 




sapu(ni) II 




sapatu(m) I.II 



retu(m) II 








saqu(m) II.III 














rasu(m); resu(m) 












rasu(m); riasu(m) 








sut)arruru(m) II; sutjruru 


suqammumu(m) II 




retu(m) II 






sarjatu(m) III.IV 










sarahu(m) I.II.III.IV; 


sabatu(m) III.IV; 


saru(m) II; 


rabu(m) II. Ill; rubbu'um 




sanaqu(m) I.II 

surruhu II 

sahatu(m) I.II.III 

seru I.II.III.IV; 











surru(m) II.IV 






sepu(m) II.III; suppu II 














sarapu(m) I.II 










sararu(m); sararu(m) I.II 


sakamu(m) I.II; 






sa'u(m); se'u 







sarat)u(m) LILffl 


redu(m) I.II 


sa'abu; sabu(m) 








saraku(m) I.II 




sadu(m); sedu 






















sa'alu; salu 




sa'u(m); se'u(m) I.II; 




saraqu(m) I.II.III 







se'Q(m); suhhu III; 




sararu(m) I.II.III 


ragabu; ruggiibii II 


sa'abu; sabu(m) 





sakatu(m) I.II 




ragagu(m) I.II 




zakaru(m); zaqaru(m) 


sabu(m); siabum 


sala'um; salfl(m) I.II.III; 






saru(m); seru(m) 


surrum I; zaru(m) II 


sehu; siahu(m) I 

selfl II.III 








saradu(m); seredu 


saqum II 




satQ(m) II.III 




sat u 




salu(m) I.II; selu(m); 


salabu(m) I.II; salajjufm) 






saba'u(m); sabu(m) 











sabaku(m); tabaku(m) 




samu(m); siamu(m); 


salamu(m) II 


satapu; sutattupu 







summu(m) II 






rahasu(m) I.II.III 


subbusu II; sabasu(m) 


sararu(m); sarruru 


senu; *sianum; sunnu(m) 




setu(m) II 
















sadadu(m) I.II 




saqu(m) I.II.III.IV; 




sataru(m) II 









salatu(m) I.II 








sataru(m) II 


sa'aru(m); saru; se'eru; 


sawum II; semu(m) I 


sawQm II 




sagu I; segu 

seru(m); surru(m); 










se'u; sua'u 









sadu(m) I.II 



samahu(m) I.II 


tamu II; ta'u(m); te'u 

Verbal roots 






tu"umu II 


tapu; tebum 
























tullu II 




talalu(m); tullulu 


sutlumu(m); tullumum 


tamu(m) II.III 








tappum II; tapu 








taru(m) I.H 














tarasu(m) I.H 




tasu(m); tesu(m) 





















tebu(m) I.H 








tummumu II 




tapu; tepu(m) 








tapasu II 






























tuddu; *wadum 




























warum II 




aralju(m) I 












(w)asu(m); (w)ussu(m) 






masu(m) II 


















ze'u; zu"u 












zaru I; zeru(m) 






zaku(m) II 




sakapu(m) I; zaqapu(m) 




zemu; zummu(m) II 




samarum; zamaru(m) II 


zenu(m) II 




zananu(m) I.H 












zakaru(m); zaqaru(m) 


zaqatu(m) I.H 


zaru(m) I 










a — » ana I 

-a "my" ( 1 sg. pron. suff.); -» -I 

-a — » also -am 

a "that, those; the afore-mentioned" NB, late NA 
often wr. a', 04 (-► GAG §63g); < Aram, 
emphatic state 

-a "my" (1 sg. pron. suff.) NB for -i (-» GAG 

a, a-a — » ai I.H 

a-a- -» ayya. . ., ayyi. . ., ayyu. . . 


a"dlu — » e"elu 

a'dru — » warum 

ab — » abu I 

ababdum (a civil servant) OB; < Sum. 

ababim — » abu I 3 

ababu I "forest" jB lex. 

ababu II mng. unkn. jB lex. 

abddu — > abdtu II N 

abahsinnu(m), abahsennu, ebuhusinnu, 
ubuhsinnu ~ "stalk" Bab. as edible commodity 

abahu — » appahu 

abaku(m) I "to lead away" OA, NA, M/NB 
G (a/u) OA "take (commodities) to"; + vent, 
"fetch" commodities, animals; often with 
ippdniya ("myself in person"); Bab. as OA 
"take to", + vent, "fetch" objects, animals, also 
people, NB "hale" witness, debtor; NB ana 
kaspi a. 'take away for silver' = "buy" Gt Mari 
"lead away" D Mari "dispatch, forward" goods; 
jB "push away, displace"; NA "shift" work 
onto s.o. S jB "have s.o. bring" s.o. N pass, of 
G j/NB; > abku, abkutu, abiktu, dbiku 1 

abaku(m) II "to overturn, upset" O/jB G (a/u); 
also transf., omen, divine verdict, witchcraft 
D ~ G N pass, of G; > dbiku'- 

abal "without" NB 

aballu (a vessel for water); < Sum. 

abalu — > ablu 

abalu(m) "to dry (up)" Bab., NA G (a/a) 
[pAD.A] intrans. "become dry, dry up" O/jB of 
liquid, plant, swamp; of (parts of) body Gtn 
iter, of G D trans, "dry" (up) spittle; parts of 
body; drugs; swamp, field, orchard Dt pass, of 
D S ~ D, esp. stat.; > ablu; ndbalu, ndbalis, 
nubalum; tdbalu, tdbllu; ubbulu; sdbulu 

abalu — > also apdlu I; wabdlum 

abamatu "sea" jB lex. 

abarahhum (an object) OB 

abarakkatu(m), abrakkatu - "stewardess, 
housekeeper" O/jB, NA [munus.agrig] jB 
also as divine title; < Sum. 

abarakku(m) ~ "steward, housekeeper" Bab., 
M/NA [(LU.)AGRIG; NB also IGI.2.DUB] 
administrator of temple or secular household, 
later high state official; NA a. rabu "Chief 
Steward"; also as divine title; <Sum.; 
> abarakkutu; abarakkatu; — > abarikkum; 

ab(a)rakkutu "function of stewardess" jB 
[MUNUS.AGRIG]; < abarakku 

abar(a)sa "truly, certainly" jB 

abarikkum, abrikklqqu, agriqqu = abarakku ? 
O/jB lex.; jB(lit.) also as divine title; < Sum. 

abarnium (a kind of cloth, phps.) "from 
Abarna" OA 

abartu(m) "opposite shore, bank" OAkk, NB 
(roy. inscr.) for ebertu I; < eberu I 

abaru(m) I 


abaru(m) I "(the metal) lead" [A.GAR5; 1st 
millennium roy. inscr. A.BAR], MA also 
annuku abdru; (at Assur) kisal a. "Lead 
Courtyard"?; < Sum.? 

abaru(m) II, occas. apdru, ubdru 1. Bab.(lit.) (a 
kind of clamp) 2. jB transf. "embrace, physical 
strength" of god, king, in bel a., gamer a.; sa a. 
"wrestler"; > abdru III 

abaru(m) III "to embrace" O/jB G (pret. ibir) 
D 1. of magic "embrace intensely, bind" limbs, 
person; of stars 2. leg. "accuse s.o., denounce"; 
< abdru II denom.; > mubbirtu; — > ibru; Ubdru 

abdru — > also habdru II G 

abaruh (an object) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

abasigga "receding water" jB lex.; < Sum. 

abaslu — > aslu 

abasmu, amaspu, amasmu, lex. also ahasmitu 
(a stone) M/jB, NA, often mag. 

abat(ti a)gurru — > abattu 5 

abattu MA, M/NB 1. "river-gravel" 2. jB "stone 
of carob(-bean)" 3. jB "pestle"; MA as PN 
4. MB, NB (a kind of irrigation pipe) 5. jB lex. 
abat(ti a)gurru "a. of baked brick" (a kind of 

abatu — > awdtu 

abatu(m) I "to destroy" G (a/u, O/jB also 
i'abbat, i'but (-» GAG §97h)) objects, 
buildings; living beings; OA "ruin 
(economically)" D "destroy completely" 
objects, parts of body, living beings; jB occas. 
+ eli instead of ace. Dt pass, of D [GUL.MES] 
S caus. of G OB(lit.) N pass, of G (forms -» 
GAG §97j );>atou 

abatu(m) II "to run away, flee from" G (a/u) 
OA, OB "flee from, abandon" N (ndbutu, 
na'butu, ndbudu; Hi (-» GAG §971)) Bab., 
M/NA [zAy] "to escape" of slave, conscript; of 
political refugee; in battle Ntn Bogh. iter, of N 
"run away repeatedly" of servant; > munnabtu, 
munnabtuttu, ndbutum 

abatu — > also aptu 

abatu — > abiitu; apdtu 

ahd'u — > wahd'um 

abaya (a water-fowl ) jB lex. 

abb. . . also = ana h. . . 

abbalu "very sad" NB; < Aram. 

abbasu (a textile) MA 

abbatu —* ammatu II 

ahbd'u —* ahu I 

abbu "swamp"? jB; > abbu 

abbu — > abu I 

abbu "swamp fauna"? jB lex.; < abbu + -I 

abbunnu (a kind of bird) jB lex.; — > appdnum II 

abbuttanu; f. abbuttdnltu "wearer of abbuttu 
hair-style" MB as fPN; as name of horse 

abbuttu(m) (a hair-style) O/jB, Nuzi as mark of 
slavery; a. sakdnum "to give (s.o.) an a. hair- 
style", also as punishment; a. gullubu "to shear 
the a. hair-style off"; (a part of the head, of the 
hair) jB om., of baby's abnormality, of dog 

abbuttu — > also abbutu; apputtum II 

abbutu(m), Ass. abbuttu "fatherhood", esp. 
transf. "fatherly attitude, patronage"; a. X 
sabdtu "to adopt X's cause, intercede for X"; 
Mari abbut bltim "heads of households"; 
<abu I 

abbutu — > also abu I 

abdu "servant, slave" jB; < W.Sem. 

abdu (a prof, desig.) MB 

abgallu — > apkallu 

abiheri mng. unkn. Nuzi 

abiktu, NA apiktu "defeat" M/jB, NA 
[BAD5.BAD5(- ) (— > dabdu, tahtu)] a. sakdnu 
"to inflict a defeat"; lipi a. 'fat of the defeat' (a 
plant) jB lex.; < abdku I; > abkutu 

abiku mng unkn. jB lex.; < abdku ? 

abllum — > awllu 

dbilu — > dgilu 

abi(n)gallu (a priest) jB lex.; < Sum. 

Abirtum — > Ebirtum 

abiru (or ablru) ~ "weak, poor"? jB 

abltu — > ebltu 

abiyanum "poor" Mari; < W.Sem. 

abiyaru, NA abiyuru (a plant) jB/NA lex. 

abkigu only in pi. abkigetu "cow" jB(lit.); 

abkininitu (a bird) jB lex. 

abku "captive" j/NB; < abdku I 

abkutu "defeated state" MB; < abiktu 

ablu, NB also abalu "dry, dried" [pAD.A] of 
meat; wood; asphalt; pi. ablutu "hay"?; < abalu 

abnu(m) m. & f.; pi. abnu and abndtu(m) 
"stone" [NA4] 1. "stone, rock" in gener. 
2. "(semi)precious stone" 3. compounds: aban 
alddi "birth stone"; a. ere "pregnancy stone"; a. 
isdti "fire stone, flint" 4. "stone (vessel)" jB, 
NA 5. "stone (bead)"; jB lex. "amulet-stone" 
6. O/MA, OB "stone (weight)"; Nuzi "pebble, 
counter" for accounting 7. transf. jB 
"(hail)stones" also a. same "hailstones"; lex. 
"stones, kernels of fruits"; med., lex. "stones" 
in body 8. lex. "date panicle" (different 
word ?); — > gabu 

abrakkatu — > abarakkatu 

abrakkutu — > abarakkutu 

abrammu (a bird) jB lex. 



abratemum (a bird) OB lex. 

abrikku, abriqqu — > abarikkum 

abris "like a stack of wood" jB; < abru III 

abru(m) I "strong, robust"? 0/jB(lit.) as f. pi. 
abrdtu(m) "populace, humanity" 

abru(m) II, apru 1. O/jB "wing" (of bird) 
2. 0/jB(lit.) "fin" (offish); > kittabru 1 

abru(m) III "pile of brushwood" OAkk(Ur III), 
jB [IZI.HA.MUN] for fuel; > abris 

abru IV, aplu (a kind of priest) Bab. lex.; 
> abrutu 

abrummu — > amrummu 

abrutu "a/w-«-priesthood" jB lex.; < abru IV 

absahurakku, absahurum — > absahurum 

absinnu(m), absennu "furrow" O/jB [AB.SIN] 
also j/NB astr. constellation Spica, eastern part 
of Virgo [MUL.AB.SfN; NB also MUL.ABSIN]; 
< Sum. 

absahurum, absahurum, absahurakku (a fish) 
OB JB lex.; < Sum. 

absanu(m) "yoke, harness" Bab.(lit.) transf., 
humans draw/bear (sdtulwabdlum) yoke of 
gods, i.e. are submissive; — > uppasannu 

Ahsarrdni —* ahu I 7 

absennu — > absinnu 

absu I (a kind of belt)? jB lex. 

absu II, apsu; Hurr. pi. absena (a legume) 
M/NA, Nuzi, jB lex. 

abtu "destroyed" j/NB of gods, buildings; f. pi. 
"ruins" NA, NB(roy. inscr.); < abatu I 

abu(m) I "father" (st. constr. abi, occas. abu, ab; 
nom. with pron. suff. abi, M/NB, NA also 
abu(y)a; abusu etc.; pi. abbu, O/MA abbd'u, 
MB(Alal.), Am. abbutu) [AD] 1. "(natural) 
father"; rarely pi. abbu "parents" 2. "ancestor, 
forefather" often in roy. inscr. 3. ab(i) abi(m), 
OB lex. ahahim "grandfather" 4.jB abi mud 
"father-in-law" of wife 5. transf. "father" of 
gods, humans; "(one acting as) father"; OA 
"principal, boss" of a firm; "expert" craftsman 
6. compounds: a. Amurrim (— > amurru 3); a. 
aslim (— > aslu 3); Mari abu bltim "household 
head, superintendent"; abi sdbim (an official); 
ahu PIN "(tribal) chief of PIN"; OAkk a. dlim 
"father of the city" 7. in O/MA month Ah(u) 
sarrdni "Father of the kings"? 8. in PN, of 
people, gods 9. interj. "father!" ~ "think of that; 
oh dear!" 10. (part of the seed plough) jB lex. 
11. OA transf. "down-payment'; > abbutu 

Abu(m) II (5th Bab. month) OAkk, Bab. 
[ITI.NE(.NE.GAR)]; OB isin Abi "Abu festival" 
also as MN; — > eburu 

abu —* also apu I 

abu — > apu I.III 

abubanis, abiibis "like a flood" M/NB (lit.); 

< ahuhu 

abubu(m) "flood, deluge" Bab. [A.MA.RU] 

1. esp. as cosmic event "the Flood"; sa lam a. 

"antediluvian", til a. "ruin mound from the 

Rood"; "violent spate"; as divine title 2. (name 

of a monster); > abubanis 
abuddnum — > abutanu 
abuhuru (a kind of flour) MA 
abukkatu, bukkatu (a kind of rush)? jB lex., 

med. [LI.DUR; LI.TAR; occas. LI.TUR]; hll a. 

"sap of a." (a drug) 
abulilu, bulilu (the berry of the box-thorn) jB 

abullu(m) f.; pi. abulldtu(m) "gate (of city or 

large building)" [ABUL] a. kawitum "outer 

gate"; massdr a., sa a., mar a., bel a. 

"gatekeeper"; OB a. sudum "to acquaint s.o. 

with gate", i.e. to forbid exit; a. edelulpehu "to 

shut/seal up gate"; Bab. "gate tax"; at Nuzi, as a 

public authority; transf. "entrance" to region, 

nether world, heaven etc.; OB ext., jB lex. 

(parts of the organs, esp. portal fissure of the 

liver); > abulmahhu, ahultannu 
abulmahhu "high gate" j/NB; < abullu + Sum. 

abultannu "gatekeeper" Nuzi [LU.ABUL] 

alternating with massdr abulli; < abullu + Hurr. 

dhulu — > dgilu 
abunikltu mng. unkn. MB 
abunnatu(m) "umbilical cord, navel" Bab. 

[LI.DUR] also transf. "centre", "central point" of 

land, army; "socket" of chariot, spade 
aburrisanu, Bogh. burrisdnu mng. unkn. M/jB 

aburris "in a green pasture" M/jB(lit.); mostly 

transf. ref. to human prosperity, a. 

rabdsulasdbu "to lie/dwell in a green meadow"; 

< aburru 

aburru(m) "water-meadow, pasture" O/jB 

transf. ref. to situation of contented populace; 

> aburris 
aburru — > also amurru 
abusatu pi. tant. "forelock" jB; abusdt siri (a 

abusin —* abusim 
abusu(m), abussu(m); pi. f., NA also ubsatu 

"storehouse; stable" O/jB; Ug. bit a.; Ass. bit 

abusdtelu (also in Assur temple) 
abusim, abuslsin mng. unci. jB 
abutanu, abuddnum, abuttdnu (a fish) O/jB 

lex.; < abiitu + -an + -i 


dbuttum — » apputtum II 

akutu — » awdtum 

abutu(m); pi. abatum (a fish) O/jB; > abutdnu 

ad — » a<# 

adaburtu (a bird) jB lex. 

ad(' )a(d)du — » ad'attu 

adadu (a loincloth or kilt ?) jB lex. 

adagu(r)ru, adakurru (a vessel for libations) 


GUR4; DUG.A.DA.KUR]; < Sum. 
adaha (a garment) Am.; < Eg. 
adakanni — » akanni 
adakurru — » adagurru 
adallu ~ "strong" jB lex.; < Hurr.? 
adamatu I, adanatu '(red blood)' (a dark- 
coloured bodily discharge) jB lex., med. 

[ADAMA]; < adammu 
adamatu(m) II, adamutu, adu/imatu O/jB 1. (a 

plant (with red blossoms?)) 2. pi. (dark red 

earth used as dye); < adammu ? 
adamdunu "Adamdun vessel"; < PIN 
ada(m)mu, adumu "red" OAkk, M/jB; Bogh. 

"red (blood)"; "red (garment)"; lex., syn. for 

"important person"; > adamatu I, II?, adantu 
adammu "conflict, battle" M/jB lex., lit.; mag., 

desig. of mythical being; < Sum. 
adammumu, admumu; NA pi. f. "wasp" jB, NA 
adamtu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
adamu — » adammu 
adamum, Mari edemum "to be engaged in" OA, 

Mari G stat., activity, business matter D ~ G ?; 

> admutum 
adamukku — » edamukku 
adamutu — » adamatu II 
adanatu — » adamatu I 
adannis, addannis "very much, greatly" NA; 

< ana I + dannis 
adannu — ► addnum 

adantu "(reddish 7 species of) shrew" jB; 

< adammu 

adanuin, haddnum (OB often wr. hal'a^-da- 
num etc.), adannu, adidnu; pi. f. "fixed date, 
time limit" Bab. (Ass. -» edanu) [UD.DUG4.GA; 
U4.SUR] urn a. "fixed day"; jB ina Id a. "at the 
wrong time"; astr. "period"; eqel a. "objective" 

adappu, dappu "horizontal crossbeam" j/NB in 
buildings, of timber; for door, of metal; also 

adappu — » also atappu 

adapu 1 1. jB lex. (a musical instrument) 2. jB (a 
kind of Sum. hymn accompanied by that 
instrument); < Sum. 


adapu II; pi. f. (a type of bandage) jB lex.; — ► 

adapu III "wise" jB lex. 

addqu — » edequ 

adaranu (a plant) jB lex. 

adartu — » atartu 

adaru I (a vessel) NB of silver 

adaru II (an animal or insect) jB lex. 

adaru(m) I, haddru "to be dark, gloomy" 
G {alu) j/NB [KAXGI6]; of day; of gods, 
people; of heavenly bodies "become obscured"; 
of plants ? D O/jB "darken", esp. stat. with 
pdnu/i "look gloomy" Dt jB, NA "become 
gloomy" S "darken" j/NB, NA N "become 
dark"; astr. "become eclipsed" [KAXGI6] OB, 
j/NB Ntn iter, of N jB; > adru I, adds, 
adirtu I; addiru; ndduru; tddirtu; udduru 

adaru(m) II "to be afraid (of), fear" G {alu) NB 
ene a. 'fear the eyes' = "with an eye to, in 
consideration of D "frighten" OA, jB Stn iter, 
of S O/jB St pass, of § N "become restless, 
worry about" OA, OB, jB Ntn iter, of N OA, 
OB, jB; > adirtu II, idirtu; adiru, adiris; adiru; 

adaru(m) III (or atdru(m)l), atdru (a tree) Bab., 
MA [GlS.ILDAG ('-» also ildakku)] 

adashu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

ada(s)su — » adussu 

adattu "succulent part of reed" jB [GI.UR]; -* 

ad(')a(t)tu (or at(')a(t)tu, ad(')a(d)du) (an 
ornament) Qatna of gold, precious stone 

adbaru — ► atbaru 

add. . . also = ana d. . . 

adda "daddy"? OB 

addahsum — » andahsu 

addannis — ► adannis 

addar — » ddru I 

A(d)daru ( 1 2th Bab. month) [ITI.SE(.kin.TAR)]; 
A. mahrU "first A"; arhu atru sa A. 
[ITI.DIRIG.SE(.KIN.TAR)] "intercalary A.", NB 
also A. arku 

adddt — » ddt 

addatum (a wooden tool) OB 

adda'u (a dwelling) jB lex. 

addiru "very dark" jB; < adaru I 

addu ~ "throwstick" M/jB 

addu — » adii III 

addundnum — » andundnu 

addurdrum — ► andurdru 

adi, OAkk, OA also adum, NA often adu, also 
ad "until, as far as" [EN] 1. prep, of time "till", 
"within", "during, in the course of, also adilu 



lihhi; ad(i) mad; adi inanna; ad(i/un)akanni, 
adikanna "until now" (-+ akanna II); of space 
"up to, as far as", also adi mahar; of amount of 
silver, degree of hunger; adi ulla "for ever" (— » 
ulla II); adi sari "for all time; everywhere" (-» 
sdr); "including, together with" M/NB, NA for 
qadum; before numerals "times, multiplied by" 
[A.RA], adi salasisu "three times" (— ► GAG 
§7 la; OA -» anal 15); OA "concerning, on 
the subject of; OAkk adi dannis "very much"; 
jB adi surris "instantly" 2. conj. (— » GAG 
§§1 16c, 173a-g) with pres. "until"; Mari "as 
soon as"; MA "while"; NB Id adi in oath — » 
kI4; with pret. "until; not before, as soon as"; 
OA "concerning the fact that"; with stat. "as 
long as, while" 3. adi Id prep, "before, in 
advance of; conj. with pres. or pret. "before; as 
long as ... not" 4. adi muhhi NB, occas. NA 
for adi, prep, of time, space; conj.; mostly adi 
muhhi sa with pres. or perf. 5. aduli bit NA for 
adi, as conj. with pres. "until", with la "before" 
6. Am., Bogh. adv. ~ "indeed, truly" 7. with 
pron. suff. only in — » adini, adisu 

adianni — > adu I 

adidnu — ► addnum 

adikanna — » akanni 

adilu; NB pi. adilanu (part of a ceremonial 
garment) M/NB 

adimatu — » adamatu II; mad 

adinakanni — » akanni 

adini, Mari also adinu, M/jB mostly adina, once 
adinnu 'up to us' = "hitherto, till now" OA, 
O/jB; of time, OA "so far, till now"; otherwise 
neg. a. ul/ld "not yet" with stat., pres., pret., OB 
perf.; < adi + -ni; M/NA — » udini 

adiptu — ► ediptu 

adlris "fearfully" jB; < adiru 

adirtu I "gloominess" Bab. transf. "sorrow"; 

< adaru I 

adirtu II "fear, apprehension" O/jB esp. pi.; 

< adaru II 
adirtu — ► also atartu 

adiru "fear" M/jB; < adaru II; > adiris 

adiru "full of awe" jB; la a. "fearless, impudent" 

j/NB (MB/MA -» ladiru);< adaru II 
adissu (an object) jB mag. 
adisu "till then" OB, Mari; < adi + -su 
adiu — > adu I 
admanu — > watmanum 
admumu — » adammumu 
admutum "contributed share" OA; < adamum 
adnatu pi. tant. "world, people" jB 
adnu — » atnu 

adris "dimly, faintly visible" jB of celestial 

bodies; "darkly, unhappily" of people; < adru I 
adru I "dark, gloomy" jB of mood; NA of textile; 

< adaru I 
adru(m) II, MA gen. also idri , f.; pi. adratu and 

adru "threshing floor" Ass. as topog. feature; 

payment ina adr(dt)i "at threshing time"; NA 

also "courtyard"? 
adru "ibex-like" jB desig. of sheep; < Sum. 
adu — ► adi 
adu I, Ass. adiu; pi. adii, ade "(treaty-)oath; 

supernatural power of an oath" M/NA, M/NB 

a. sakdnu/tamu/nasdru "to establish/swear/keep 

a treaty"; NA a. sa sarri "(loyalty) oath to 

king"; j/NB, NA bel a. "vassal" 
adu II "now" NB; also enna a. "now then" 
adu(m) III, addu "a (day's) work, stint" O/jB 

sdbu a. "daily workers"; transf. sun's, moon's 

"tasks"; < Sum. 
adu IV (a kind of headgear)? jB lex. 
adu V "leader" jB lex. 
adu VI mng. unkn. jB lex. 
adu — » also adussu; edu I 
adu "to take notice of MB G (pres. i' ad, pret. 

i'ld) S "notify, inform" s.o.; — ► na adu 
adudi(l)lu, aduda'ilu "praying mantis" jB 
adugu, atugu "oven" jB; < Sum. 
adugu(l), aduku(l) ~ "indeed" Bogh. (in texts 

from Eg.) 
adum — » adi 
adumatu — » adamatu II 
adumu — » adammu 
adunakanni — » akanni 
adupi mng. unkn. jB lex. 
adurtu "village" jB lex.; < adurii 
aduru "mirror"? jB lex. 
aduru(m), eduru, aturu, uduru 1 - "village, 

farmstead" Bab. [E.DURU5]; < Sum.; > adurtu 
adussu, ada(s)su(m), adii ~ "enclosure wall" 

ae'u — ► ya'u 
aga, agdi(a) m. & f. sg. & pi.; f. rarely agatali 

"this" NB; < Aram.?; — » agannu; inga 
agabbu — ► akabbu 
agadibbu, gadibbu "hand seeder-plough" jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
agagu(m) "to be(come) furious" Bab. G (alu; 

stat. agug) of god, human Gtn "be steadfastly 

angry"? D stat. only "is very angry" S caus. of 

G N "get angry"; > aggu, aggis, aggagu; uggu, 

uggatu, uggugum 
agdi(a) -» aga 
agakkum "whey" OB lex.; < Sum. 


agalapu in me a. (a kind of impure water) jB 

agalu(m) I, agallu "donkey" Bab., NA(lit.) 

agalu II (a temple employee) jB lex. 
agami "today" Am.; < W.Sem. 
agammu "marsh(es), lagoon" jB 
agamu "to be furious" Bab. G lex. only D MB in 

stat. "is infuriated"; > tegimtu; igimtu 
agamu -* also akdmu I 
agana "well now, come on!" OB, Mari before 

prec., imper.; < a + gana (-* GAG §124b) 
aganatallu -* agannutillu 
agannu, NB aggannu; pi. usu. f. "bowl, 

cauldron" Qatna, M/NA, M/NB, Am., Nuzi for 

liquids; of copper, stone, clay 
agannu; mostly m. pi. agannutu; f. pi. aganndleti 

"these" NB; < aga + annu I 
aga(n)nutillu, aganatallu "dropsy" M/NB 

[A.GA.NU.TIL- ]; < Sum. 
agappu(m), NA also aqappu "wing" Bab., NA 

"wing" of bird, also as joint of meat; a. ene 

"eye-lashes"; OB lex. "wing" of door; -♦ 

kappu I 
agappu -* also akabbu 
agargaritu (a mineral) jB [A.GAR.GAR. d lD] 
agargaru (kind of fish(-spawn)) Bab.; < Sum. 
agargarutu "fish resources" jB [A.GAR.GAR. 

KU6]; < Sum. 
agarimuri (a food) MA 
agarinnu(m), garinnu O/jB 1. "womb" or transf. 

"mother" 2. in metallurgy "basin, crucible" 

3. "(first) beer mash" [AGARIN4/5; AMA.TUN]; 

agarrutu -* agru 
agaru(m) "to hire, rent" G (a/u) person, animal, 

ship, cart, house D OA = G N pass, of G, of 

person; > agru, agirtum, agrutu; agirum, 

dgirtu; igru; munnagru; ndgurtu 
ag(a)runnu "cella" jB; < Sum. 
agasalakku(m), agasalilikku(m) (a kind of axe) 

O/jB [AGA.SILIG]; < Sum.; -♦ agu I 
agasgu "youngest son; junior, novice" jB, NA of 

scribe, physician etc. 
agasu; f. agdsiya; pi. agdsunu "that (one), those 

(ones)" NB; < aga + su, si,sunu 
agdta/i -* aga 
agatukullu "butt end of a weapon" jB lex.; 

agdum -* agu I 
agbaru -* akbaru 
agg. . . also = ana g. . . 
aggagu "furious" jB; < agdgu 


aggannu — » agannu; akkannu 

aggis "furiously" Bab., NA; < aggu 

aggu(m) "furious" Bab. mostly with libbu 

("heart"); < agdgu; > aggis; — » akku 
aggullu -* akkullu 
agiddu — » agittu 
agilu, dbi/ulu, jB also agillu ? "towman" of boat 

O/jB lex. 
agirtum "hired maid-servant" O/jB; < agdru 
agirtu "(female) hirer, mistress" jB; < agdru 
agirum "hirer" OB [LU.tfUN]; < agdru 
agittu, agiddu, egiddd "headband; bandage" jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
agium -* agu I 
agriqqu -* abarikkum 
agru(m); pi. OB agru, NA, NB agrutu, NB also 

agarrutu "hireling; hired man" [LU.yUN.GA; 

OB also ERlN.yUN.GA; NB also LU.A.GAR]; 

Bab., NA astr. "Aries" (constellation) [MUL. 

(LU.)tJUN(.GA)]; < agdru; > agrutu 
agrunnu -* agarunnu; garunnu 
agrutu "hire (contract)" M/NB; Am. "wages"; 

< agru 
agu(m) I, OAkk agdlium "tiara, crown" [AGA] 

symbol of rule of god, king; transf. jB "corona" 

of planet, star, sun; OB om. "circle" of oil, 

incense; jB lex. "ring, band" round axe; < Sum.; 

-♦ agasalakku 
agu(m) II, egu "wave, flood" Bab. [A.GI6.A; 

A.GU4; A.GA] of river etc.; transf. ref. to wrath 

of gods, demons; < Sum.; — » binutu 
agu III (a garment) jB lex. 
agu -* also egu 
agubbu, egubbti "holy water vessel" jB 

[(dug.)]; < Sum. 
agugillu ~ "sorcerer" jB; < Sum.; > agugiltu 
agugiltu ~ "sorceress" jB; < agugillu 
*agugu unattested; mng. unkn. 
agugutu "status of agilgu" jB 
aguhhu(m); OAkk Hurr. pi. aguhhena "sash, 

belt" OAkk, O/jB 
agunu "tiara" jB lex. 
agurrutu — » gurrutu 
agurrum m. & f. 1. "baked brick" Bab., M/NA 

[SIG4.AL.OR.RA; OB math. SIG4.AL.UR5.RA]; 

often coll.; O/MB also as unit of measurement; 

a. uqnl elleti "blue-glazed brick", a. esmare 

"yellow-glazed brick"; a. sa atbarilpele 

pese/aXnugalli "building block of basalt/white 

limestone/alabaster"; a. kaspi ebbi "slab of pure 

silver" 2. (an impost) NB 
agusigu -* hu,sigu 
aba in aha aha "one by one"? OA; < ahu II 


aha'is, ahdyis "each other, one another" Ass. as 
obj., NA a. sabdtu "to join forces"; istulitti a. 
"together"; urki a. "one after the other"; ana a. 
"one another, together"; < ahu I; > ahis; — » 

ahamis, Am., Bogh. ha(m)mis, NB also 
ahame(s)su "each other, one another" M/NB, 
occas. NA as obj.; as gen., NB put a. nasu 
"they stand security mutually"; ki a. "together, 
at the same time"; itti a. "together"; malla a. "all 
together"; arki a. "one after the other"; ana 
(muhhi) a. "together"; ana pdnil tarsi a. "face to 
face"; mehreta. "in the same way"; < ahu I; -♦ 
aha' is 

ahamma, jB also ahammu "apart, separately" 
OA, occas. Bab., NA; < ahu II 

ahanna "on this bank" j/NB of river, marsh etc.; 
< ahu II + annu I 

ahannumma -* ahennd 

ahanu I "to another place" NB leg., divert 
property "elsewhere"; < ahu II + -dnu 

ahanum II (a type of worker) Mari 

aharatum "on the far bank" Mari; opp. -♦ 
aqdamdtum; < W.Sem.; — » ahdru 

aharris "in future" jB; < ahdru 

aharrum "later, thereafter" OB; opp. — » pdndnu; 
< ahdru 

ahartis "for the future" MB; < ahdru 

aharu(m) "to be behind" G Am. stat. only "is 
late, delayed" D trans, "hold back, delay"; 
intrans. "stay behind, delay, be in default"; stat. 
"is outstanding, overdue"; OB of days "are left, 
remain"; OA "set aside" statue? S OAkk, jB ? 
"make s.o./ late"?; >ahritu, ahrd, ahrutu, 
ahratas, ahrltis; ahartis, ahertum; aharrum, 
aharris, haramma; ahurru; uhhuru, uhhurtu; 
uhrd; uhurrd'um; tehirtu; -* aharatum 

ahata, ahdti/u "in equal shares" NB; < ahu I 

ahatatum "little sister" OB; < ahdtu I 

ahatu(m) I, NB ahattu; pi. OA ahudtum, OB 
ahhdtu "sister" [NIN] "(natural) sister"; transf. 
OA as complimentary term; OB of f. subst.s 
a. ...a. "the one... the other"; <ahul; 
> ahdtutu, ahhutu II, ahatatum 

ahatu II 1. "bank" NA(roy. inscr.) of river, sea 
2. MA pi. "sleeves" of garment 3. jB transf. ref. 
to moral transgression "limit"?; < ahu II 

ahdtu -* also ahata; ahu II 3 

ahdtu -* ahitu; ahu I 

ahatutu "sisterhood" Nuzi; < ahdtu I 

ahazu(m) "to take; marry; learn" G (a/u) 1. of 
demons, diseases "seize, grasp" 2. of husband, 
also father-in-law "take (a woman in marriage), 

marry" 3. "take notice of, learn" 4. "make 
o.'s own, acquire" Z.puzram a., marqitu a. 
"take refuge", harrdnam a. "take to road" 
6. j/NB din PN a. "take PN to law" 7. OB 
"take" troops (into battle), OA rdbisam a. "take 
on as agent" 8. occas. ~ D "inlay" with metal 
Gt "be connected with; well versed in" D (OA 
infin. also ehhuzum) "mount, plate, inlay" with 
metal, stone (< ihzu denom.) [GAR(.RA)]; 
"marry" pi. Dt pass, of D S 1. "make s.o. take" 2. "make s.o. marry" 3. "make s.o. learn", 
"instruct, incite" s.o., "point out, indicate to" 
s.o. 4. OAkk "make available" 5. -* G 5 
with puzru etc. "hide", s.o. 6. leg., dinam 
s. "institute proceedings against s.o." 7. "ignite, 
set fire to" 8. stat. "has a right to, is entitled to" 
real estate 9. "have an object mounted in 
precious metal" Stn "instruct, inform s.o. 
repeatedly"; OB of disease "infect repeatedly" 
St 1 OB "be instructed, incited"? St 2 lex. 
"ignite" fire, "make" fire "catch" N pass, of G 2 
"marry each other"; of fire etc. "catch, spread"; 

> ahiztu, ahzutu; ihzu I, ihzetu; dhizum, 
dhizdnu; ahhdzu; ahuzzatu; tdhdzu, tdhdzis; 
tdhizu; uhhuzu; mdhdzu, mdhdzis; musdhizu, 
mustahhizum; nanhuzu 

ahe "separately, by itself O/jB, Bogh., NA; 

> ahennd; -* ahu II 
ahe' is -» ahis 

ahenna, ahennu, Mari ahannumma "each by 
it/himself, apart, separately" O/jB of persons, 
ingredients; jB of hair "in strands"; < ahe + 
annu I 

ahertum, NB ahistu "remainder" OB math., NB; 

< ahdru 

ahh. . . also = ana h. . . 

ahhdtu -* ahdtu I 

ahhazu 'the seizer' (a demon) jB 
[ d DlM.ME.LAGAB] 1. as demon often in 
incantations after Lamastu and Labasu 
2. "jaundice" (the disease caused by the a. 
demon); < ahdzu 

ahhu "dry wood" jB lex. 

ahhu -* ahu I 

ahhur -* hurri 

ahhutu(m) I "brotherhood" [SES(.MES)- ; in 
PNs PAP.MES] "(adopted) brotherhood"; 
"brotherly relations"; < ahu I 

ahhutu(m) II "sisterhood" OB(Susa); < ahdtu I 

ahi — » ahu I.II 

ahia "outside" j/NB; ahia ahia "each side" of; 

< ahu II 

ahidtum -* ahitu; ahu I 


ahirtum — ♦ ahertum 

ahis "on o.'s own" jB "alone"? of planet; 

< ahu II ? 

ahis, ahe'is, ahise, ahiydsi "each other, one 
another" NA; (ki) a. "together"; issi a. -* 
issahis; ana a. "one another"; ina muhhi a. 
"one after the other"; < aha' is 

ahistu — » ahertum 

ahitu(m) 1. "side"; also ace. ahitam(ma), ahita 
as adv. "aside, on one side" 2. "surroundings, 
environment" NA pi. ahitdte; esp. pi. 
"entourage, associates" 3. pi. OB ~ "extra 
shares"; "(strange, i.e.) unfortunate, adverse" 
events, omen(s) 4. sg. jB as subst. 
"misfortune", "defamation" 5. OB "additional 
payment" of dues or perquisites; < ahu I 

ahiu — ♦ ahu I 

ahiydsi — » ahis 

ahizanu(m), dhizidnu "(the) one who marries/d" 
OB, MA; < dhizu + -an 

ahiztu "married woman"? jB; < ahdzu 

ahizum "informed person"? Mari; < ahdzu 

ahlamatti "in Aramaic" NB; < ahlamu 

ahlamu (desig. for Aramaeans) M/NA, MB; OB 
as PN ?; lex. "Aramaic" language; > ahlamatti 

ahmaham, ahmahim "one another" OB(Susa); 

< aham + ahu I; > ahmdmu 

ahmamu "one another" OB(Susa); also 
ahmdmis; ana a. "against each other", also eli 
a.; mala a. "together, equally"; < ahmaham 

ahnu — » uhnu 

ahra — ♦ ahritu 

ahratas "for ever after" j/NB(lit.); a. nisi, a. umi 
"for posterity"; < ahritu 

ahratu. ahridtum — » ahritu 

ahritis, ahridtis "for the future" O/jB in ahritis 
umi "in future days"; < ahritu 

ahritu f.; mostly pi. OB ahridtum, M/NB ahratu 
"later time" Bab. ahrdt umi "later days"; (nisi) 
ahrdti "posterity"; MB ana ahrd(ti) adv. "for 
the future"; < ahdru; > ahratas, ahritis, ahrutu 

ahrushu (a vessel) 0/MB(Alal.), Bogh. for 
liquids, solids; < Hurr. 

ahrutu "descendants" jB lex.; < ahritu abstr. 

ahsad(a)rapannu "satrap (of the Persian 
empire)" NB; < OPers. 

ahu(m) I "brother" (st. constr. ahi, OA ahulu; 
nom. with pron. suff. ahunilka; ahi, alula "my 
brother", M/NB ahuya; ace. ahdka; st. abs. ah 
OAkk, OA in PN; du. ahd OB; pi. ahhd, 
W.Sem. ahdte, OB after numerals ahdnu; st. 
constr. ahhi OB all cases; with pron. suff. 
ahhuka) [SES; OB also SES.A.NI; PAP in later 


PNs, NA] 1. "(natural) brother"; a. rabulsehru 
"older/younger brother"; a. abim "father's 
brother, uncle" 2. transf. (address for people of 
equal rank); "colleague"; "fellow tribesman"; a. 
rabu "deputy teacher" 3. ahum aham "one 
another, mutually", also a. ana a., a. mala a., a. 
kima a.; > ahhutu I; ahdtu I etc.; ahdta; ahdmis, 
aha is, ahis, ahmaham, ahmdmu; ahu II; 
— » athu 

ahu(m) II "arm, side" (st. constr. ah(i)) 1. "arm", 
a. nadu "to 'drop o.'s arm', i.e. be lazy, 
negligent", j/NB nade a. rasu "to become 
negligent"; uppi a. "armpit"; bird a. "chest"?; 
transf. "arm, handle" of an instrument; OB du. 
transf. "strength, ability" 2. "side"; Bab. [GU] 
"shore" of sea, "bank" of river; "edge" of town, 
field; "wing" of army; "flank" of animal; of 
object, part of liver, other parts of body; a. 
sattim "turn, beginning of (financial) year"; a. 
ana a. "side by side"; (ina) a. jB as prep, 
"beside, at" 3. NB "part, share", "one-half; pi. 
f. ahdtu "partner, joint proprietor" 4. pi. m. 
ahdnu "arm fetters"? NB; "wings"? of a 
building jB 5. "sleeve (flap)" of garment 
M/NA, MB, Nuzi; > ahu I, ahif, ahia, aha, 
ahitu; ahamma; ahdtu II, ahdnu I, ahannd, 
ahulld; — ♦ ahe; ahum; ahune 

ahu(m) I, Ass. ahiu "outside(r), strange" [BAR] 
of person, also as subst. "stranger"; (desig. of 
planet =) Mars; of appearance "abnormal"; of 
textual passage "non-canonical, extraneous" [pi. 
also BAR.BAR]; < ahu II + -/; > ahitu 

*ahu(m) II G not attested Gt OA, Am. "to 
fraternize, become brothers" St "pair off with", 
M/jB of stars, features in extispicy "stand 
opposite each other"; of enemies "join forces, 
conspire" N MB(Alal.) "fraternize"; <ahu\ 
denom.; > athu, athutu; sutdhu 

ahu — » also hahu 

ahula, ahulamma "alas!" NA, also in PNs 

ahulab — » ahulap 

ahulabakku "lamentation with ahulap- 
exclamations" jB lex.; < ahulap + -akku 

ahulamma — » ahula 

ahulap (or ahulab), OB also ahulup, OB lex. 
ahulapum "(it is) enough!" OAkk, Bab.; as 
declaration of clemency by god, as petition for 
clemency by worshipper; jB Sam a. (a plant 
name); > ahulabakku 

ahulla, ahullu, NB ahullua "on the other bank; 
on the other side, beyond" j/NB, occas. NA; 
< ahu II + ullii I 

ahulup — » ahulap 

ahum "separately, besides" OA; — » ahu II 



ahune "separately, individually" OB; > ahunes; 

— » ahu II 
ahunes "individually" Man; < ahune + -is 
aliurru "junior" jB 1. "social inferior" 

2. "younger child"; < ahdru 
ahussu — ♦ uhultu 
ahushu (a wooden object) MB(Alal.), Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
ahussu — ♦ amussu 

ahus'u (a poet, epith. of copper) jB lex. 
ahuzzatu "marriage gift; marriage-like 

protection" MA, MB; < ahdzu 
ahzutu "mounting(s)" of metal objects M/NB; 

< ahdzu 

ai I, e (before consonant), a, ya "not" 1. OAkk, 
OA, O/jB vetitive ptcl. before pret. "may (you, 
he etc.) not..." (-» GAG §§81i, k, 154c); OA 
before perf., stat.; jB in denial ai addin "I 
certainly did not give" 2. OA double neg. e la 
with 2 pers. pret. = strong pos. exhortation 
"definitely" 3. "no!" O/jB usu. before a voc.; 
Am. before proh. 

ai II, a, ayyi, ayyalu "alas!" Bab. 

ai III "where?" OAkk in PNs; OB lex.; > em; -» 
ayyikiam etc. 

aigalluhu (a homed animal)? Am., Nuzi 

a'ilu — ♦ awilu 

a'iluttu — ♦ awilutum 

ainibu — » ydnibu 

aiwa (a cereal foodstuff) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

aka adv. mng. unkn. Bogh. 

akabbu (or akappu, agabblppu) (a tree) Nuzi 

aka(k)ku in a. ndri (a plant name) jB lex. 

akalu(m), aklu(m) [NINDA; NB also NTNDA.p.A, 
NINDA.MES] 1. "bread, loaf; food" [-* also 
kusdpu 2]; a. harrdni "journey bread", a. gine 
"offering bread"; a. tumri "charcoal baked 
bread"; jB bel a. "guest" (or read kusdpul) 
2. NB (a small unit of capacity) [for NINDA as 
length measure — » ginindanakku ?] 3. MB 
"expenditure"?; < akdlu 

akalu(m) "to eat" G (a/u) [GU7] 1. of men, 
animals "eat, feed (on)"; of baby tuldsa a. "feed 
(from) her breast"; "bite" o.'s lips 2. transf. of 
fire, god causing disease, pest, enemy 
"consume, devastate"; of pain, grief "consume; 
irritate, hurt" part of body 3. "soak up" liquid, 
"absorb" fat 4. "use up, spend" money 5. "have 
usufruct of, enjoy" field, agricultural product, 
share, booty 6. in idioms — ♦ asakku II, ikkibu, 
karsu; OB math, of wall etc. "decrease in 
width" Gtn iter, of G [GU7.GU7] Gt of lands 
"ravage each other"; of stars "cover, absorb 

each other" S caus. of G [GU7] "make" men, 
animals, fire "eat, feed on, consume" food, 
medication, goods, booty, lands; "steep" an 
object in liquid; OA "satisfy" a claimant; jB stat. 
"is infected" with a disease St [GU7] OB math, 
"multiply together", freq. "square" measured 
lengths N pass, of G [GU7]; > akalu; aklu; 
dkilu, dkiltum, akkilu; akiltu; iklu II, ikiltu; 
akussu, ukultu, uklu II; ukullu I; mdkalum, 
mdkaltu, mdkdlu; tdkaltu 1 -; tdkultu; sukulu, 
siikultu; musdkilu, musdkilutum; — ♦ musakkiltu 

akalutu(m) ~ "tree" O/jB; — » kalutu II 

aka(m)mu "granary"? jB lex. 

akamu I, agdmu "dust-cloud, mist" jB; 

< akamu II 

akamu II mng. uncert. jB G stat. only, of moon; 

> akamu I; D — » wakdmum 
akamu — » also akammu 

akanna I, kannald, ekannam "so, thus" MA, 

M/NB, Am., Bogh., Ug., introducing dir. 

speech; k.-ma "just so, similarly"; <aki/ki + 

akanna II, akannuli "here" M/NB, jB; an(a) a. 

"hither"; MB with adi — » akanni; < Aram.; 

> akannaka 

akannaka, akannaku(nu) "there" NB; 

< akanna II + -kal-kunu 

akannama, kannama "similarly, likewise" Am., 
Bogh., Ug. 

akanni "now" M/NA; MA anakanni, NA also 
adilu(n)akanni, MB adikanna "till now, so far" 

akanni — » also akanna II 

akannu — ♦ akanna II 

akdnu — ♦ akkannu 

akanu "hither, this way" MB; < aki + -dnu 

akappu — ♦ akabbu 

akaru mng. unkn. jB lex. 

akasu(m) "to walk, go" Bab., O/MA G (u/u) 
[DU] of messenger, person, snake Gt "go 
away" D "drive away, expel" person, disease, 
demon; ~ "press, push away" part of liver; OA 
stat. of tablet "is mislaid"? Dtn iter, of D 
Dt pass, of D "be expelled, driven off; 

> ukkusu 

akatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

akawa "on (this) side" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

akayu — ♦ kayyu 

akbaru(m), akkabaru, agbaru "jerboa"? Bab., 
NA as food; as fPN, also Akbartum 

ake — » ke 

aki, akki "as" NA, NB 1. prep, (alternating with 
— » ki) "like, in accordance with; (in sub- 
stitution) for"; aki arhi "per month" 2. conj. of 




time "as soon as, when"; akl sa "just as, in the 
way that"; < ana I + kl; > akdnu; — ► akanna I 

akia "in the following way" M/NA, Bogh.; — » 

akiltu "expended goods, consumption" NA; 

< akdlu; — ► aklu 

akiltum f. 'that eats' OB om. mng. unci, of pest; 

< akalu 

akilu(m) "that eats, eating; eater, devourer" 
I. Man rit. (a cultic performer) 2.jB of lion, 
desig. of the jackal 3. O/jB "caterpillar"; < akdlu 
akltu(m); pi. akidtu/i, NB akdte (a cultic festival) 
OAkk, Bab., NA [A.KI.IT; A.KI.TU; A.KI.TUM] 
MB onwards freq. celebrated at the New Year; 
umlisin aklti "akltu day/festival"; also in PN; jB, 
NA (bit) a. "akltu festival building"; a. seri "a. 
in the countryside"; bob a. "akltu gate" 
akk. . . also = ana k. . . 
akkabaru — » akbaru 
akkadattu "in Akkadian" NB 
akkadiya "cock, rooster"; <Akkade (Aram. 

akkadu(m), OA gen. akkidlye; f. akkadltu(m) 
"from Akkade, made in Akkade, Akkadian" 
[URI(.KI)] of language; furniture, boats, cloth; 
jB lex. (a breed of sheep); < Akkade + -I 
akka'i, akkdya "how?" (interrog. ptcl.) j/NB; NB 

a. kl (conj.) 1. "how" 2. "as soon as, when" 
akka'iki"how much, how many?" NB; < akka'i 

+ kl 
akkamdas, akkandas, anakandas "spoke (of a 

wheel)" MB; < Kass. 
akkannu, a(k)kdnu 1. "wild ass" M/jB 2. (a 

breed of horses) Nuzi 3. (a bird) jB 
akkdya — ► akka'i 
akke — ► ke 
akkl — ► akl 
akklam — ► klam 
akkidlye — » akkadd 
akkilu(m) "eater" O/jB of lion "(man) eating"; 

< akdlu 
akklma — ► klma 9 

akku "furious" NA; < Aram.; — ► aggu 
akku — ► kum 

akku, aku "owl" jB lex., NA 
akkullakku (or aqqullakku) (a vegetable) jB 

lex.; < akkullu 
akkullanu (or aqqulldnu) (a copper object)? jB 

lex.; NA as PN 
akkullatu pi. tant. "clods"? of field NB 
akkullu (or aqqullu), aggullu; pi. f., occas. m. 
"hatchet, pick(axe), adze" Bab., NA 
[(GlS.)NfG.GUL]; < Sum.; > akkullakku 

akla "apart from" (prep.) jB erron.? 

aklabu (a plant) jB lex. 

aklu(m) "eaten, consumed" O/MB; OB aklam 

isatim "consumed by fire"; MB "expended" 

commodities; < akdlu; -* akiltu 
aklu — ► also akalu; waklum 
akmu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
aksuppu — ► askuppu 
aksu, eksu, arch, waksum ~ "brazen, dangerous" 

O/jB of enemies, mountains, illness; < ekesu ?; 

> eksis 

aktam, atkam (a medicinal plant) jB lex., med.; 

zer a. "seed of a." 
aku I "weak, powerless, humble" M/NB, jB; 

> akiitu I; — ► maku I ? 

aku(m) II "cripple" Bab.; > akiitu U 

aku IE ~ "mooring pole"? jB lex. 

akft — » also akku 

akukarumma in a. epesu "to redeem" Nuzi; 

akukia in a. ...a. "so much ... so much" MA 
(-» GAG §II7e appendix) 

akukutu; jB obi. pi. akukdti "firebrand" Bogh., 
jB; astr. "red glow in sky" (freq. wr. #A-#A- 
#A-tum = ' at-kub-kus-tum) 

akullu in bit a. (part of an elaborate house) NA 

akullH — » ukullA I 

akunu (a vessel for liquids) Am.; < Eg. 

akussu — ► ukultu 

akusimu, (a)kuslmdnu, kurslmatu (a plant) O/jB 
lex., med. 

akuttu (a part of a waggon) jB lex.; < Sum. 

akiitu I "powerlessness"; < aku I abstr. 

akiitu II "disablement" jB; a. aldkum "to become 
crippled"; < aku II abstr. 

al — ► ali I; alia I ; eli 

aladiru, ladiru (a plant) jB lex., med. 

aladlammu "human-headed bull-colossus" 
M/jB(Ass.), NA [ d ALAD. d LAMMA]; < Sum. 

alddu — » walddum 

alahhinu(m), alhenu, NA lahhinu "miller"? 
Ass.; NA (an official in temple service); OA 
rabi a. (an official); > alahfyinutum; lahhinatu 

alahhinutum (office of the a.) OA 

alahittu mng. unkn. jB 

alaknu (a kind of rush) jB lex. 

alaktu(m), alkatu; pi. -» alkakdtu "way, course" 
[A.rA] 1. "gait" of man, animal; "route, 
journey" of gods, people, a. pardsu "to 
break/interrupt s.o.'s course"; "course" of stars, 
water; of illness, fire 2. OA, jB transf. "way of 
life, behaviour", a. se'A(m) "to look after s.o." 
3. Bab., NA "business trip, caravan"; < aldku 




alaku(m) "to go" G (illak, illik; perf. ittalak (— ► 
GAG §97n)) [DU] 1. of person, animal; + vent, 
"come", jB imper. alka "well, now then!"; + 
ana "go to" somewhere, + dat. pron. suff. "to" 
s.o.; "move along, walk"; ana slmtilslmdti a. 
"go to o.'s destiny, die"; OB a. epesum 
"travel"; MA (of horses) "trot"?; warki/ana 
pi ... a. "follow, serve" s.o.; — » dindnu; as ptcp. 
alik mahri 'who walks in front' = 
"predecessor" [IGI.DU]; alik pdnim 'who" walks 
before' = "leader, predecessor" (— ► dlik- 
pdniitu); alik arki "successor" 2. of letters, 
tablets etc. "arrive"; of military campaign, 
vehicles, celestial bodies "move"; of wind 
"blow"; of rain "fall"; of incense, radiance 
"spread"; of skin, flesh etc. "flake off; of 
liquids "flow"; of time "pass" 3. with internal 
objects: + idu "go at s.o.'s side" = "come to 
s.o.'s aid"; "go on, along" a way, path, road, 
"pass through" the desert; siddam putam a. 'go 
length and width' of an area = "survey" a field 
4. ilka a. "perform (military) service"; dikutu a. 
"report for call-up"; NB naspartu a. "fulfil an 
order, manage/run a business" 5. with abstr. 
noun ending in -utu and before adv. "become" 
6. misc.: of price "be current, in force", of 
commodity "be worth, fetch"; of interest 
"accumulate"; of (ominous) signs "appear"; "be 
appropriate, possible, available"; of greed "aim 
at" silver, ana panlsulsa a. "advance, grow 
larger"; NB math. X GAM/A.RA/ana Y a. 
"multiply X by Y" 7. NA with ellipsis of 
qabd'u freq. before dir. speech Gtn [DU.DU] 
"go, come repeatedly; roam about, wander", 
muttallik musi [LU.GE6.A.DU.DU; (LU.)GE<s.DU. 
DU] 'who walks around during the nignt' = 
"night-watchman"; OB of leg muscles "twitch 
persistently" Gt "go off, away" (— ► GAG 
§92e) differentiation between pret. of Gt and 
perf. of G difficult S caus. of G [DU] with abstr. 
noun ending in -utu or adv. "make s.o./ 
(become)"; stat. "is appropriate, suitable" 
[TUM.MA]; > alaktu, alkakdtu, ilkakdtu; ilku I, 
alku I; dliku, dliktu, dlikutu, dlikdnum, dlik- 
pdnutu; allaku, alldku; mdlaku I; muttalliku; 
muttalliktu; suluku; tdluku; tallaktu, tallakku 

aldlali —* aldlu I 

alallu(m), elallu (a stone) Bab. mag., also used 
in building 

alallu I, elallu "drain, pipe" O/jB [ALAL]; — ► 

alallu II, alii, elu (device for hoisting water) 
O/jB; < Sum. 

alallu III (a plant) jB 

alalu I, aldlali, allli (a work cry), "work song" 
M/NB, NA esp. a. slsasu "to sing a work 
song"; > aldlu III ? 

alalu(m) II, haldlum "to hang up, suspend" Bab. 
G (a/u, pres. OB fallal, jB illal) "hang (up)" 
people as punishment, "hang up, suspend" 
objects; stat. OB ext. "is 'hanging'" (wr. halil 
etc.) Gt "be tangled; be allied with" also in PNs 
OAkk, OB D stat. only ext. "is hung (about) 
with" Dt pass, of D S jB in qdta sululu 
"stay o.'s hand" N of objects "be hung up"; of 
lamentation "hang (in the air)"?; > mdlaltu; 

alalu III O/jB G not attested Gt "to sing a joyful 
song; boast" S "exult, celebrate" Stn iter, of S; 

< aldlu I denom.?; > elelu I, eleldnd; alllu; 
illatu II; musahlilu 

alamattu -* almattu 

alamdimmu —* alandimmu 

alamgatu f. pi. "sculptures" MA; < Sum.? 

alamgu "seal-cutter" jB lex.; < Sum. 

alamittu, elamittu, hulamelltu, MA alamutu (a 

wild species of date palm) MA, j/NB 
alamu (an aquatic plant)? M/NA, jB as drug 
alamutu -* alamittu 
alandimmu (or alamdimmu) "physique, form" 

jB [ALAN.DIM(.A/MA)] esp. in physiognomic 

omens; < Sum. 
alanu -* alidnu 
alanu(m); f. dldnltu "living in a (foreign) place, 

abroad, exile" O/jB, Mari, MA in fPN; < dlu I 

+ -an + -/ 
alappanu, labblppanu 1. O/jB lex. "sweet 

pomegranate" 2. O/jB, Mari, NA (a sweet beer) 

in (sikar) I.; Mari sa a. "(female) brewer" 
alapii, j/NB, NA also el(a)pu, elappu, anapu (an 

aquatic plant, phps.) "seaweed; algae" Bab., 

alapu(m) G mng. unci. jB St OB "to make 

immovable, paralyse" part of body; > alpu II; 

aldpu — ► also elepu 
alasu "Cypriot" Mari; < Alasia 
alatu(m) (var. of la'dtu) "to swallow (up)" Bab. 

G (u/u) ext., transf. of parts of the body or 

foetus "absorb" D ~ G, jB also transf. 

"suppress" revolt; > ma'ldtu; —* haldtum 
alatu (a social class, palace dependant ?) Nuzi 
ala'u ~ "to lick" G jB lex. St —* sutelu'u 
alayii "citizen, (dependent) villager" O/jB, MA; 

< dlu I + -ay; > dldyutu; — ► dllum 
dldyu — ► also allfayya 



allu(m) I 

alayutu "status of dependent villager" MA; 

< dldyu 

aldu — ► waldum 

aldu(m) "(grain) quota" O/jB; [AL.DU] esp. for 

sowing; < Sum. 
ale — ► ali I 
algamisu, algamesu, algamisu (a kind of stone) 

jB [NA4.ALGAMES]; -► gamesu 
algarsurru "drumstick"? OB lex.; < Sum. 
algumes (or alguritl) (a piece of jewellery)? 

alhenu —* alahhinu 
ali I, ale, al, NB alu "where?" OAkk, Ass., O/jB 

1. "where?" 2. conj. "where(ever)" OA, 

OB(Iit.) 3. prep, "at the place of OA before 

infin.; > alumma 
ali II ~ "surely" Mart 
alianu, aldnu (a tree) O/jB lex. 
alidanu "progenitor" MA; < walddum 
alidni, aridni (a plant) jB lex. 
dlidu — ► wdlidum 

alidutu in Id alidutu "sterility" jB; < wdlidum 
alikanum "traveller" OB;< dlikum + -an 
alik-panutu "going in front, leadership" NB; 

< dlikpdni abstr. (—> aldku G I ) 

aliktum 'going; goer' f. 1. Mari ~ "flying 
column" 2. jB lex. (a kind of bow) 3. (a kind of 
metal weapon); < dliku 

aliku(m) 'going; goer' 1. adj. jB, NA "moving, 
walking"; "falling out" of hair; "alight" of stove; 
Mari "appropriate" 2. subst. OA, O/jB 
"traveller; messenger" 3. Nuzi, jB — ► sent 4; 

< aldku ptcp. 

alikutu subst. 'going' = "philandering" jB; dlikut 

mahri "precedence"; < dliku abstr. 
alilanu (a tree) jB lex. 
alili — ► aldlu I 
alTlu(m), elllu (or d/elilu ?); f. aleliltu ~ 

"powerful" Bab., NA as epith. of deities, kings, 

warriors; < aldlu III 
aliinbu (a (mythical 7 ) bovid) jB lex.; < Sum. 
alimu ~ "honoured, of high rank"jB; < Sum. 
allq pi —* liqu I 
dli(s)su —* wdlidum 
alisam "village by village" OB, Mari; <dlu\ + 

alittis in Id alittis "like a barren woman" jB; 

< wdlittum 
dlittu —* wdlittum 
allium — ► elitu 
alium — ► elu II 

alium "citizen, local" OA, in pi.; < alu I; — ► dldyu 

alkakatu(m) pi. "ways of life; actions, 
behaviour" Bab.(Iit.) of gods, demons, people; 

< alaktu irreg. pi.; -♦ ilkakdtu I 
alkanniwe (part of a vehicle) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
alkatu — ► alaktu 

alku I "state service" NA(Iit.); < aldku 

alku II "course" of canal, "region along the bank" 
NB; < Aram. 

all. . . also = ana I. . . 

alia "beyond; apart from" j/NB 1. prep, (also wr. 
al) "beyond, past; more than; apart from"; in 
comparative clauses instead of eli 2. before 
prep.: alia ana, alia ina "beyond, past; apart 
from" 3. adv. "instead, rather"; < ana I + la; — ► 

allaharum — ► annuharu 

allak "hub (of a wheel)" M/jB lex. 

allakkdnis — ► alldnu I 

allaku "always moving" M/jB; < aldku 

allaku "traveller, messenger; agent" j/NB; 

< aldku 

allallull, allaM ~ "powerful" j/NB epith. of 

allalu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
alldmi — ► allu U. 
alldn — ► alldnum 
Allanatum (an Ass. month name) O/MA, jB 

allanu(m) I "oak; acorn" [GIS/U.AL.LA.AN]; jB as 

drug; OA pi. alldnu "oak-resin"?; med. 

[NAGAR(- ); GlS.LAM.MAR] "(suppository 

shaped like) acorn"; a. Kanis, allakkdnis 

"Kanis-oak" (a tree) 
alianu II (a garment) MA 
alianu III (a prof.)? M/NB also as PN 
alianu IV pi.? (a small measured amount) NB 
allanum, alldn adv. "from there" OA, also 

alldnumma; as prep. + subst. or, also NB, pron. 

suff. "beyond, over and above, apart from"; 

< allu I + -dnwn; — ► alia; elldn ? 
allapak conj. "when"? jB lex. 
allatturum (a small pipe) OB; < Sum. 
allatu — » illatu I 

allemi — ► allu II 

alli'ayya, jB dldyu "driveller" O/jB lex. 
allikamma "somewhere else" Nuzi; < allu I 
allitis "the day after tomorrow" OA; < allti I; -♦ 

lidis; ullitis 
allu(m) I "hoe, pickaxe" OAkk, OA, Bab. 

[GIS.AL] as agricultural and building tool; a. 

nasu "to bear the hoe", a. sutruku "to make the 

alium II 


hoe ring out"; as symbol of Ninurta, also Eg. 

royal emblem; sa a. "labourer" OB lex.; < Sum. 
alium II (a type of coefficient) OB math. 
allu(m) — ► also ellu I; ullumma 
allu(m) I "that (one)" Nuzi, Ug., jB (= ullu. I); 

> alldnum, allitis; allikamma, allukd 

allu II, allumi, allemi, alldmi, illumi ~ "certainly; 

furthermore" Am.; < W.Sem. 
alludanu (a meteor, phenomenon) jB om. 
alluhappu "(a kind of) hunting net; (a net-like 

sack)" jB [SA.AL.tfAB]; d a. (a demon); < Sum. 
alluharum — ► annuharu 
alluka "there" Nuzi; < allu I 
allumi — ► allu II 
allumzali — ► alluzu 
allundtu — ► alluttu 
alluru (a ceremonial dress) MB(Alal.), Nuzi, jB 

lex.: < Hurr.? 
alluttu(m), lex. also allu'u; pi. allundtu(m) 

"crab" j/NB; as animal; as figurine etc.; astr. 

"(constellation) Cancer", also another star 

[MUL.AL.LUL; MUL.NAGAR]; OA pi. "tongs, 

pincers"?; < Sum.; — ► kusu 
allu'tu, aliitu (a plant) jB lex. 
allu'u — ► alluttu 
alluzu, allumzali (a spiny plant) M/jB lex., med.; 

root, seed as drug 
almanu(m) "widower" Mari; jB d A. as DN 

(name of star); > almdnutu, almattu 
almanutu "widow(er)hood" jB in a. aldku "to 

enter a."; Nuzi "widow's allowance"; 

< almattu, almdnu abstr. 

almattu(m), NB also alamattu; pi. almandtu(m) 
"widow" Bab., MA [NU.MU.SU; MUNUS.NU. 
KUS.U; MA munuS.NU.kOS.KU]; astr. (a star); 

> almdnutu 

almln "without number, innumerable" j/NB(lit.); 

<al (-* eli ?) + minu II 
almu mng. unkn. jB lex.; epith. of deity 
alningu, alnikkum (a spice) OAkk, OB; also a 

mineral ? 
alpu(m) I "bull, ox" [GU4; coll. pi. GU4.P.A; NA 

usu. GU4.(NITA.)ME§]; a. mi, a. ndri "water, 

river ox"; a. kisi "water buffalo"? jB; a. sade (a 

wild animal) Am.; a. epinnim "plough ox"; a. 

warkatim [GU4.(A.)UR.RA] "rear ox (of team)"; 

math, put alpim 'ox's forehead', i.e. "trapezoid" 

[SAG.KI.GU4]; -♦ re'i-alputu 
alpu II ~ "threatening" jB lex.; < aldpu 
alsudilu (a primitive farming tool) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

altalu ~ "forest" jB lex. 
altammu — ► astammu 

alta(p)pipu (a box or chest) Am.; < Hurr.? 

altaputu — ► iltappu 

altarru I "strong, heroic" jB lex. 

alta(r)ru(m) II "assigned work" O/jB; < Sum. 

alti "well, now then!" jB; < Sum. 

alti -* also assatu 

altikkarum mng. unkn. OB lex. 

altu -* wastum 

alu — ► ali I 

alu I, eld "bull of heaven" jB myth, figure; astr. 
sign of the zodiac, constellation "Taurus" 

alu II (an evil demon) M/jB, Bogh., NA [A.LA; 
occas. U18.LU]; < Sum. 

alu(m) III (a kind of drum) Bab. [GIS.A.LA]; 

alu IV, elu ~ "pipe" Bab. "(clay) pipe, drain 7 "; 
lex. "wind-pipe"; < Sum.; — ► alallu I 

alu — ► also alallu II; elu 

alu(m) I m., Am. occas. f.; pi. alii, aldnu, OB 
freq. aldnu "village, town, city" [URU(.KI); pi. 
OB occas. URU.DIDLI.BI.KIl later freq. 
URU.MES; also URU.URU; URU.DIDLI] "city" 
opp. to country (seru); OB sa lihh-dlim "town- 
dweller"; a. beluti, a. sarruti etc. "capital, royal 
city"; of sectors a. elu "upper city", (al) lihh(i) 
ali "inner city", esp. of Assur; "municipality, 
city authorities", a. u rabidnum/sibutum "city 
and mayor/elders"; OA alum "the City" = 
Assur; > alu, alium, dldyu, alayutu, aldnu, 
alisam; sa-muhhi-dlutu 

alu(m) II, elu "ram" OAkk, Mari, Qatna, MA, 
M/jB, Am., Bogh. [(UDU.)a.LU(m)] also as 

alu(m); pi. dliutum "townsman" OA; < alu I 

alu ~ "to cut"? jB lex. 

a'lu ~ "tribe, confederation"? jB(Ass.) [GIS.DA]; 
< W.Sem.? 

alulutum, jB lulutu (a kind of mineral)? OB 

alumma "wherever"? jB; < ali I 

alupathi (a topog. desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

alutu (a kind of soup) jB lex. 

aliitu — ► also allu'tu 

alutu — ► sa-muhhi-dlutu 

aluzinnu 1. ~ "buffoon, clown" Bab. 2. (a plant) 
Bogh.; > lezenu ? 

alzibadar (colour desig. for horses) MB, also 
name of horse; < Kass. 

-am, -a 1. "to me" ( 1 sg. dat. suff.) 2. vent, affix 

amadenum —* amandenum 

ama'erru ~ "female mourner" jB lex.; < Sum. 




amagallu "forest" jB lex.; < Sum. 

amahhu, amuhhu "enceinte, city-wall" jB; 

amalis "like an a. tree"; < amalu 
amalitu, amalutum, amalu (a cultic functionary) 

desig. of a goddess O/jB; < Sum. 
amalu (a conifer) jB; > amalis 
amalu — ► also amalitu 
amalu — ► wamdlum 
amalubukku (a reed shelter) jB lex. 
amaluktu, maluktu, maruktu (a cultic 

functionary) desig. of a goddess jB lex.; 

amalutum — ► amalitu 
amamu (an eye cosmetic) jB lex. 
ama(n)denum (a farm tool) OB; sa a. 

"(worker) with a." 
amanitu, amannum (a vegetable) O/jB, Ug. 
amanu in tdbat a. (a reddish salt) j/NB lex., 

med.; < Mt. Amanus ? 
amanu "talker, chatterbox" jB; < awum ptcp. ? + 

-an + -J 
amardtu — ► amru 

amar(girim)hilibu (a stone); < Sum.; -» hilibu 
amaridu (a spiny plant) jB lex. 
amaris (strange) "to look at" O/jB; < amdru I + 

amarsdnu -* amursanu 
amartu(m) I, NB also amastu "partition wall" 

Bab., Am.; between houses; "side" of a bed, 

chest; "arm-rest" of a chair; < amaru U 
amartu II; pi. amrdtu (a measure)? jB glass- 
making text 
amaru(m) I, emerum; NB pi. amardnu "pile of 

bricks" Bab., OA [SIG4.ANSE]; Nuzi in 

amarwumma epesu; > amdrum II 
amaru II; pi. f. "side wall" jB, NA; of bed; 

> amartu I 
amaru(m) I "to see" G (a/u) [IGI; IGI.DUg] 

1. "see", s.o.; "dream" a dream; "look at; 
inspect, examine"; "read" tablet etc.; pan X a. 
"see face of X", "see X in person", NA/NB 
"get audience"; OAkk, Ass. en(e) X a. "visit 
X"; "experience, get to know"; "examine, 
inspect, keep an eye on"; "look after, look with 
favour on" persons; "be shown" brotherhood, 
patronage; "suffer" punishment, loss; "see", i.e. 
"make, profit"; ina qdti(m) a. "learn from s.o." 

2. ingress, "see, catch sight of; "find", "locate, 
discover, trace (out)"; "establish" the results of 
a calculation 3. act. stat. "recognizes; comes to 
know"; NB/NA ina/ana muhhi X a. "is devoted 
to X", NB also "is keen on" R Mari Gtn 

iter, of G; Mari stat. "has learnt thoroughly" 
Gt jB "see from now on"?, mng. unci. D rare; 
OA "examine" metal; -» mummertu S caus. of 
G St "make s.o. meet" s.o. N pass, of G [IGI; 
IGI.LA] 1. of animals, tablets etc. "be seen", of 
heavenly bodies "become visible, appear"; "be 
found"; "be checked, inspected" 2. recipr. "meet 
with (= itti), happen upon" s.o.; astr., of 
heavenly bodies "be opposite" Ntn iter, of N 1; 
> amaris; amru; amertu I.II; dmeru, dmertu, 
dmerdnu; ammdru; atmartu?; imru; 
mummertu; ndmaru, ndmartu; ndmurtu; 
tdmartu; nanmurtu; — ► kalldmdre 
amaru m II "to pile up bricks" G (Hi) OA; 

< amaru I denom. 
amarwumma — ► amaru I 
amdsu — ► amdsu 
amasiru mng. unkn. jB 

amasu (or amdsu) mng. unkn. jB D; = 

hamdsu ?; > ansu'-, atmdsu^ 
amasmu, amaspu — ► abasmu 
amastu — ► amartu I 
amasu ~ "to be paralysed"? jB G lex., med., of 

hands etc.; > dmisu*; ansiitu; imsu; umsu; 

amat-sarrutu — ► amtu 
amatu (desig. of terrain) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
amdtu — » amtu; amu; awdtu 
amayu (an aquatic plant) jB lex. 
ambassu, anba(s)su "(game-)park"? j/NB, NA; 

< Hurr.? 
ameharu — ► awiharu 
amelis — ► awilis 
ameltu — ► awiltum 
amelu — ► awilu 
amelutu — ► awilutum 
amerdnu — ► awirdnum 

ameranu "eye-witness" MA, M/jB; < dmeru + 

amertu(m) I, ime/irtu(m), iwirtum "view, 

opinion" O/jB; esp. "preference, choice" of 

land; < amdru I; — ► imirtu 
amertu II, amestu "inspection, review" NB of 

soldiers, grain etc.; < amru 
amertu f. "that sees" jB; < dmeru 
ameru(m), dmirum "that sees, reads" etc.; of 

murderer amir dami "shedder of blood"; 

< amdru I ptcp.; > dmerdnu, dmertu 
amestu — ► amertu II 

amhara (a medicinal plant) O/jB 
amiharu — ► awiharu 
amiku (a tree)? NA 




amilanu (a medicinal plant) jB [tJ.LVJ.U1g/19.LU; 

LU-a-nu, NA-a-nu]; < awilu 
amilis — ► awilis 
amiltu — ► awiltum 
amilu — » awilu 
amilutu — ► awilutum 
amiranis "like a deaf man"? jB; < amiru 
amirdnu — ^ awirdnum 
amiru "obstruction of the ear (through ear-wax)" 

jB; also "deaf?; > amiranis 
dmirum — > dmeru 

amisu (or amisu) ~ "enemy" jB lex.; < amdsu ? 
amkamannu (desig. of horses) Nuzi 
amm. . . also = ana m. . . 
amma "look!; lo!" OA before nominal and vb. 

sentence, for emphasis; > ammdmin; ammaka, 

ammdnum, ammisa; ammiu 
ammaka(m), ammak, NA also ma(k)ka "there" 

Ass.; NA issu (am)ma(k)ka "from there"; 

< amma + -ka(m) 

ammaki/u conj. "instead of jB + subjunct.; 

< ana I + maku II ? 

ammal "as much, as many as" MB(Ass.); — ► 

ammar; mala I 
ammamin "would that, if only" OA + pret.; 

< amma + -min 

ammammu I, ammu (a large beer jar) jB lex.; 

ammammu II (a bird) jB lex. 

ammanna "anybody"? MB 

ammanum "from there" OA; < amma + -drum 

ammar, NA also mar "as much as" M/NA; prep. 
a. ubdni "a finger's breadth"; rel. pron. + 
subjunct. a. imhuriini "as much as he received"; 

< OA ana I + mala I ?; — ► ammal; rutu 
ammarkarra, ammari/uakal, hammardkdra; pi. 

ammariakalldnu "accountant" NB; < OPers. 
ammarsigu — ► amursiggu 
ammartu "overseer"? of people jB, desig. of 

goddess; < ammdru f.? 
ammartu "eaglet" Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 
ammaru mng. unkn. Nuzi 
ammaru; pi. ammdrdni "overseer" NB; 

< amdru I; > ammartu 
ammaruakal — » ammarkarra 
ammasabbu (a container) jB lex. 
ammastakal —* mastakal 
ammati — » mati 

ammatis — » ammatu II 

ammatu(m) I "forearm; cubit" [KUS]; kisir a. 

"elbow"; as linear measure "cubit", st. abs. 

ammat [l.KUS]; NB as area measure, also a. 

sehertu "small cubit"; NB as vol. measure a. 

qaqqari; X ina ammati "X cubits (long)"; a. 

rabitu "big cubit"; a. sarri "royal cubit"; NB 

astr. (a measurement of angle); jB transf. 

"strength"?; lex. "cubit-measure" of wood 7 
ammatu II, abbatu 'strong, stable', syn. for 

"earth" jB; also term.-adv. ammatis 
ammatu III (syn. for mother) jB lex. 
ammatu IV mng. unkn. Ug. leg. 
ammi "there" OA; — ► ammiu 
ammidakkum "lye"? Mari, in metal treatment 
amminanna "why now?" M/jB; < ammini + 

ammini(m), ammin "why?"; < ana I + minu I; 

— ► missum 
ammisa(m) "there, thither" OA, NA; < amma + 

ammiu(m); f. ammitu(m); pi. m. NA ammute, f. 

OA ammidtum, M/NA ammdte "that" Ass., 

Am.; > ammuri; — > ammi; annu I 
ammu(m) I, hammum "people" OB, jB lex.; 

ammu II (a name of the Tigris) jB lex. 
ammu — > also ammammu I; emmu; hammu II 
ammute — ► ammiu 
ammuri ~ "at that time" NA/jB; < ammiu + 

-ri(g); — ^ annurig 
ammusmu in bit a. (a storehouse)? jB rit. 
amnakku (a kind of white sand) jB/NA for 

manufacture of glass; < Sum.?; — > immanakku ? 
ampannu (a kind of wood) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
ampannuhlu "an ampannu-wood worker" Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
amrimmum — » amrummu 
amru(m) "seen, chosen" by DN etc.; "inspected" 

of troops Bab., NA; jB Id a., also pi. Id 

am(a)rdtu '"not seen', unseemly"; < amdru I 
amru(m) "beam, timber" OB, Nuzi, in 

construction of house, ship 
amrummu(m), amrimmum, abrummu "outlet, 

water-gate" O/jB; < Sum.? 
amsaii(m), amsdla, once amsat "yesterday" 

Bab.; samsdli, sansdla (< sa a.) "the day 

before yesterday"; > amsdlum; — ► timdli 
amsalum "of yesterday" OB; < amsdli + -i 
amsum "palm fibre" OB 
amtu(m), NB also andu; pi. amdtu(m) "maid, 

female slave" [GEME; OB freq. SAG.GEME; 

Am., Nuzi also MUNUS.GEME, MUNUS.IR] of 

social class; OA, of Anatolian spouse; also 

desig. of o.s. in letters addressed to persons of 

higher rank; a. DN "servant of DN"; a. 

ekalli(m) "slave of the palace", NA "royal 

concubine"; NB a. sarri "royal slave"; 



anafcu(m) I 

a.-sarrutu "position as a royal slave"; 

> amutu I; amtuttu; — ♦ qinnatu 
amtuttu(m) "status of a female slave" OA, Nuzi 

for amutu I 
amu(m); pi. f. "raft" Bab., usu. of reed; -» hdmu 
amu I "one-handed"? OB, jB lex. 
amu II (a spiny plant) jB lex. 
amu III ~ "palate" jB lex.; < Sum. 
amu IV ~ "list of reciprocals" NB 
amum V vb. mng. unkn. OAkk in PNs, e.g. Imi- 

amu — » also awum Gt; hammu II 
amuastu — ♦ amumestu 
amudaya, amudu (a wooden part of the harness) 

M/jB; — » mudayu 
amuhhu — ♦ amahhu 
amultu (a plant) jB lex. 
amumestu, amumistu, amuastu (a spiny plant) 

jB lex. 
amumihhuri ~ "substitute, proxy" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
amumu (desig. of beer) NA 
amumunna "city gate" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
amiiqu — ♦ emuqu 
amurdinnu, murdinnu "bramble"? M/jB 

[GIS.GESTIN.GIR]; also a disease 
amurranu "western" Nuzi; < amurru + -arm 
amurranu —* also murrdnu 1 
amurriqdnu — * awurriqdnum 
amurru(m), Nuzi also aburru "Amurru" 

1. (divine name) [ d MAR.TU] 2. toponym for 

Syria and the West 3. OAkk, OB "Amorite(s)" 

(-» amurru) [mostly MAR.TU]; OB abi a. 

[AD.DA.MAR.TU] "prince, sheikh"; Mari rabi a. 

(a high-ranking officer), tupsar a. "Amorite 

scribe" 4. Bab., NA "west wind; the West" 

[IM.MAR.TU; NB also IM.KUR.MAR; also astr., 

NA, NB IM.4] 5. jB (western star = Perseus) 

[MUL.MAR.TU]; > amurru, amurranu 
amurru(m) "of, from Amurru" OA, O/jB 

[MAR.TU]; "Amorite" people; jB lex. amurrltu 

f. (a kind of wool); < amurru + -i 
amursanu, amursdnu, amarsdnu "wild pigeon" 

jB; — » arassannu; ursdnu II 
amursiggu, amursikku, ammarsigu (a bird) jB 
amursdnu — » amursdnu 
amussu, aftussu, a'ussu, arusu (a bulbous 

vegetable) M/jB 
amuttu — ♦ amutu LIII 
amutu(m) I, MA amuttu "status of a maid, 

female slave" M/NB [GEME- ; Nuzi also 

GEME.MES]; < amtu abstr. 

amutu(m) II; pi. OB amuwdtum "liver" OAkk, 
Bab. [BA] of a sacrificial sheep; ext. "findings 
on a sheep's liver, liver omen" 

amutu(m) III, OA amuttum (a precious metal, 
phps.) "meteoric iron" OA, Am. [KUG.AN] 

amuzi(n)nu(m) (a plant, drug) Mari, jB 

an — ♦ ana I 

-an (ending) — » GAG p.305 

ana I, an (as-s... etc.) "to, for" (freq. abbr. an, 
with assimilation of n to following consonant 
(OA often wr. a)) (prep., governs subst. in 
gen., pers. pron. in dat.) [from MB onwards 
DlS; O/MB occas. NAM; M/jB SE] 1. of space 
etc.: move, go, come "to, towards", bring, send, 
give, speak, write "to", also ana ser(i), ana 
mufthi; sit down "near, beside"; lay, put, throw 
down "onto"; substitute, compensate "for"; 
weigh "for"; sacrifice "to"; wait "for"; look "at"; 
submit "to"; set "against"; grow angry "at" 2. of 
time: "for", ad-ddr "forever"; "within" 3. of 
purpose, intention: "for" marriage, work, 
journey; give "for" o.'s life; before infin. "(in 
order) to" 4. "for, in favour of s.o. 
5. "towards, against" 6. "in view of, in the light 
of, ana sudti "thereupon" 7. "by order of, 
on behalf of 8. buy, sell, exchange "(in 
return) for" 9. distrib.: "by", satta ana satti 
"year by year", idi ana idi "on all sides" 
10. "per, for each" NA, NB ana umu "per 
diem" 11. causal and sim.: "about, concerning" 
house, field; weep, rejoice "over" 12. NB 
comm., of noun "(derived) from, belonging to" 
vb. 13. NB ana Id — ► alia, NB analdnussu 
"without him" 14. NA, NB as nota accusativi 
(-» GAG §1 14e) 15. modal: ana pi "according 
to"; OA, OB ana gamrim, jB, NA ana 
gimirtisu "completely"; — » sihirtu3, qdtul\, 
zlmu; OA ana salslsu "three times" (Bab. — ► 
adi 1 ); NA ana esrdte "ten times", "by" one- 
third, a quarter etc. 16. pleonastic before term.- 
adv.: e.g. ana ma' dis "to a great degree" 

17. before prep., adv. — » mahru II, pdnu I 8 etc. 

18. "as for, with respect to", OA, OB ana sa 
"with respect to the fact that, with respect to that 
which"; NB — ► assa 

ana II "I" OB(lit.), by-form of andku 

anabu (or anapu) (a loincloth or kilt ?) jB lex. 

anadaru "bearded" jB lex. 

anagmahhu (a drinking vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 

anahu(m) I "to be(come) tired" G (a/a) stat. 
"becomes tired", "makes an effort, strives"; of 
buildings etc. "become dilapidated" Gtn iter, of 
G jB med., of limbs, person D OA "tire (s.o.), 

anahu II 


oppress" S Bab. "trouble, exert, strain" s.o.; 
stat. "is very wearied" St "make an effort", 
"weary o.s., be depressed"; astr. "endure" 
N OB "become tired", "struggle, suffer hard- 
ship, be exhausted"; > anhu; ariihu; anhutu; 
inhu I; mdnahu; mdnahtu; sunuhu, sunuhis; 
tdnehu, tdnehtu; tdnuhis 

anahu II "to perform an inhu song" O/jB 
G (pres. innih) esp. rit., infta a. D ~ G rit., of 
assinnu; < inhu II denom. 

ana' mi — * rniinu I 

anaka -* andku; annaka 

anakandas — » akkamdas 

anakanni — ♦ akanni 

anakannu — ♦ akanna II 

anakku — ♦ anaqqu 

anaku, NA also annuku, NB also anaka "I; me" 
[Bogh. GA.E] as pred. freq. andkuma; OB sa 
andku "as for me"; NB also ace. (to stress a 
pron. suff.), dat.; -» ana II; anuki 

analdnussu — ♦ ana I 1 3 

anama "as soon as" OA; — » anndma 

anameru (a plant) jB; as drug; zer a. "seed of 

anamu — * anmu 

ananihu, nanalihu (a garden herb, phps.) "mint" 

ana(n)nu (a syn. of copper) jB lex. 

anantu(m); pi. an(a)ndtu "battle, strife" 
Bab.(lit); — ♦ anuntu 

andnu — ♦ enenu I 

anapu — ♦ anabu 

anapu — ♦ alapu 

anapum "to rage" OB G (i/i) 

anaqate f. pi. "she-camels" NA; < Arab. 

anaqqu (or anakku) (a drinking vessel) jB lex.; 

anarhallum (desig. of child) OA 

anatu (a ring) jB lex. 

anaummis -* annummis 

anba(s)su — » ambassu 

anbu (or anpu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 

andahsu(m), andasu, OA addahsum (an 
alliaceous plant) 

andakullum (a corvee worker)? OB; also as PN 

andandnu — ♦ andundnu 

andararum — ♦ andurdru 

andas "king" jB lex.; < Kass. 

andasu — ♦ andahsu 

andesu "inspection, review" NB; < OPers. 

andillu — ♦ andullu 

andu — ♦ amtu 

andugu (a meteor, term)? jB lex.; < Sum.? 
anduhallatu, antuhallatu, imlndltuhallatu "(a 

kind" of) lizard" M/jB [KUN.DAR.GURUN.NA; 

andullu(m), M/jB(Ass.) andillu "shelter, 

canopy" Bab. [AN.DUL; AN.DUL7]; transf. 

"(royal, divine) protection, aegis", also in PNs; 

< Sum.; — » sululu 

andunanu, addundnum, andandnu "substitute" 

O/jB; NA — » dundnu; — > also ardandnu; 

anduraru(m), addurdrum, andararum, NA, 

NB du/ardru "freedom, exemption" [AMA.AR. 

GI] of edict; release from (debt) slavery; 

cancelling debts; a. sakdnu "promulgate a. 

edict"; < dardru I 
anduru "(a kind of) door" jB lex. 
anenu — ♦ aninu 
angallu ~ "wise" M/jB 
angasu, angdsu* "plum (tree)" NA 
angillu "lament" M/jB; var. of ikkillu 
angubbu(m) ~ 'standing in the sky' O/jB 

[AN.GUB.BA] 1. "tutelary deity" 2. astr. (desig. 

of certain stars) 3. (a class of priests); also as 

desig. of deities; < Sum. 
angurinnu (a metal object) MA, Am.; -» 

anhu(m) "tired" O/jB of people, animals; M/NB 

of buildings "dilapidated"; < anahu I; > anhutu 
anhullime — * imhur-llmi 
anhullu — > imhullu 
anhullu/u? (a plant) jB lex., mag. [wr. 

U.AN.yUL(.LA/LU)]; < Sum.? 
anhurasru — ♦ imhur-esrd 
anhutu "tiredness; dilapidation" j/NB, NA of 

people; buildings, divine images etc.; < anhu 
anlhu(m) "tired, weary" O/jB; Id a., NB lanihu 

"indefatigable"; < anahu I 
ani(m)mu ~ "kindness, peace" jB lex. 
anina 1. "now" NA, NB also anin 2. "earlier" 

Nuzi, Bogh. 3. "where?" Nuzi 4. mng unci. 

aninu, anini, anenu "we" NA, NB; NB also gen. 

and dat.; < Aram.; — » ninu 
aniu, aniteu (syn.s of copper) jB lex. 
ankibitu "of heaven and earth" jB epith. of Istar; 

< Sum. 

ankinutu (a plant) jB lex., med. as drug 
ankunnu (a heavy bronze object)? MB(Alal.) 
anmu, anamu "this" O/MB, 0/MB(Alal.), 

Bogh., Ug. 
ann. . . also = ana n. . . 



anna, anni, annu "yes, certainly" O/jB, Nuzi; 
> annu, anndma; inanna; annanna; — » 
akanna I; annu I; eni 
annabu — ♦ arnabu 

annaka(m), Ug. also annakdnu, NA also 
hannak(a), nak(a) "here" Ass., analadilissu a. 
"to/as far as/from here"; < annu I + -kam 
annaku(m) "tin; lead" [AN.NA]; MA a. pasiu 

'white lead', i.e. "tin", a. abdru "lead" 
annama OA, O/jB "there; thus 1 , in this way"; jB, 
N A ~ "in the same way"; OB lex. + pron. suff. 
annamasu "there he is"; < anna + -ma 
annamru; pi. annamrdni (a copper object) NA 
annania ~ "such-and-such" MA; <ann(iu) + 

anniu ? 
annanna; f. annannitu "NN, so-and-so, such- 
and-such" O/jB [NENNI; f. (MUNUS.)NENNI 
(-turn) etc.]; Nuzi (a class of women)?; < anna 
+ anna 
annanum "here; from here" OA, O/jB, Am., 

Bogh.; < annu I + -dnum 
anneklam — » annikiam 
annettdn — » annittan 
anni 1 "now" OAkk, OA; < annu I 
anni II (a desig. of textiles) Nuzi 
anni -* also anna 

annikiam, anneklam, annike(m), annikd(m), Ug. 
annikdnu "here, hither" O/MB; < anni(u) + 
anni(m)inis "no sooner than" jB (-♦ GAG 

§§1 16c, 174g); <annimmu 
annimmu(m), annummu(m), annimmamum, 
OB (Esn.) unummlum "this one here" O/jB 
(ace. annammiam, annimmiam; f. OB 
annummltum, anni(m)mltum; du. obi. annim= 
mutin; pi. m. annummuttum, annummutum, jB 
lex. annimmamutum; f. OB anniamdtum'); 
MB, Bogh. "this"; > annimmis, annummis; 
annummanum; -* annu I; unummium 
anninati(m) invariable "this" MB(Alal.); -* 

annu I 
anninum "here" OB(N.Mes.); <ann& I + 

annis "here, hither" O/jB; also ana a. "hither", 

istu a. "hence"; < annu I 
annisa(m), NA also hannisa "here, hither" Ass., 

Mari; < annu I + -isam 
annittan, annettdn "this then" OB, often 

interrog.; < annu I f. du. as adv.? 
annltu, anniu -* annu I 

annu(in) "(word of) consent, assent, approval" 
Bab. of omen, a. klnu "authentic consent", a. 
apdlu "to say yes"; < anna 

annu -* also Anu I; arnu 

annii(m) I, anniu(m), NA also hanniu, hannu, 
OB occas. with nunation "this, those" [j/NB NE; 
SES (for m. pi. annuti)]; OB f. sg. annitum 
"this matter"; annltam la annltam 'this one, not 
this one', "one way or another"; a. ii a. 
"various"; NA a(n)nute . . . a(n)nute . . . "some 
..., others ..."; (a)kl (h)anni(ma) "thus, in the 
same way"; > anni I; annania" 1 ; annanum, 
anninum; annikiam, annaka; annis, annisa, 
annittan, annurig; anumma; agannu, ahanna, 
ahenna; -* ammiu; anna; annimmu; anninati 

annu II "look!" Am.; < W.Sem. 

annu -* also anna 

annuharu(m), allaluharum, Mari also 
innuharum f. (a mineral) O/jB [IM.SAHAR. 
BABBAR.KUR.RA] sim. to alum, as drug 

annuka mng. unkn. NB 

annuka, annukanna "here" Elam, Nuzi 

annuku -* andku; annaku; annuqum 

annumma -* anumma 

a(n)nummanum "here" Mari; ~< annummu + 

annummis, anaummis "here, hither" O/jB; 

< annummu 
annummu — ♦ annimmu 
A(n)nunitu(m) OAkk, Bab. 1. (a goddess) 2. (a 

constellation, north-east part of Pisces) 
annuqum (a type of jewellery, phps.) "ring"? 

OA; — ♦ unqu I 
annuri(g) "at this moment, now" NA; < annil I + 

-i'Hg)\ — » ammuri 
annus ~ "look!" Am. 
anpatu (a bird) jB 
anpu -* anbu 
anqullu, aqqullu (an atmospheric phenomenon; a 

fiery glow) Bab., NA [ ? )]; jB 

"feverish heat"; NA aban a. "meteor"? 
ansammum -* assammu 
ansamullu (a class of person) jB lex. 
ansabtu(m), insabtu(m), issabtum; pi. 

ilansabdtuli; also du. OA issabtdn "ring, 

earring" Bab., OA 
ansu "obstinate"? jB lex.; <amasu ? 
ansamu mng. unkn. jB f. ansamitu as epith. of 

ansanum 'of Ansan' OB as desig. of a bow 
ansu — ♦ ensu 

ansutu "paralysis" jB; < amdsu 
ansutu — ♦ also ensutu 
anta(l)lu(m), attalu "eclipse" Bab., NA [AN.GE6; 

AN.TA.LU] of sun, moon, planet, star, Bogh. 




transf. of king, jB of lands; <Sum.; -♦ 

antasurru (or antasurru) (a precious stone or 

metal) jB; astr. (a star or constellation); < Sum. 
antasu (ascribe) jB 
antasurru -* antasurru 
antu I "ear of barley" jB lex., NA 
antu(m) II mng. unkn. O/jB 
antuhallatu — ♦ anduhallatu 
antupsalli -* antuwasalli 
antusu 'sitting in the sky' (a constellation) jB 

[(MUL.)AN.TUS.A.MES (always pi.)]; < Sum. 
antuwasalli, antupsalli (a high Hitt. court 

official) Bogh., Ug.; < Hitt. 
Anu(m) I, OB usu. Annum "An(um)" (the god 

of heaven) OAkk, Bab. [AN; NB d 60]; of Istar 

andtima "you are supreme deity"; < Sum.; 

> Anutu 
anu(m) II (a metal) O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
anu III "(the cuneiform sign) AN" M/jB [AN] 
anu IV (a syn. for wood or tree) jB lex. 
anuki "I" Am.; < W.Sem.; -+ andku 
Anukku — » Anunnakku 
anumisu "then, at that time" OB istu a., warka a. 

"since, after that time"; < ana I + umu I + -su 
anumma, annumma, anummu, OB(Esn.) 

unumma "now", esp. of messages "herewith" 

OB, Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug., jB lex. [Ug. UD- 

ma\; < annu I loc.-adv. + -ma 
anummame, anummS "here is" Ug.; < anumma 
anummdnum -* annummanum 
anumme -* anummame' 
anummike "there" Bogh. lex.; < anumma 
anummu -* anumma 
Anunitu -* Annunitu 
Anunnakku, occas. Anukku, Enunnakku "(the) 

gods" [ d A.NUN.NA(.KE 4 .NE)] 1. OB, M/jB the 

gods as a whole 2. M/NB the gods of the earth 

and netherworld; < Sum. 
anuntu; pi. anundtu "fight, combat" jB, NA; -+ 

anunu "fear, dread"? jB; < Sum. 
anunutu, (e)nunutu (a plant) M/jB lex., med.; 

also (an insect)? 
anussannu (a metal object) Qatna; < Hurr.? 
anussu (a leather object) jB lex. 
Anutu "position of An; divinity" j/NB [ d 60- ; 

d AN- ]; <Anu I 
anutu -* also unutu 
anzahhu (a kind of glass) Qatna, M/jB, Bogh., 

NA [AN.ZAH]; < Sum. 
anzalilu, jB anzariinu; f. anzaliltu "matchmaker, 

pimp"? M/jB 

anzamatum pi. mng. unkn. OAkk; desig. of 

anzananzu — ♦ anzanunzu 

anzaninu — ♦ anzalilu 

anzanis "like Anzu" jB(Ass.); < Anzu 

anzannu mng. unci. Nuzi, desig. of 
commodities, fields; < Hurr. 

anzannu -* also arzdnu 

anzanu(n)zu, anzananzu "water-table, 

subterranean waters" jB; < Sum. 

anzillu(m), anzullu "taboo; abomination" O/jB; 
a. kabdsu, a. kubbusu "to infringe a taboo"; 
anzillasu " (to be) avoided by s.o." 

Anzu "Anzu; lion-headed eagle" [ANZU.MUSEN]; 
also astr., desig. of star(s); > anzanis 

anzuzu (a type of spider) jB [SE.GUR4] 

apadu "small" jB lex. 

apalu(m) I, OB also abdlum "to pay; answer" 
G (a/u; NB pres. once ihappal ?) 1. "pay" s.o. (= 2 ace), "repay", "settle" claim; 
"pay off, satisfy" s.o.; M/NA "make in full" 
sacrificial offering; Bab. math., astr., of solution 
"give the result" 2. "answer" s.o. (= ace); ext. 
"correspond to" another feature 3. OA, OB 
"answer to", "be answerable to" s.o. (=acc), 
"justify o.s. before" 4. with idu, kum "stand in 
for, represent", freq. in PN Gtn iter, "pay", 
"stand in for" on separate occasions Gt 
"answer one another, have discussion", "stand 
in for permanently" D "satisfy" s.o; "pay off' 
an obligation; "pay" a debt; NA "make 
answerable" Dt(t) "be held responsible" 
S "make s.o. answer" N "be paid off, become 
satisfied"; > dpilu, dpiltum, dpildnu; iplu; 
mutaplu; ndpaltu; napalu; tdpalu; tdpiltum, 

apalu(m) II "to be (too) late" G jB of star "be 
late" D OA stat. of birth "is retarded"; jB of 
Adad (= thunderstorm) "come later than 
expected" Dt "be delayed"; > aplu I, apiltu I; 
tdpaldtu; upletum; uppulu I, uppultu; -* aplu II 
and derivatives; uppulu II 

apalwalihurra (a prof, desig.) Nuzi 

apanis "through the window(s)" jB; <aptu + 
-an + -is 

apapu(m) mng. unci. Mari G unattested N (or 
napdpum ?) ~ "infiltrate" 

apara(k)ku mng. unkn. NA lex. in subdt a. "a. 

aparu (a loincloth) jB lex. 

aparu(m), occas. eperu "to cover the head" Bab., 
M/NA G (e/e, OB a/u) "put" crown, helmet 
etc. "on the head of s.o. (= ace), stat. "wears"; 

apatu 20_ 

transf. of moon, star, king "be decked with" 
halo, radiance etc.; OB stat. of sheep's tongue 
"be covered, capped" ext. Gtn iter, of G, MA 
"constantly crown" king Gt stat. "is decked 
with" D "put headgear (= acc f ) on head of s.o. 
(=acc.) N "be crowned, covered"; > apru; 
itpuru; upru I; upurtu 
aparu — » also abdru II 
apasu — » wapdsum 
apdtu -» appatu II; aptu 

apatu, abdtu, epdtu, OB a/epidtum, Bogh. 
apietum f. pi. "numerous, teeming", epith. of 
nisu, also absol., "humanity" 
apdtu — » also apu I 
apellu mng. unkn. Nuzi; desig. of arrows; 

< Hurr. 
apidtum. apietum — » apdtu 
apiktu — » abiktu 

apilanu 'the answerer' (a bird) jB; < apdlu I 
apilha mng. unkn. jB lex. 
apillu (a cultic performer) jB [A.BIL] 
apiltu(m) I 1. M/NB "remainder; remaining 
debts" 2. OAkk (a vessel) 3. jB (a part of the 
year); < aplu I; -» a. II 
apiltu(m) II "heiress" O/jB; < aplu II; = a. I ?; -» 

apilu(m); f. dpiltum 'answerer' 1. Man, jB, also 
aplum (a kind of prophet) 2. MB dpil hdhi (a 
doorkeeper) 3. Nuzi (a prof.); < apdlu I 
apisamus (a type of bow)? Am.; < Hurr. 
apisasi? (a tree)? NA 
apislat (an illness) jB; -» apisalu 
apis "like reed-beds" jB; < apu I 
apisalu (a cripple)? jB; < PIN Apisal; -» apislat 
apitas mng. unkn. jB 
apitu(m) (a kind of fallow land) O/jB 
apkallatu f. "wise one" jB [ABGAL], also as PN; 

< apkallu 
apkallu, abgallu "wise man, expert" Bab., NA 
[ABGAL] epith. of gods; of Adapa etc.; pi. "the 
(seven) sages": a. samni "oil (divination) 
expert"; < Sum.; > apkallatu 
apkisu "furrow" jB; < Sum. 
aplatu "heiress" jB lex. (= apiltu II); <aplu II 
aplu(m) I; f. apiltu "late" OB; < apdlu II; 

> apiltu I; — » a. II 
aplu(m) II; st. constr. apil, apal "heir, son" 
[IBILA; j/NB, NA freq. A; NB PN occas. 
EDURU; NA PN also d IBILA] a. reM, a. 
asaredu "prime heir", a. kinu "legitimate heir"; 
apil erseti 'son of the earth', desig. of date 
palm; > apiltu II, aplatu; aplutu; = a. I ? 
aplu -» also abru IV 


aplum — » dpilu 1 

apluhtu(m) "armour" O/jB 

aplutu(m) "status of heir; inheritance, estate" 

O/jB [IBILA]; < aplu II 
app. . . also = ana p. . . 

appadan "pillared hall, apadana" NB; < OPers. 
appadetu — » uppadetu 
appahu, a(b)bahu ~ "branches" jB lex. 
appan in PN for ana pan (-» pdnu I) 
appanannu (a metal object) Am.(Mit); < Hurr. 
appdni -» appatu II 
appannu (a part of a building, portico) Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; -» appatu 
appanum I (a pulse, phps.) "chick-pea" Mart 
appanum II (a bird) Bogh.; -» abbunnu 
apparritu; pi. apparrdtu "tufted hair, strand of 

hair" jB; -» apparrU 
apparru, happarrd; f. apparritu "with tufted 

hair" O/jB; MB as PN; (desig. of pig, sheep); 

— » apparritu 
apparu(m), jB also ippdru: pi. m. & f. "reed-bed, 

marsh" [AMBAR], NA also "reed(s)"; qan a. 

"reed"; fish, birds simat a. "belonging to the 

marshes" [ME.TE AMBAR.RA]; NB rah a. 

"marsh overseer"; < Sum. 
appatdn — » appatu 11 
appatis "as with a bridle" jB: < appatu II 
appatu(m) I "tip" NB (of metal implements); 

appatu(m) II; NA pi. once appdni "bridle, rein" 

Bab., M/NA [NA (KUS.)PA; AB] j/NB, NA 

mukil appdti 'bridlc-liolder', "chariot driver"; 

also jB lex. appatdn (hi. (a wooden object)?; 

> appatii 
appatu in bit a. "portico" jB (= bit hildni); 

< Akkadi/utiou of appannu ? 
appatu — ► aho appatu l.II; appu 
appis conj. "since, given that" OA, OB, jB lex.; 

< appu 
appfta I', dii. "nostrils"? jB of ape's snout; 

< appu 
appitti "likewise; just as" NB, also ana appittu; 

< ana 1 f pitti 
appu(m) I. "nose" Bab., M/NA [KIR4] 1. liter.: 

"nose", nlso dn., of person, animal; "beak" of 
bird: rti u. "tip of the nose"; hehen a., nurub a. 
"soft pints of the nose"; nahlr a., pilis a. 
"nostril"; lihhi a. "nasal cavity"; birit a. "nasal 
scptniu"?: di'ir a. '"wall of the nose', cheek"; 
luisarti a. "nasal mucus"; sdr a. "breath" 
2. idioms: lahan a. (a gesture of prostration); a. 
qadMulqwldudu (a gesture of grief); Mari a. 
mfi(iil$um (11 gesture of distress); OB a.-su 



arahu(m) I 

kasddum "to defeat" s.o.; sibit a. "moment" 
3. transf.: "tip" of tongue, finger, penis, beard; 
"extremity" of shapes, objects etc.; "rim" of 
vessel; "crown" of tree; "fringe" of garment; 
"point" of land, "causeway, bund"; MB 
wooden "stake"; > appis; appatu I; appitd 

appudetu — » uppadetu 

appultu — » uppultu 

appuna, jB also appunndma, Bogh., Am. also 
appundna "moreover" OAkk, OA, O/jB 

apputtu(m) I, apputum ~ "please; it is urgent" 
(interj.) O/MA, OB, jB lex.; -► a, II ? 

a(p)puttum II (or abbuttum, dblputtum) ~ 
"difficult situation" OA; = a. I ? 

apru(m) in aprussa "with head covered" OB of 
woman; < aparu 

apru — » also abru II 

aprusu (a plant) jB, NA as drug; oil, seed, flour 
of a. 

apsammilakku — » apusammikku 

apsasu(m); f. apsasd/itu(m) 1. (an exotic bovid) 
2. (a myth, animal with the body of a cow), 
"sphinx" OAkk, O/jB as figurine; jB(Ass.) of 
bull-colossus; [(MUNUS.)AB.ZA.ZA]; < Sum. 

apsu(m) "(cosmic) underground water" Bab., 
NA [ABZU(=ZU.AB)] 1. lit., as home of fish, 
location of foundations; kdr a. "quay of the a." 
(a ritual place) 2. "(deities of) the apsu" 3. (a 
primeval deity) 4. NA ? , NB (a water tank in 
temple) 5. j/NB bit a. (a part of the temple) 
[E/ES.ABZU]; < Sum. 

apsitum "agreed allocation" OB of division of 
land, "contingent" of troops; < Sum. 

apsu — » ahsu II 

aptu(m); pi. apdtu "window, window opening" 
Ass., O/jB [AB] in house, NB in sluice; OB ina 
pi a. naddnum, madddum "to pay in the house 
of the recipient"; DN d Kilili sa apdti, abdti; 
"niche of dovecot"?; a. uzni "ear-hole" O/jB; 
< Sum.; > apdnis 

apu(m) I, ahu "reed-bed; reeds (coll.)" Ass., 
O/jB [GIS.GI]; apukka "to your reed-bed"; qan 
a. "marsh-reed"; sah a. "wild boar" (— » 
sahapu); hashur a. (a plant); > apis 

apu II "hole, opening" in the ground NA rit. 

apu III (a leather object)? jB 

apu I, abu "veiled" Bab. of eyes; < apA III 

apu II (a spiny plant) jB 

apu III, abu "to become veiled, cloudy" jB med. 
G of eyes; > apu I; ipitu 1 -; upu I 

apu — » also wapum 

apuhhu ~ "fear" jB 

apurugis mng. unkn. NB 

ap(u)sammikku(m), apsammakku (a geomet- 
rical shape) O/jB [AB.ZA.Ml]; < Sum. 
aputtum — » apputtum II 
aputu(m) (a plant) jB 
aqappu — » agappu 
aqarhu (a piece of jewellery) Am.(Mit.) of 

coloured stones; < Hurr. 
aqartu — » waqrum 
aqdru — » waqdrum 
aqdamatum "near bank" Mari of a river; 

< W.Sem.; opp. — » ahardtum 
aqdamum "former time" OB; < W.Sem.; — » 

aqqabu; pi. aqqabdni "remainder"? NA of 

textiles; < Aram. 
aqqullakku — » akkullakku 
aqqulldnu — » akkulldnu 
aqqullu — » akkullu; anqullu 
aqrabu "scorpion" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 
aqru — » waqrum 
aqupu — > uqupu 
ar ~ "forest" jB lex. 
ara "earth, land" NB lex.; < Aram. 
arabanu, ar(i)bdnu (a bird) jB; = arabu ? 
arabu, arabua 1. (an edible water-fowl) 

[ARA4.BU.MUSEN] (-» arabanu) 2. (a plant) 

jB; < Sum.? 
ar'abu (or ar'ibu) (a plant) jB lex. 
arabua — » arabu 

araddu, arant/du "wild ass" jB; < W.Sem. 
ar(a)d-ekallutu "palace service" NB [LU.IR.E. 

GAL- ]; < wardum + ekallutu 
arad-sarrutu "royal service" NB [LU.IR. 

LUGAL- ]; < wardum + sarrutu 
aradu — » wardum 
aradu "to serve" Am. (Syria) G "be servant of 

king D ~ G; < wardum denom. 
aradu — » also warddum 
aragubbu (a mathematical term) OB lex.; 

arahhu(m) I, arhu "storehouse, granary" OB 

lex., jB; < Sum. 
arahhu II (a genre of Sum. songs) jB; < Sum. 
Arahsamna/u (8th Bab. month) j/NB 

[ITI.APIN(.DU8.A)]; < warhum + samnu I 
Arahtu (major canal in northern Babylonia) 

j/NB; < urhu I ? 
arahum ~ "fixed metrological ratio"? OB math. 

[A.RA.yi]; < Sum. 
arahu(m) I, occas. wardhum "to hasten" O/jB 

G (pret. irah; stat. aruh) "be urgent, hurry"; 

vent, "come quickly" D "speed up, send 

speedily"; "scare away"; in hendiad. urruhu + 

apatu 20_ 

transf. of moon, star, king "be decked with" 
halo, radiance etc.; OB stat. of sheep's tongue 
"be covered, capped" ext. Gtn iter, of G, MA 
"constantly crown" king Gt stat. "is decked 
with" D "put headgear (= acc r ) on head of s.o. 
(=acc.) N "be crowned, covered"; > apru; 
itpuru; upru 1; upurtu 
aparu —* also abdru II 
apdsu —* wapdsum 
apatu — » appatu II; aptu 

apatu. abdtu, epdtu, OB alepiatum, Bogh. 
apietum f. pi. "numerous, teeming", epith. of 
nisii, also absol., "humanity" 
apatu — > also apu I 
apellu mng. unkn. Nuzi; desig. of arrows; 

< Hurr. 
apidtum. apietum —* apatu 
apiktu —» abiktu 

apilanu 'the answerer' (a bird) jB; < apdlu I 
apilha mng. unkn. jB lex. 
apillu (a cultic performer) jB [a.BIL] 
apiltu(m) 1 1. M/NB "remainder; remaining 
debts" 2. OAkk (a vessel) 3. jB (a part of the 
year); < aplu 1; -» a. II 
apiltu(m) 11 "heiress" O/jB; < aplu II; = a. 1 ?; -» 

apilu(m); f. dpiltum 'answerer' 1. Mari, jB, also 
aplum (a kind of prophet) 2. MB apil bdbi (a 
doorkeeper) 3. Nuzi (a prof.); < apdlu I 
apisamus (a type of bow)? Am.; < Hurr. 
apisasi? (a tree)? NA 
apislat (an illness) jB; — ► apisalu 
apis "like reed-beds" jB; < apu 1 
apisalu (a cripple)? jB; < PIN Apisal; -» apislat 
apitas mng. unkn. jB 
apitu(m) (a kind of fallow land) O/jB 
apkallatu f. "wise one" jB [ABGAL], also as PN; 

< apkallu 
apkallu, abgallu "wise man, expert" Bab., NA 
[ABGAL] epith. of gods; of Adapa etc.; pi. "the 
(seven) sages"; a. samni "oil (divination) 
expert"; < Sum.; > apkallatu 
apklsu "furrow" jB; < Sum. 
aplatu "heiress" jB lex. (= apiltu II); < aplu II 
aplu(m) I; f. apiltu "late" OB; < apdlu II; 

> apiltu I; — ► a. II 
aplu(m) II; st. constr. apil, apal "heir, son" 
[IBILA; j/NB, NA freq. A; NB PN occas. 
EDURU; NA PN also d IBILA] a. restu, a. 
asaredu "prime heir", a. kinu "legitimate heir"; 
apil er.seti 'son of the earth', desig. of date 
palm; > apiltu II, aplatu; aplutu; = a. I ? 
aplu — ► also abru IV 


aplum —* dpilu 1 

apluhtu(m) "armour" O/jB 

aplutu(m) "status of heir; inheritance, estate" 

O/jB [IBILA]; < aplu II 
app. . . also = ana p. . . 

appadan "pillared hall, apadana" NB; < OPers. 
appadetu — ► uppadetu 
appahu, a(b)bahu - "branches" jB lex. 
appan in PN for ana pan (— » pdnu I) 
appanannu (a metal object) Am.(Mit.); < Hurr. 
appdni —* appatu II 
appannu (a part of a building, portico) Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; — ► appatu 
appanum I (a pulse, phps.) "chick-pea" Mari 
appanum II (a bird) Bogh.; -» abbunnu 
apparritu; pi. apparrdtu "tufted hair, strand of 

hair" jB; — ► apparru 
apparru, happarru; f. apparritu "with tufted 

hair" O/jB; MB as PN; (desig. of pig, sheep); 

— ► apparritu 
apparu(m), jB also ippdru; pi. m. & f. "reed-bed, 

marsh" [AMBAR], NA also "reed(s)"; qan a. 

"reed"; fish, birds simat a. "belonging to the 

marshes" [ME.TE AMBAR.RA]; NB rab a. 

"marsh overseer"; < Sum. 
appatdn — ► appatu II 
appatis "as with a bridle" jB; < appatu II 
appatu(m) 1 "tip" NB (of metal implements); 

appatu(m) II; NA pi. once appdni "bridle, rein" 

Bab., M/NA [NA (KUS.)PA; AB] j/NB, NA 

mukil appdti 'bridle-holder', "chariot driver"; 

also jB lex. appatdn du. (a wooden object)?; 

> appatis 
appatu in bit a. "portico" jB (= bit hildni); 

< Akkadization of appannu ? 
appatu —» also appatu l.II; appu 
appis conj. "since, given that" OA, OB, jB lex.; 

applta f. du. "nostrils"? jB of ape's snout; 

appitti "likewise; just as" NB, also ana appittu; 

< ana I + pitti 
appu(m) f. "nose" Bab., M/NA [KIR4] 1. liter.: 

"nose", also du., of person, animal; "beak" of 
bird; res a. "tip of the nose"; hehen a., numb a. 
"soft parts of the nose"; nahlr a., pilis a. 
"nostril"; libbi a. "nasal cavity"; birit a. "nasal 
septum"?; dur a. '"wall of the nose', cheek"; 
hasarti a. "nasal mucus"; sdr a. "breath" 
2. idioms: labdn a. (a gesture of prostration); a. 
qadddulquddudu (a gesture of grief); Mari a. 
mahdsum (a gesture of distress); OB a.-su 



arahu(m) I 

kasddum "to defeat" s.o.; sibit a. "moment" 
3. transf.: "tip" of tongue, finger, penis, beard; 
"extremity" of shapes, objects etc.; "rim" of 
vessel; "crown" of tree; "fringe" of garment; 
"point" of land, "causeway, bund"; MB 
wooden "stake"; > appis; appatu I; appitd 

appudetu —» uppadetu 

appultu — ► uppultu 

appuna, jB also appunndma, Bogh., Am. also 
appundna "moreover" OAkk, OA, O/jB 

apputtu(m) I, apputum ~ "please; it is urgent" 
(interj.) O/MA, OB, jB lex.; -► a. II ? 

a(p)puttum II (or abbuttum, dblputtum) ~ 
"difficult situation" OA; = a. I ? 

apru(m) in aprussa "with head covered" OB of 
woman; < aparu 

apru —» also abru II 

aprusu (a plant) jB, NA as drug; oil, seed, flour 
of a. 

apsammilakku —* apusammikku 

apsasu(m); f. apsasdiitu(m) 1. (an exotic bovid) 
2. (a myth, animal with the body of a cow), 
"sphinx" OAkk, O/jB as figurine; jB(Ass.) of 
bull-colossus; [(MUNUS.)AB.ZA.ZA]; < Sum. 

apsu(m) "(cosmic) underground water" Bab., 
NA [ABZU(=ZU.AB)] 1. lit., as home of fish, 
location of foundations; kdr a. "quay of the a." 
(a ritual place) 2. "(deities of) the apsu" 3. (a 
primeval deity) 4. NA ? , NB (a water tank in 
temple) 5. j/NB bit a. (a part of the temple) 
[E/eS.abzu]; < Sum. 

apsitum "agreed allocation" OB of division of 
land, "contingent" of troops; < Sum. 

apsu —» absu II 

aptu(m); pi. apatu "window, window opening" 
Ass., O/jB [AB] in house, NB in sluice; OB ina 
pi a. naddnum, madddum "to pay in the house 
of the recipient"; DN d Kilili sa apdti, abdti; 
"niche of dovecot"?; a. uzni "ear-hole" O/jB; 
< Sum.; > apdnis 

apu(m) 1, abu "reed-bed; reeds (coll.)" Ass., 
O/jB [GlS.GI]; apukka "to your reed-bed"; qan 
a. "marsh-reed"; sah a. "wild boar" (— ► 
sahapu); hashur a. (a plant); > apis 

apu II "hole, opening" in the ground NA rit. 

apu III (a leather object)? jB 

apu 1, abu "veiled" Bab. of eyes; < apu III 

apu II (a spiny plant) jB 

apu III, abu "to become veiled, cloudy" jB med. 
G of eyes; > apu 1; ipitu 1 ; upu I 

apu — ► also wapum 

apuhhu ~ "fear" jB 

apurugis mng. unkn. NB 

ap(u)sammikku(m), apsammakku (a geomet- 
rical shape) O/jB [AB.ZA.MI]; < Sum. 
dputtum —» apputtum II 
apfltu(m) (a plant) jB 
aqappu —* agappu 
aqarhu (a piece of jewellery) Am.(Mit.) of 

coloured stones; < Hurr. 
aqartu — ► waqrum 
aqdru — ► waqdrum 
aqdamatum "near bank" Mari of a river; 

< W.Sem.; opp. — ► ahardtum 
aqdamum "former time" OB; < W.Sem.; — ► 

aqqabu; pi. aqqabdni "remainder"? NA of 

textiles; < Aram. 
aqqullakku — ► akkullakku 
aqqulldnu — ► akkulldnu 
aqqullu — ► akkullu; anqullu 
aqrabu "scorpion" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 
aqru —» waqrum 
aqupu — ► uqupu 
ar~ "forest" jB lex. 
ara "earth, land" NB lex.; < Aram. 
arabanu, ar(i)bdnu (a bird) jB; = arabu ? 
arabu, arabua 1. (an edible water-fowl) 

[ARA4.BU.MUSEN] (-► arabanu) 2. (a plant) 

jB; < Sum.? 
ar'abu (or ar'ibu) (a plant) jB lex. 
arabua —» arabu 

araddu, arantldu "wild ass" jB; < W.Sem. 
ar(a)d-ekallutu "palace service" NB [LU.lR.E. 

GAL- ]; < wardum + ekallutu 
arad-sarrutu "royal service" NB [LU.lR. 

LUGAL- ]; < wardum + sarriitu 
aradu —* wardum 
aradu "to serve" Am.( Syria) G "be servant of 

king D ~ G; < wardum denom. 
aradu —» also warddum 
aragubbu (a mathematical term) OB lex.; 

arahl)u(m) I, arhu "storehouse, granary" OB 

lex., jB; < Sum. 
arahhu II (a genre of Sum. songs) jB; < Sum. 
Arahsamna/u (8th Bab. month) j/NB 

[ITI.APIN(.DUg.A)]; < warhum + samnu I 
Arahtu (major canal in northern Babylonia) 

j/NB; < urhu I ? 
arahum ~ "fixed metrological ratio"? OB math. 

[A.RA.yi]; < Sum. 
arahu(m) I, occas. wardhum "to hasten" O/jB 

G (pret. irah; stat. aruh) "be urgent, hurry"; 

vent, "come quickly" D "speed up, send 

speedily"; "scare away"; in hendiad. urruhu + 

ara|iu(m) II 



vb. "do X quickly" Stn iter, "hurry (s.o./th.) 

very much"; > arhu I, arhis; urruhis; murrihu; 

— » erehu 
arahu(m) II ~ "to devour, destroy" O/jB G (a/u) 

of fire, dog "consume" opponent, life S caus. of 

G; — » erehu 
arakarum ~ "factor"? OB math, [a.rA.kAra]; 

araku(m) "to be long" [GID(.DA)] G (;'/;') of 

distance; transf. in PN of arm (idum); of time, 

patience, life, reign "be long, last long; drag on; 

be too long" D of space, time "make long, 

lengthen; be overdue"; in hendiad. urruku + vb. 

"do X at length" Dt "be protracted" S "prolong, 

extend" time; > arku, ariktu; arraku; urku; 

niuraku, mdraku; urdku 
aralas (a plant) jB lex.; < Kass.? 
arallu(m), arallu "netherworld" O/jB 

[ARALI(=E.KUR.BAD)] jB sad a. "mountain of 

the netherworld", also desig. of temple; < Sum. 
aramanatu f. pi. ~ "lairs"? jB of wild animals 
aramanitum; pi. aramanidtum - "constant in an 

equation"? OB math.; < Sum.? 
arammu(m) ■» "causeway" Bab. "ramp" (for 

siege); "embankment, bund" of canal; — ► 

armu III 
aramu, jB also eremu "to cover" Bogh., jB 

G (///) "cover with" (= 2 ace), drum 

with skin, object with gold; "place (tablet) in a 

(clay) case"; ext., bodily parts; of cloud "cover" 

moon, planet; of smoke "veil" face; transf. 

"cover" s.o.'s face etc. with radiance, gloom etc. 

D "cover up"; > armu I; ndramu; ermu; 

erimtu II, urindu; tdrimu; OA, OB — » 

haramum 1 
arandu — » araddu; arantu 
aranis "like eagles" jB [Tlg.MUSEN]; < eru I + 

-an + -is 
aranmt — » ardnu I 
arantu, arandu ( a kind of grass) jB 
arantu — » also araddu 
aranu I, NB also aranmt, arranu f. "chest, 

cashbox, coffin" j/NB of wood, stone 
aranu(m) II "to be guilty" G Am. stat. only 

D Mari "blame"; < arnu denom.? 
arapsannu (a precious object)? Am.(Mit.); 

arapu — » erepu 
ardeju — » wardqum 
arararu — » araru I 
ararathu (a tree) jB lex.; < Hurr.? 
ararihuru (a functionary) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arari(y)anu (a plant) M/jB med. 

ararratu "female miller, grinder" MB 
[MUNUS.AR.AR (-► te'ittu)]; < aranu 

ararru(m) "miller, grinder" Bab. [(lO.)Ar.Ar 
(-* te'inu)]; OB bit a. "mill"; < Sum.; 
> ararratu, ararrutu, driru 

ararrutu "work of a miller" jB; < aranu 

araru I, araru, arararu (a plant) jB lex., med. 

araru II (a word for granary) jB lex. 

araru III (a male prostitute)? jB lex. 

araru I subst. "curse" jB, NA; < araru II infin. 

araru(m) II "to curse; insult" OAkk, Bab., 
M/NA G (a/u) "curse" s.o./, enetaml 
arratam a. "curse s.o. with a curse"; > arru I, 
ariru 1 ; arratu, erretu I; araru I; erreru 

araru(m) III, hardru "to be convulsed" Bab. 
G (ulu, pres. also i'arru/ar) [UR4] of human 
beings, demons, animals, earth(quake) 
"tremble, shake", lit. "suffer cramp, be 
convulsed"?; med., of parts of body (freq. 
hardru, different word ?); of sea, rivers "be 
rough, muddy" Gtn iter. D ~ "stir up, frighten"; 
om., med. in stat. of parts of body "suffers 
cramp, convulses" Dt ~ "be stirred up, 
convulsed" N ingress, "begin to convulse"? 
Ntn iter, of N and G [UR4.UR4]; > ariru 3; 
arurtu; tdruriP; the verbs araru III, ereru and 
hardru cannot yet be differentiated in every 
case; — ► also tardru 

araru — ► also arard 1 

arasu(m) 1. OB (a container for salt)? 2. NA 
mng. unkn. 

arasiyannu (a functionary) Alal. 

arassannu (a bird) Am.(Mit.); = amursdnu ? 

arasu — » warium 

ardsu — ► ereiu 1; wardsum 

arathu (a tree) jB lex.; < Hurr.? 

arattu; f. arattltu "excellent", liter, '(coming) 
from Aratta' j/NB of seats, daises, land; of a 
mark on the exta; < PIN + -1 

arazallu — » arzallu 

arazapanatasu (a functionary) NB; < OPers.? 

araziqqu (part of a waggon) jB lex. 

arbd -* erhd 

arballu "sieve" NB; < Aram. 

arbanu (a plant) jB lex. 

arbdnfl — ► arabdnu 

arbasitu (a type of pot) MB 

arba'u(m); f. arbattu "four" after kibrdtu(m) 
"the edges" (of the world) OAkk; also 
0/jB(lil.) arch, for erbu, f. erbettu [LIMMU]; -► 

arhe, arbvt — » erbe 

arbiHu — ► erbesu 

arbu(m) I 



arbltum, arbium -* anvium 
arbu(m) I, OB phps. warbum "waste, uncul- 
tivated" Bab., of meadow (ugdru); = harbu I ?; 

> arbutu I 

arbu II "fugitive, runaway" Nuzi, jB; < nerubu; 

> arbutu II 

arbu —* arwium; erbu 

arbutis "into barren land" jB; < arbutu I 

arbutu I "desolation" M/jB [(MUNUS.)KAR- ] in 

a. suluku "to make desolate, lay waste"; < arbu 

I > arbutis 
arbutu (m) II "flight, rout" O/jB, of army, person 

in a. aldku "to take flight"; status of a fugitive; 

< arbu II 

ardabu (a measure of capacity, ~ 56 litres) NB; 

< Aram, or OPers.? 

ardadillu, artatillu, astatillu (a plant) M/jB lex., 

med. [u.aS.tal.tAl] 
ardadu~ "thief jB 
ardananu ~ "phantom, double" of a dead person 

M/jB med.; —* andundnu 
ardat lilt —> lilium 
ardatu —* wardatum 
ardis — ► artis 
ardu —* wardum 
ardutu —* wardutum 
arebu —* erebu II 
argabu, arkabu, erkabu (a bird) jB lex. 

[argab.MuSen]; < Sum. 
argamannu "purple" j/NB, NA [SIK.ZA.GIN. 

SA5], of textiles; Bogh. "tribute" 
arganum, argannu, hargdnum (a conifer, its 

resin) O/jB esp. med.; — ► margdnum 
argibillu (a wooden structure)? jB lex.; < Sum. 
arginnum (a commodity) OAkk(Susa) 
argukkum, argugu (an agricultural implement, 

phps.) "roller" O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
arha "every month" NB [iti(.a)(.Ta)(.am/a')]; 

< warhum 
arhdlum —* warhdlum 

arhanu, erhdnu 'monthly ...'? jB lex. 1. "green, 
unripe date" 2. (an intestinal disorder); 

< warhum + -an + -i ? 

arhis, urhis, OB occas. warftis "quickly, hastily" 

Ass., O/jB; < arhu I 
arhisam(ma) — * warhisamma 
arhitum — ► warhitum 
arhu(m) I; f. aruhtu "fast, quick" O/jB, NA; in 

OB ext. epith. of kakkum; jB(Ass.), NA of 

copper, bronze; < ardhu I; > arhis 
arhu(m) II f. "cow" O/jB [(gu 4 .)Ab]; -» a. Ill 
arhu(m)III f. "half-brick" O/jB [SIG 4 .Ab]; = 

a. II? 

arhu — * also arahhu I; urhu I; warhum 
arhussu "every month, monthly" j/NB [m- ]; 

< warhum + -ut + -su 
aria — ► erium; iria 
aribdnu —* arabdnu 
aribanu (a plant) jB lex. 
aribls -* eribis 

aribu (a garment) MB 

aribH —> also erbu 

ar'ibu —> arabu 

aridni -* alidni 

aridu 1. "perpendicular"? of marks on exta jB; 

< warddum 2. mng. unkn. NB 
arihu, aruhu (a plant) jB lex., med. 

ariktu 1. (a kind of spear) jB [Gl5.GJD.DA]; pi. 

arkdtu 2. "length" jB ext., comm. 3. (a wind 

instrument) jB; < arku 
arimanu (a kind of axe)? jB lex. 
arinnu "well" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
aripse (an agricultural implement) Nuzi; <Hurr. 
ariru (or ariru, ariru) 1. (a priest uttering 

curses)? NB; < araru II 2. (an epith. of fire) jB 

3. (a weapon) jB; < araru III 
ariru "miller" Bogh. lex.; < aranu 
arisutu "agricultural tenancy" NA; < eresu I 

drittu — ► wdrittum 
aritu(m) I, eritu "pregnant (woman)" Bab., NA 

[MUNUS.PES4] also of animal; a. samni 

"pregnant with oil" (a plant); < aru IV 
aritu(m) II 1. Ass., M/NB "shield"; of leather, 

wood, metal; NA LU (=sal) a. "shield- 
bearer"; on chariot 2.jB (syn. of door) 3.JB 

(desig. of planet Venus) 
aritu III (a knife, dagger) jB lex. 
ariydtu — ► eriydtu 
arka —> warka; warki 
arka ~ "henceforth" MB; < warkum ? 
arkabinnu(m) 1. Bab. (kind of door, phps.) 

"half-door", also dalat a. 2. Nuzi (a festival; a 

month); < Hurr.? 
arkabu (a type of decoration) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arkabu — ► also argabu 
arkana — ► warkdnum 
arkanis, arkdnuS adv. "back; later, subsequently" 

j/NB a. tdru "to return"; < wark(a) + -an + -is 
arkdnu —> warkdnum 
arkdnus — ► arkanis 
arkat — * warkat 
Arkattu —* Urkitum 
arkaldtu —* warkatum; ariktu 1 
arkdtu —* warkitum B 




arkdtu — > warkltum B 
ArkayTtu — > Urkltum 
arki — > viwte; warfc/ 
arkilla (an animal figure)? jB lex. 
arkinisu "afterwards" NB; < warki 
arkis adv. "back" jB in a. tdru "to return"; 
"behind" in pdnis u arkis; < warkum; Ass. — > 

arkisi "thereafter" NB for arklsu; < warki 
arkita — > warkitam 
arkitu — > warkltum 

arku(m), NB also oste "long" [GID(.Da)], of 
objects, time; "tall" of people; jwzm arfcwft< "long 
life"; MB ana a. nadu "to put off; < ardku; 
> arraku, ariktu 
arku — > also warte; wart; 
ar&w — > viw&wm 

Arkuzzi (a month) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arma(h)hu — » marmahhu 
arma(n)nis "like an apricot?" jB(lit.); < armannu 
armannu(m), armanu, ramannu, OB also 
arwdnum "apricot 7 (tree)" O/jB [GIS-HASyUR. 
KUR.RA]; jB, branch used as drug, kernel used 
as perfume 
armarru — > azmaru 
armasitu (a pottery vessel) MB 
armatum (metal sheeting or plating) of copper 

on door OAkk(Sum.); of gold, as decoration 

armaya, *armu\ f. armltu "Aramaic" NA of 

scribe, document etc. 
armedu (a plant) jB lex. 
armltu — > armaya; arwium 
armu I "covered" jB of weapon; of tablet 

"enclosed" in envelope (-» hardmum I); 

< ardmu 
armu II ~ "mountain goat" M/NA, M/jB hunted; 

as decoration; NA kaqqad a. "goat's head 

armu III jB lex. = arammu ? 
armu — > armaya; arwium 
armutu "desolation" jB lex. 
arnabtu(m) "female hare" O/jB; OB Arnabatum 

as fPN; < arnabu 
arnabu(m), annabu; pi. f. "hare" OAkk, O/jB; 

NA as PN; > amabtu 
arnu(m), O/jB also annu "guilt, fault; penalty" 

[NAM.TAG.GA] 1. (secular) "fault", (religious) 

"sin"; a. patdru, a. pasdru "to undo, forgive 

sins"; bel a., sa a. "culprit, sinner"; Am. awll a. 

"evil-doer" 2. "penalty, punishment", a. 

emedulnasu "to impose/suffer punishment"; 

OA ana a. nltaddnum "to subject s.o. to 

punishment" 3. Mari a. turrum "transfer 
responsibility" onto s.o.; > ardnu II 
arnurheli (a prof.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arpa(n)nu (a kind of house)? Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
arpu — > erpu 
arqu — > warqum 
arqutu "greenness, freshness" Bogh., M/jB 

[SIG7]; < warqum 
arr... also = ana r... 

arrabu(m), arrabur, arrapu; f. arrabtu ~ 
"dormouse"? Bab. [PES.(gis.)ur.ra]; rit., skin 
of dormouse 
arraku(m) "very long, tall" Bab., O/MA; used as 

pi. of — > arku 
arrdnu — > ardnu I 
arrapsatum f. pi. (a social class of women)? 

arrapu — > arrabu 

arraqu "very green" jB; < wardqum 
arrasabattu — > arsabu 
arrdsum — > erresu 

arratu(m) "curse" OAkk, OA, M/jB [AS] a. 

ardru "to curse s.o. (with a curse)"; a. Id 

napsuri "unliftable curse"; NB a. Hani "one 

cursed by the gods"; < ardru II; -» erretu I 

arratu pi. tant. "brand mark" on the hands of 

temple slaves NB 
arra'u "on the ground"? NB of goose 
arriatum in sa a. mng. unkn. OB lex. 
arris (a bird) jB om. 
arru I "cursed" jB lex.; < ardru II 
arm II (desig. of sheep) jB lex. 
arru(m) III "decoy bird" M/NB; > arkitu 
arru(m) IV (a weapon) OB, jB lex. 
arrurum (a textile or garment) OB; -» fiarlru ? 
arrutu "role as decoy" NB; < arru in 
arsannu, arsdnu — > arzdnu 
arsasu(m) (a mountain bird) OB 
arsikku (a kind of millet)? jB lex.; < Sum.? 
arsu ~ arzdnu NA lex. 

arsuppu, ersuppu 1. "carp" M/jB [GU4.UD.KU6]; 
qulipti a. "carp scales"; mlli a. "carp flood" 
2. (a cereal, phps.) "einkorn" M/jB, NA 
[SE.ESTUB]; miris a. "einkorn broth" 3. (a kind 
of apple)? jB lex. 
arsabu, arrasabattu; pi. f. (an agricultural 

implement)? NB 
arsatum — > ersetu 

arsammaya (a group or organization) NB 
arsatum f. pi. 'what is cultivated', "barley" OA 

[GIG]; < ersu II Ass. 
arsu — > arsatum; ersu II; warsum 
arsuzuzil (a drug) MB; -» zuzillu 




artama (or artdwa) "blessed state" NB; 
< OPers. 

artamasse mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

artartena (a type of textile) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

artartennutu (a special treatment of textiles) 
Nuzi; < Hurr. 

artatillu — > ardadillu 

artdwa — > artama 

artltu — > hartltum 

artu, astu "branches, foliage" j/NB; < aru I 

artu — > also uptu 

artis (or ardis) adv. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

aru(m) I, eru(m), harum "branch, frond" O/jB 
[PA] of date palm, tamarisk, trees; "stalk" of 
plant; > artu 

aru II (a type of wool) jB lex. 

aru III "hide" of ox O A 

aru(m) I "result" Bab. math. [a.RA] 1. "product" 
of multiplication 2. "factor, multiplier" (-» 
aldku G 6) 3. "ready reckoner, numerical table, 
astronomical ephemeris"; < Sum. 

aru II "granary, storehouse" OA, jB lex. 

aru(m) III "to vomit" O/jB G (pres. i'arru) 
[BURU8(=HAL)] Gtn iter, of G S med. "make 
vomit" with feather 

aru(m) IV, eru "to be(come) pregnant, conceive" 
Bab., NA G (('/(') [PES4] of animal, human; with 
child (= ace.) D "make pregnant" jB S caus. of 
G "impregnate" N Ug. = G ?; > arltu I; mem; 
erutu II; uru VI; aru I 

aru V "hungry" jB lex. 

aru VI, eru "to cut off Bab. G (ulu ?) NB 
"prune, lop" date palm D (urru(m), j/NB 
murru) 1. OB of goddess "sever" (the 
umbilical cord)? of king 2. jB of meteor "cut 
short, stop" luminous display 3.JB of enemy, 
flood "ruin" harvest 4. NB ~ G Dt pass, of D 4; 
> urru I, uru II, muwarrltum; tdrltu II 

aru — > also erru II 2; eru I-HI; warum II 

aru I, mdru "fish spawn" jB lex.; < am IV 

aru(m) II "warrior" jB lex.; -» ayyaru II 

aru — > warum 

arugimanum "legal claim" OAkk, OB usu. pi.; 
< ragdmu 

aruhu — > arihu 

arullu (an ornament) Qatna, in necklace 

arullu — > also urullu I.II 

arunu (a plant) jB lex. 

aruppu "armpit" jB; -» uruppum 

aruratu — > yaruru 

arurtu, jB also arustu ~ "famine, hunger" O/jB 
of land, of individuals; < ardru III 

arum ~ "outlet of a canal" jB 

arurutu — > yarurutu 

arustu — > arurtu; warsum 

arusu — > amussu 

aruthu — > uruthu 

arutu ~ "mountain" jB lex.s 

arutu(m), erutu "(clay) pipe" O/jB for libations, 

over grave 
arutu — > erutu I 
arwdnum — > armannu 

arwium, arwdm, armA "male gazelle" OAkk, 
O/jB; OAkk, OB as PN; OB also fPN 
Arwlmltum; OAkk also Arbium, Arbum, 
arzallu(m), arazallu l.jB (a plant) 2. j/NB (a 
stone) as jewellery; in mag. 3. OA (an 
arzanikkatu (a plant) jB 

arzanu, later arsdnu, NB arsannu, Nuzi 
arlnzannu "barley-groats" [AR.ZA.NA]; — > arsu 
arzatu I (a container) Nuzi 
arzatu II, arzazu (a plant) jB lex. 
asa'Hu, asa'ittu, NA alisltu; pi. asdydtu, NA 
asi'dtu, asdtu, esdydtu, alisitdte "tower" M/NA 
of fortification wall; "pyramid" of bodies or 
heads on the battlefield; — > isittu I 
asakkis, asakkis "like tabooed" jB; 

< asakku II 
asakku(m) I, asakku (an evil demon) O/jB 
[Azag(=A.PA)]; (also disease caused by a. 
demon); < Sum. 
asakku(m) II "taboo" OA, O/jB 

[AZAG(=KU.AN)] esp. a. akdlu "to break a 
taboo"; ( reserved for a god or king); M/jB 
bit a. "forbidden building, sanctum"; < Sum.; 
> asakkis 
asallu(m) f. 1. (a copper vessel) O/jB, M/NA 

2. (a stone) jB lex. 
asdmu — > wasdmum 
asanitu; pi. asanidtu (an oleiferous plant) MA in 

perfume recipes 
asanum "bear-like"? OA, OB as PN; < asu II 
asaqu ~ "to strengthen" or "raise up"? jB G (('/(') 
asarru I (an archit. feature) NB, bearing 

inscription; — > a. II 
asarru II, asarru (a type of lit. document) NA; 

= a. I? 
asarum (a class of person) Mari 
asdru — ► eseru II 
asatum — > asu II 
asatu(m) "female doctor" O/jB [Mari 

MUNUS.A.ZU]; < asu I; -» asltu 
asdtu — > also asdtu 







ashar, ashar (a kind of stone) jB lex., med. 

[SIM.BI.SIG7.SIG7] as drug; Bogh. -♦ ishar 
asidu "heel" jB of human, also du.; "heel" of 

shoe; astr. 'heel' (lowest part) of constellation 
asikilla "holy water" jB lex.; < Sum. 
asiqatu mng. unci. NB lex. 
asirtu "female captive" jB, also OB fPN 

Aslratum; < aslru I 
asiru(m) I; pi. aslru "captive, prisoner of war" 
O/MB, MB(Alal.), Am., Ug.; as PN, also MA; 
OB bit a. "prison"; < esiru II; > asirtu; asirutu 
asirum II (or azlrum) (an object) OA 
asirutu "captivity" j/NB in a. aldku "to go into 

captivity"; < aslru I 
asisu (a word for copper) jB lex. 
asltu "female physician" NB in PN; -♦ asdtu 
asltu -♦ also asa'ltu 
askdru -♦ uskaru 

askuppu(m), askuppatu(m), NA aksuppu; pi. m. 
& f. "(threshold) slab" Bab., NA [NA4.I.DIB] 
usu. of stone; transf. part of a chariot; part of 
irrigation device; part of the lung 
askuttu -♦ askuttu 
aslis "like sheep" jB; < aslu I 
aslu I "ram; sheep" jB as sacrifice; > aslis 
aslu II f. (a special cubit measure) jB, NA; ubdn 

a. "finger (i.e. subdivision) of a. cubit" 
asmatu pi. tant. (a type of horse trappings)? jB 
asmfdu (a garden plant) j/NB 
asmis "in a fitting manner" j/NB, a. suluku "to 

make suitable, adorn"; < wasmum 
asmu -♦ wasmum 
asnan -♦ asnan 

asnu, assa(n)nti, NB also issanu "(date) from 
Dilmun" j/NB [TILMUN(=NI.TUK).KI]; lex. also 
"(copper) from Dilmun" 
aspastu; pi. asupasdtu ? "lucerne" NB; < Iran. 
aspastua "fodderer" NB; < Iran. 
aspatu in bit a. mng. unkn. NB 
aspu — » waspum 
asqdru -* uskaru 
asqiqu (a bird) jB lex. 
asqiqu -♦ asgigti 

asqubbitu(m), asqumbittu, asqubbittu, 

islsqubbltu "hump" Bab., of cattle, camels; jB 
om. of deformed foetus 
asqudu, asqudu(m) OAkk, O/jB, NA [PES.TUM. 
TUM.ME] 1. (a rodent); as PN 2. (a kind of 
snake); > asquddnum 
asqumbittu -♦ asqubbltu 
asru mng. uncert. NB 
ass. . . also = ana s. . . 

assammu(m), ansammum, assammu; pi. m. & f. 

"goblet, drinking vessel" OAkk, Bab. 
[AN.ZA.AM] of copper, silver, cedarwood; 

< Sum. 
assannu — » asnCt; assinnu 
assanu — » asnu 
assaru ~ "charioteer" jB 
assastaranni (cloth streamers on fly- whisk) 

Am.; < Hum 
assinnu(m), isinnu/H, Bogh. assannti 1 , lex. also 

assinnatu ~ (male cultic prostitute) O/jB, Alal., 

assinnutum (role of assinnum) OB in a. 

epesum "to act as an assinnum" 
assu -♦ asu I 

assukku "sling-stone" Susa, jB 
assurri, OB also ussurre(ma), assurri, Am. 

assurri "(if) perchance" (of undesirable 

eventuality), "hopefully ... not ..." OA, OB, 

Am.; before neg. or proh. "on no account 

should ...";< ana I + surri 
asu(m) I, OA also asum, Bogh. assu "myrtle" 

[(GIS/SIM.)AZ; Man also GIS.A.AZ, GIS.A.ZU; 

j/NB, NA SIM.GIR] for incense; saman a. "oil 

of myrtle" as drug 
asu(m) II; pi. f. "bear" O/jB [az]; as PN, also f. 

Asatum; < Sum.; > asdnum 
asu(m) I "physician" [(lu.)a.ZU; OAkk in PN 

also A.zUg] of humans, animals; for eyes; MA 

a. sa betdnu (a kind of superintendent); NB ~ 

"expert"; < Sum.; > asdtu; asutu; -♦ azugallatu; 

azugallu; azugallutu 
asu(m) II, esu 1. (a wooden part of the loom) 

OAkk, O/jB, Nuzi 2. (part of a door) jB lex. 
asu -* also azd I 

asumatanu (a bird) jB; < asumatu + -an ? 
asiimatu (a part of the plough) jB lex.; 

> asumatanu? 
asumittu(m), NA also usumittu, usmittu; pi. 

asuminitu(m) "inscribed slab" Bab., NA of 

stone, metal; carved relief; as boundary stone, 

stele, foundation document 
asumu(m) "stele"? NA; Mari as DN ? 
asupasdtu — » aspastu 
asuppu; pi. f. ~ "out-building, annexe" M/NB; 

also bit a.; -♦ asuptu 
asuptu = asuppu ? NB 
asurrakku "subterranean waters" jB; transf. of 

deeply laid water conduit; < Sum. 
asurru(m) "lower course, footing" of wall Bab.; 

plastered, lined with slabs, repaired; transf. (a 

part of the exta); < Sum. 
asutum (a kind of cloth)? OB 




asutu(m) "profession of physician; medical skill" 

Bab., NA; < asu I 
asabu -♦ wasabum 
asappu "pack animal" NA 
asdpu — ♦ wasabum 
asarru(m) (or azarru(m)) (a kind of clock)? jB 

asdru — ♦ usdru 
asltu -♦ wdsltum 
aspu — ♦ waspum 
ass... also = ana s... 
asser — ♦ seru 2 
assurri — ♦ assurri 
asu -♦ wasum 
asu — ♦ wasum 
asudu; pi. f. (a dish of food) NA; < Aram.?; -♦ 

asulimtu (a kind of bitumen)? jB lex. 
asupatu pi. ~ (reed mats) NB; <Aram.; -♦ 

suppatu II 
asuru — ♦ azuru 
asusi(m)tu, asusetu, asusu(m)tu, susimtu (a 

medicinal plant) jB; = sasumtu 
alasutu — ♦ wdsutum 
asabu — ♦ wasabum 
asagu(m), esegu (a common spiny plant, phps.) 

"camelthom" Bab., Bogh. [(GIS.)KiSli6]; issur 

a. (a small bird) 
asahhu(m) "granary, storehouse" O/jB; also bit 

a~p\. f. 
asakkis -♦ asakkis 
asakku — ♦ asakku I 
asalallu -♦ asilalfim 
asamsanis "like a dust storm" jB; < asams(utu) 

+ -an + -is 
asamsutu(m), OB also asamtutum; pi. also 

aSansatu "dust storm" O/jB [DAL.yA.MUN; 

DALHAMUN]; transf. jB medical condition, 

"storm" in the abdomen; > asamsanis 
asannu — ♦ sanannu 
asdpu — ♦ wasdpum 
asar, alisarma "straightaway" OB lex. 
asar — ♦ also asru III 
asardnum — ♦ asrdnu 
asaredu; f. asarettu, NA also (a)saressu "first 

and foremost, pre-eminent" OAkk, Bab., NA 

[SAG.KAL; once SAG.ZI; in PN also SAG, MAS] 

of god, king, official, warrior; NA of objects 

"first-class"; < asar + wedum; > asaredutu, 

asaredutu "pre-eminence" O/jB, NA [SAG. 

KAL- ] a. aldku "to take first place"; < asaredu 

asarettu, (a)saressu "crack troops" NA [SAG 
(.KAL)- ]; < asaredu 

asari "at the same place" OB, also asarima; 
< asru III 

asariklam — ♦ asraklam 

asarima -♦ asari 

asar is, jB also asris "there, thither" O/jB; OB 
istu a. "from there"; < asru III 

asarma — ♦ asar 

asarmadu -♦ sarmadu 

asarru — » asarru II 

asarsani, asarsana, asarsanilumma, MB also 
atarsani "elsewhere, to another place" Bab., 
OA; < asru III + sanu II 

asartu "waste land" jB; also atartu in sir a. (a 
type of snake); < asru III 

asaru — » asru III 

asaru(m) "to muster, review" G (alu) "check, 
take stock of animals, equipment etc.; "take 
care of; check up on" people Gtn iter, of G jB 
St jB ~ "be gathered, mustered"; > asirtu I; 
dsiru, asirtu; asru I; assaru; mdsartu; tdsertum 

asdru — ♦ also wasdrum 

asasu(m) I (a type of nest made by water fowl) 
O/jB lex. 

asasu II (a kind of moth) jB lex. 

asasu(m) III "to be distressed" OA, O/jB G (ulu; 
stat. also asus) [ZI.IR] "be aggrieved, angry"; jB 
once trans, "distress" s.o. Gtn iter, of G O/jB 
Gt ~ G OA D "grieve, distress" s.o., "torture, 
maltreat" s.o. Dtn iter, of D Dt "become 
distressed" St ~ "grieve about, pine away" 
Ntn "constantly become distressed"; > aSsisu 1 -; 
asustu; ussatu; ussusu I, ussusis 

asasu IV, esesu, hasdsu "to catch" jB G (alu) 
esp. birds; "encompass" learning ?; of flood 
"engulf? Gtn iter, of G; > dsiSu 

asatu, NA also asdtu pi. tant. 1. "reins" M/jB, 
NA of horses; mukll a. "charioteer" NA 2. jB 
lex. (a headdress); < asltu II or asutu pi.? 

asdtu — ♦ also asltu I; esltu; esu I 

asdtu — ♦ wasdtum 

asbatum (or aspatum) (an object) OAkk(Sum.) 

asbu (a tree or shrub) jB 

asbu — » also wasbum 

asbutu -♦ asubbatu 

asdanu (a medicinal plant) jB 

asdihu -♦ isdihu II 

aseratum (a type of garment) Mari 

asertu — ♦ asirtu; esertu I 

asgagu, asgugu "fight" M/jB 

asgigu, asglkiku, as/sqiqu, atgigu j/NB, NA 1. (a 
mineral, phps.) "arsenic" 2. (a plant) 




asgugu — ► asgagu 

asha(l)lum, NA ashulu (a container) of metal, 

wood or reed OAkk(Sum.), OB, MB(Alal.), 

ashappum — ► ishappu 
ashar — ► ashar 
ashaussuhhu — ► asushu 
ashulu — ► ashallum 
ashushu — ► asusfru 
asiannu — ► assiyannu 
asiarra, asiare (a class of servants) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

asibu — ► yasibum 
asibu — ► wdsibum 
as(i)lalum, asalallu; pi. asalalldtu - "decorative 

fancy work" as gift O/MB; O/jB lex. 
asiptu "sorceress, female magician" jB of witch, 

goddess; < wdsipum 
dsipu — ► wdsipum 
asiputu "exorcism" M/NB, NA [MAS.MAS- ] 

1. action, ritual of dsipu 2. desig. of prof. 

literature of dsipu; < wdsipum 
asiri, usu. Ug. pi. asiriluma (persons of a special 

status) Am., Ug. etc.; < W.Sem. 
asirtu(m) I 1. "check, inspection"; "advice"? jB, 

NA [NA.RI] 2. (a type of religious offering) 

OB; < asdru 
asirtum II "tithe" OB(N.Mes.); < eser 
asirtu — ► also asm I; esertu I 
asirtu "(female) inspector, organizer" jB; < dsiru 
asiru(m) "inspector, checker" OA, jB; < asdru 
asiruma — ► asiri 
asis (part of a chariot) OA 
asisu ~ "miserable, wretched" jB lex. 
asisu "encompassing, wise; engulfing" jB; 

< asdsu IV 

asitu I; pi. asatu "chaos, confusion in battle" jB; 

< esu I 

asltu(m) II "metal band, strap" O/MB; of door 

(pi. — ► asatu) 
asitu III ~ "midday" jB lex. 
asium "(meteoric) iron"? OA; — ► usu 
askadu, maskadu (a spiny plant) jB lex. 
Aska'ltu — ► Urkitum 
askapu(m) "leatherworker" [(LU.)ASGAB]; 

< Sum. 

askaputu(m) "leatherwork; craft of the 
leatherworker" Bab. [LU.ASGAB- ]; < askdpu 

askdru — ► uskdru 

Askayltu — ► Urkitum 

askikitu, OB basgigltum, Bogh. masgikldu (a 
bird) O/jB 

askiku — ► asgigu 

askirushu (a utensil used in pairs) Alal., Am.; 

asku — ► arku 
askuppu — ► atkuppu 
askuttu(m), askuttu [(GIS.)ASKUD(=A.SUH)] 

Bab. 1. "locking bar" for barring a door; om., 

math, "wedge-shape" 2. (an earth structure in 

fields and houses); < Sum. 
aslaktum "washerwoman" OAkk (presumed 

rdg. of [MUNUS.LU.AZLAG]); < asldku 
aslaku(m), Nuzi also aslasku "washerman; 

fuller" [OAkk, O/MB, MA LU.AZLAG; j/NB, 

NA LU.AZLAG]; < Sum.; > aslaktum, asldkutu 
aslakutu "craft of the washerman, fuller" O/jB; 

< asldku 
aslalum — ► asilaliim 
aslasku — ► asldku 

aslu(m) "rush; rope" 1. j/NB [U.NINNI5] har- 
vested; as drug; bed of rushes 2. O/jB, NA; pi. 
f. "tow rope; mooring rope" of a ship 3. Bab., 
MA "measuring line"; OB abi aslim, NB 
abaslu "surveyor"; "survey team (of 8-12 
men)" 4. Bab. (a linear measure of ~ 60 
metres), st. abs. asal "1 rope( -length)" 5. Nuzi 
~ "field" 

aslu (a garment) Nuzi 

asluhhe; pi. asluhhena adj. mng. unkn. Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

aslukatu (a kind of rush) jB lex. 
aslu(k)katu(m), asru(k)katu ~ "storeroom" Bab. 

[E.US.GID.DA] for grain; "lobby, hallway" in 

aslukku "storeroom" jB 
asmaru — ► esmaru 
asmetu ~ "dust storm" jB lex. 
asnan, asnan "grain, cereals" O/jB [ d §E.TIR] as 

generic term; also as DN 
asni adv. mng. unkn. Am.; < Hurr.? 
asnu(m) (a bowl) OB(N.Mes.); jB in asni ini 

"eye socket" 
asnugallu(m), isnugallu(m), gisnugallu(m) ~ 

"alabaster" Bab., M/NA [NA4.GIS.NUn(/NU 

occas.).GAL] as raw material; for building; for 

sculpted items^'in mag. 
asnugallum — ► also assunugallum 
aspaltu "social inferior" jB; < sapdlu 
aspatum — ► asbatum 
aspu — ► yaspu 
asqaru — ► uskdru 
asqiqu — ► asgiku 
asqudanum "like an a. (rodent)" OB as PN 

only; < asqudu 
asqudu — ► asqudu 




asqulalu(m), isquldlu 1. O/jB (a weapon, phps.) 

"lasso" 2. O/jB "whirlwind" 3. jB (a marine 

plant) [U.AN.KI.NU.SA; U.LAL]; <suqallulu 
asrd — ► esrd 
asraklam, asarikiam, OA asrakam "there, in 

that very place" OA, OB; < asm III + -kiam 
asranu(m), asardnum "there, that very place" 

OB, Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug., jB also 

analistulina a.; < asm III + -dnum 
asratu "heaven" jB; < asm III 
asrdtu — ► esertu I 
asris I "humbly" M/jB; < wasrum 
asris II M/jB 1. adv. "to that place, there" 2. prep. 

"to, towards", a. dini "to the place of 

judgement"; < asm HI 
asris — ► also asaris 
asru(m) I; f. asirtum "taken care of OB in PN; 

< asdru 

asm II (a disease of the head) Bogh., jB; 

< Sum.? 

asru(m) III; OA gen. with pron. suff. isri-\ pi. m. 
& f., OAkk asaru, Am. asrdni "place, site" [KI] 

1. ana asrisu tdrulturru "to return 
(intrans./trans.) to his/its (former) place" = "be 
restored, restore"; "place, abode"; pi. "(holy) 
places, (divine) abodes"; "region"; "building 
site, land"; "the earth"; Bogh. in Hitt. rit. "part" 

2. st. abs. OA, OB asar isten "in a single 
place"; Bab. asar . . . asar . . . "here and there, in 
one place ... in another ..." (— ► asarsani) 3. in 
st. constr. as prep, with infin. "where it is 
possible/suitable/necessary" to do; Nuzi 
"from, with, to" (s.o.) 4. as conj. with subjunct. 
"where, where ... to"; OB also occas. "as soon 
as"?; OA "provided that" 5. OB in sar inanna 
"right now"; > asari, asaris, asris II; asrdnu; 
asartu, asratu; asraklam; asarsani; asaredu 

asm — ► also wasrum 

asru(k)katu — ► aslukkatu 

ass. . . also = ana s. . . 

assa, assu conj. "because, inasmuch as, seeing 

that" NB; < an(a) I + sa; as prep. — ► assum 
assdbu — ► wassdbum 
assdbutu — ► wassdbutum 
assalluhlu (a functionary)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
assanu — ► assunu 

assaru ~ "expert" jB, epith. of temu; < asdru 
assattali — ► satti 
assatu(m); st. constr. O/jB also asti, j/NB freq. 

alti "wife" [DAM]; occas. also of second "wife"; 

a. ahdzu/ezebu "to marry/divorce a wife"; 

> assutu 
assidti — ► sidti 

assisu in Id a. ~ "unruly, disordered"? jB lex.; 

< asdsu III ? 

assiyannu (desig. of garment) MA, Am., Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; = massiyannu ? 
assu — ► assa; assum 

assultu (a plant) jB lex., equated with sulutu, 

assum, Bab. also assu, OA assumi, NB occas. 
assa, assut "because (of)" Bab., O/MA 
1. prep.: "because of, for the sake of s.o.,; 
OA, O/jB assum(i) klam "therefore"; O/jB a. 
mlni(m) "why?"; Bab. + infin. "so that, in order 
to"; "as for, concerning"; in comm. ~ "related 
to; derived from" [MU]; NB a. sa "because of 
the fact that" 2. conj. + subjunct.: Bab. "because 
(of the fact that)"; Mari, OA + pres. "with a 
view to, in order to"; OB occas. in reported 
speech "that"; < ana I + sumu 

assunu, NA assanu "they" (3 m. pi. pron.) 
MA(Bogh.), NA; — ► sunu 

as(su)nugallum (desig. of snake) OB mag. 

assurayitu f. adj. "Assyrian" MA desig. of 

assuru; f. assurltu(m) "Assyrian" Ass., M/jB; in 
f.: 1. DN "the Assyrian Istar" 2. jB lex. "ship 
from Assur" 3. OA as PN 

assut — ► assum 

assutu(m), Ass. assuttu "marriage, status of a 
wife" Bab., MA [DAM-,] OB ana a. ahdzum, 
Nuzi ana a. lequ, NB ana a. rasu "to take as 
wife"; ana a. naddnum "to give (a woman) in 
marriage"; < assatu abstr. 

astabarru, astebarru "lance-bearer" NB; < Iran. 

astablru — ► astaplru 

astakissu, astalikisslssu (a rodent) jB lex. 

astalu(m), lex. also estalu (a type of singer) 
O/jB; Mari pi. f. astaletum; < Sum. 

astammu, altammu "tavern, hostel" Bab., MA 
[ES.DAM]; < Sum. 

astammuni; f. astammltum "belonging to the 
tavern" OB of woman 

Astapi (a month)? Alal.; < Hurr. 

astapiru(m), astablru, OA astiplrum "slaves, 
servants, domestic staff Bab., OA 

astaru "goddess" jB; < W.Sem. 

astatillu — ► ardadillu 

aste — ► lift' 

astebarru — ► astabarru 

asti — ► assatu; isti 

astikissu — ► astakissu 

astikittisu (desig. of a horse) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 




astipirum — ♦ astapiru 

astu (a word for woman) jB lex.; < Hurr. 

astu — ♦ also artu; assatu 

astu "throne" jB; < Sum. 

asturru "gnat" jB lex. 

astuzzu, astuttu (desig. of garments) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

astu — ♦ wastum 

astutu(m) "obduracy, stiffness" OB, jB lex.; 

< wastum 
asum — ♦ asu I 

asu(m) I (a disease of the head) Bab.; sam(ml) a. 

"plant(s) for a. disease" (name of a plant); — » 

asu II ~ "living creatures" O/jB 
asu III (a kind of field)? MB 
asu(m) IV ~ "distinguished, noble" OA, jB 
asu — ♦ also asium; esu I. IV; hasu III; usu; 

wasa urn 
asu ~ "to retch" G (pres. i'ds) Gtn (itands) iter. 

asudtu — ♦ asutu 

asubbatu, asbutu "woman, wife" jB lex. 
asubu — ♦ yasibum 

asuhhennu (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
asuhu(m) ~ "pine-tree" Bab., NA [] 

as timber; zer a. "pine kernel" 
asukku(m) (a dais)? jB lex. 
asushu, ashaussuhhu, ashushu (a measuring 

vessel)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
asustu(m) "affliction, grief O/jB [(NfG.)ZI.IR; 

ext. SA5- ]; < asdsu III 
asutu; pi. asudtu (a leather strap) jB for a door; 

— » asdtu 
ata "why?" also as interj. NA, NB( Ass.) 
ata'isu, afisu ~ (a plant) M/jB lex., med. 

ataku "to be(come) bent, crooked" M/jB G (a/a) 

of parts of body D trans, "bend, twist"; 

> itku; uttuku I 
atamu — ♦ watmum 
atannu (a piece of jewellery made in pairs) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

atanu(m) f. "she-ass" OAkk, Bab., M/NA 
[M/NB EME, EME6; (ANSe.)emEs; Mart also 
EME5.ANSE]; MB, Nuzi also "mare"; jB lex. a. 
ndri (a water fowl); — » bissuru 

atappis "like a canal" jB; < atappu 

atappu(m), NA adappu f.; pi. f. & m. "(small) 
canal, ditch" Bab., NA [PA5; OB math. 
PA5.SIG]; > atappis 

atappu (a plant) jB lex. 

atarsani — ♦ asarsani 

atartu, atirtu, NA also adalirtu (a type of grass) 

jB, NA 
atartu — ♦ also asartu; watartum 
ataru mng. unkn. jB lex. 
ataru — ♦ also watrum 
ataru — ♦ addru III; watdrum 
at(')a(t)tu — » ad attu 
atatum f. pi. "layers (of reed)" Mari 
atbaru(m) (or adbaru) ~ "basalt" Bab., M/NA 

[(NA4OAD.BAR] for statuary, grindstones; 

atgigu -* asgigu 
athu pi.; OB du. athe ? "companions, partners" 

O/jB; OA as pi. of ahu I "brothers"; < ahu II; 

> athutu 

athusu, ithusu ~ "carrying-pole" (for fruit)? NA 

athutu(m) "partnership" OB, Am.; a. sakdnum 
"to establish partnership, brotherly relations" 
with s.o.; a. rdmu "to wish partnership" with 
s.o.; ana a. lequm "to accept in partnership 
(through marriage)"; < atM abstr. 

atirtu — ♦ atartu 

afisu — ♦ ataisu 

atkallusse (a functionary) NB 

atkam — ♦ aktam 

atkuppu(m), askuppu "craftsman making 
objects of reeds" Bab. [(LU.)AD.KID]; < Sum.; 

> atkupputu 

atkupputu(m) "craft of the reed worker" OB 
[(lU.)ad.KID- ]; NB as prebend; < atkuppu 

atmanu — ♦ watmanum 

atmartu (title of a goddess) jB; < amdru I ? 

atmasu ~ "stubborn" jB lex.; < amdsu ? 

atmu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

atmu — ♦ also watmum 

atmu; pi. NB atmanu ? (a wooden object) Nuzi 

atmu — ♦ also atwum 

atnannu — ♦ uatnannu 

atnannuhlu — ♦ uatnannuhlu 

atnu (or adnu) "prayer" jB 

atris "very much, copiously" M/jB; < watrum 

atru — ♦ watrum 

atruk (or atruq) (a cut of meat) NB for offer- 
ings, wr. uzu a. 

-atta — ♦ -atti 

att. . . also = ana t. . . 

atta, attu "you" (2 m. sg. pron.); — ♦ attunu; atti, 
attina; attamannu 

attadu(m) "spillway"? OB, NB ? 

attalu — ♦ antallu 

attamannu "each one; whoever you (m.) are" 
MA, M/NB, Nuzi; < atta + mannu I 




attamukarumma in a. dabdbu "to conspire"? 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
Attana, Attannaswe, Attannati (7th month) 

MB(AlaL), Nuzi; < Hurr. 
attanu(ni) — » attunu 
attartu, NA uttartu "(military) cart" M/jB, NA; 

< watdrum; — ♦ wattarum 3 
attaru — ♦ wattarum 

attassihu "paternal" Nuzi, of estate, property; 

< Hurr. 

atta'u mng. unkn. jB, desig. of monsters in 

Enuma elis 
atteru "companion" Am.(Eg.); < Hurr.; 

> atterutu 

atterutu "friendship" Am.(Mit), Nuzi, Bogh.; 

< atteru 

-atti, -atta(m) (adv. endings) (-» GAG §1 131) 
atti "you" (2 f. sg. pron.); — » atta; attimannu 
attimannu "whoever you (f.) are" jB; <atti + 

mannu I 
attina "you" (2 f. pi. pron.) O/MA, O/jB; -♦ atta 
attinasa (desig. of terrain) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
attu — ♦ atta 
attu-, Nuzi after -u also uttu- "belonging to" with 

poss. pron. suff. M/NB, Am., Nuzi, Bogh., 

Ug.; Elamtu attuka "Elam is yours"; ayyutu 

attua "which ones are mine?" 
attultu (a substance) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
attunu, NA also attanu(ni), NB also attun "you" 

(2 m. pi. pron.); — » atta 
atu I jB lex. 1. (a kind of dark wool) 2. (Sutian 

word for ~ throwing stick) 
atu(m) II, atu'u, OB, Alal., Nuzi, Ug. utu(m) 

"gatekeeper, porter" Bab., M/NA [LU.NI.DUg, 

NB wr. .GAB] NB as family name; < Sum.; 

> atutu II, atutu; — ♦ sukkal-atu 
atu — ♦ also edu I; watum 

atudu, dudn, OA etudum "wild sheep; ram" OA, 

atugu — ♦ adugu 

atuhlu (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
atulimanu, talimdnu, tulimdtu pi. tant. "both 

hands" jB; — » sutlumu; talimu 
atunu — ♦ utunu 
aturu — ♦ aduru 

atutu I (a spiny plant) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
atutum II (or ututum) "female doorkeeper" OB 

[MUNUS.NI.DU8]; < atu II 
atutu, ututum, MB(Ass.) utu'utu "function of 

gatekeeper" Bab. [LU.NI.DUg- ] of man, as 

prebend; of gods in temple; < atu II; — » sukkal- 

atu'u — ♦ at u II 

atwum, atmu "speech, word; manner of speech" 
O/jB [once KA.KA]; < awum Gt infin. 

ataru — ♦ addru III 

a'u "ferryman" O/jB [A.U5]; < Sum. 

du-* also hahu II 

a'ussu — ♦ amussu 

awarrdnum — ♦ awirdnum 

awatamulushe (an object) Am.; < Hurr. 

awatu(m), later Bab. (also occas. OB) amdtu, 
M/NA, also Ug. abutu, gen. abiti; pi. awdtum, 
amdtu, abate "word; matter" [INIM] 1. "word" 
a. qabu, a. dabdbu, poet. a. zakdru "to speak (a 
word), talk"; a. sabdtum "to 'seize the word', 
begin to speak" Mari; a. turrum "to report" 
OA, OB; OA a. qabum "to state (o.'s last) 
will"; MA a. sakdnu "to declare, make a 
statement"; of deity, king "order, command"; 
"wording" of tablet; a. libbim "thought" 
2. "legal case, lawsuit"; MA a. amdru "to settle 
a case"; a. gamrat "the case is completed"; bel 
awdtimlamdti -* belu 5 3. "matter, affair", often 
pi.; a. amdru "to investigate a matter"; a. 
napistim "matter of life"; ullld awassu etc. "it is 
not his business, he has not the right to" etc.; 

< awum; — ♦ Idmdtu 

awiharu, amileharu "plough" Nuzi [GIS.APIN]; 

as area measure (= V10 homer); < Hurr.; — » 

awilanu (a bird) jB; < awilu 
Awilatum (hypocorist. form of PN Awil-DN) 

OB; < awilu 
awilis, jB amilelis "like a human being" O/jB; 

< awilu 

awlltum, later amileltu "woman" OA, O/MB, 
Am., Nuzi, Bogh. [MUNUS]; jB lex. only; NB 
"dependent woman, slave 7 "; < awilu 

awilu(m), later amilelu, OAkk abilum, MA a'ilu 
"man" [LU; jB om., med. also NA; Bogh. om. 
ZA] "human being" (also coll.); MA 
"husband"; "person, one"; jB, Nuzi a. ana a. 
"one another"; O/jB a. ...a. "one ... the other"; 
OA, OB "free citizen", also mdrlmdru a.; 
"citizen" of PIN; as term of respect, OA, NA la 
a. "no gentleman"; OB a. Esnunna "man (i.e. 
ruler) of Esnunna"; Nuzi, NB also "slave"; a. 
ndri (an aquatic animal) jB [LU.iD]; > awilis, 
awiliitum, awiltum; amildnu, Awilatum; — » 

awllutum, later amilelutu, OA awiluttum, MA 
a' iluttu "humanity" [(NAM.)LU.Uig/i9.LU; LU- ] 
1. "mankind"; O/MB "anyone" 2. M/NB freq. 
as coll. pi. of awilu "servants, slaves, 
personnel" [Nuzi NAM.lU.lU.MES]; NB also 
"(single) slave" 3. MB "status of a retainer" 




4. OA, OB "humanity; gentlemanly behaviour"; 

< a wilu abstr. 

awiranum, amelirdnu, OB also awarrdnum 
"standing water" [jB A.NIGIN] after flood; -> 
Id' iridnu 

awiru "field" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

awitum "value (of goods)" OA, expressed in tin, 

awuin "to speak" G (pret. iwu; stat. and 2 pers. 
sg. imper. awn) OA only Gtn iter. OA 
Gt {atwum, later atmu) "speak" OA; 0/jB(lit.) 
"discuss": istilitti X a. "negotiate with X"; ana X 
a. "tell X, speak to X"; OA "order (to do"; jB itti libbiya (etc.) a. "think about" 
St l.O/jB, MA "reflect on, debate with 
o.s.", also ittilina libbi s. 2. stat., in j/NB 
coram., of words "are used, considered"; 

> dmdnti; atwum; awdtu; mutawum; mustdmu; 

awurriqanum. jB amwriqdnu 1. "jaundice" 
O/jB [jB IGI.SIG7.SIG7]; d A. deified; sam(mi) a. 
"plant for curing jaundice" 2. (a bird) OB lex.; 

< wardqum 
ayarum — ► harum 
ayya — ► ai II 

ayyabakala, (ay)ydb akall (a plant) jB lex.; 

< ayydbu 

ayyabassa (a plant) jB lex.; < ayyabtu + sal 
ayyabas "let me not be put to shame" jB (desig. 

of shoe-button)?; < bdsu I 
a(y)yabba "the sea" Mari, Am., jB; < Sum.?; 

> ayyabbltu 

a(y)yabbitu, yahhJtu f. "of the sea" (epith. of 

Istar) MA; < ayyabba 
ayyabis, yabis "in a hostile manner" O/jB, NA; 

< ayydbu 

ayyabtu "(female) enemy" jB, NA; in pi. "evil" 
gener.; < ayydbu; — ► ayyabassa 

ayyabu(m), M/jB also ydbu; pi. ayydbu, occas. 
ayyabutu "enemy" Bab., NA [(LU.)ERIM] 
"hostile" spells; usu. as subst.; > ayyabis, 
ayyabtu, ayyabutu; ayyabakala 

ayyabutu(m) "hostility" O/jB; < ayydbu abstr. 

ayyaka(m), yaka Ass. 1. "where?" as interrog. 
pron.; NA issu ayyak(a) "whence?" 2. OA 
"somewhere" 3. in rel. clause "where" 4. NA 
"how?"; <ayyu + -kam (-> GAG §1 13b); 

> ayyakameni 

ayyakamma "somewhere" OA; < ayyakam + 

ayya(k)ku(m), eyakku, ydku (a type of 

sanctuary) O/jB, M/NA [E.AN.NA] esp. of 

goddesses; < Sum.? 

ayyalatum f. "hind" OB as PN; < ayyalu I 
ayyalu(m) I, Ass. ya('a)lu "stag, deer" Bab., 

M/NA [DARA.MAS] jB qaran a. "hartshorn" as 

drug, also name of plant; > ayyalatum 
ayyalu II ~ "ally" j/NB; > yalutum 
ayyami "where?" Am. 
ayydna — > ayydnu 
ayyanis "whither, where?" Bogh. lex.; < ayydnu 

+ -is 
ayyanu(m), ydnu(m), jB also ayyinna, ayydna, 

lex. also ya'nu "where?" O/jB; "whence?" OA; 

for later usage in negation — ► ydnu; < ayyu + 

-dnum; > ayyanis, ayydnumma; ydnummis 
ayyanumma "anywhere" M/jB; < ayydnum + 

ayyarahhu (a plant) jB lex. 
ayyarahi "gold" jB lex.; < Hurr. 
ayyartu(m), yartu, NB (ay)yastu^; NA pi. iA-e- 

re-te "white coral"? Bab, NA [(NA4.)PA]; 

< ayyaru I 

ayyaru(m) I, iyarum, Ass. ya('u)ru "flower; 
rosette" Bab., M/NA l.j/NB 7 "(natural) 
flower" 2. "rosette" of stone, gold; a. pdni 
(ornament on divine image) 3. jB (ay)yar(i) Hi 
'flower of god' = "chamaeleon"? 4. in names of 
plants: a. hurdsilkaspi "golden/silver flower" 
etc.; > ayyartu, ayyaru, yaritu 

ayyaru II ~ "young man" OAkk, MB in PNs; jB 
lex.; — > dru II 

ayyaru III mng. unci. jB; in comparisons 

ayyarum — ► also harum 

ayyaru "rosette-like" NB; < ayyaru I + -;": 
> yaritu 

Ayyaru(m) (2nd Bab. month) Bab. [ITI.GU4 
(.SI.SA)]; > ayyaru 

ayyaru "bom in the month Ayyaru" MB in fPN 
Ayydritu; < Ayyaru 

ayyarunitu — ► yarurutu 

ayyasu, ydsu (a small mammal, phps.) "weasel" 
Bab.; also "(skin of) weasel 7 " used as container 
for oil; OB also PN 

ayydsi — ► ydsim 

ayyastu — ► ayyartu 

ayydtu — ► ayyu 

Ayya'utu "function of the goddess Ayya" jB; 

< Ayya (wife of Samas) abstr. 
ayyekameni "anywhere" NA; < ayyaka + -me + 

-ni ? 
ayyema — ► ayyisamma 
ayyesa — ► ayyisa 
ayyi — ► ai II 
ayyigalluhu, haigallathe (a homed animal) 

Am.(Mit.), Nuzi; < Hurr. 




ayyika "where, where to?" M/jB, Nuzi; 

< ayyikiam: > ayyikdni; ekd 
ayyikani "where to?" jB; < ayyika + -ni 
ayyikiam "where?" OB; <ayyu + -kiam (— » 

GAG §1 13b); > ayyika; ekiam; — > ai III 
ayyinna — > ayydnu 
ayyis, lex. also yis "where?; whither?" O/jB; 

< ayyu + is; > es; is; — > mes 

ayyisa(m), ayyesa "whither?" Ass., O/jB; NA 
also ana a.: < ayyu + -isam; > ayyisamma; 
esam; — > missam 

ayyisamma, OA also ayyema, Ug. ayyisamme 
"to anywhere" OA, OB, Ug.; <ayyisam + 
-mal-me II; > esamma 

ayyitu (a leather strap) for a door M/jB 

ayyitu — > also ayyu 

ayyitumma — > ayyumma 

ayyu(m), ayyu(m), jB, NA also ya'u; f. 
ayyitu(m); m. pi. ayyutu(m); f. ayydtu(m) 
"which?" usu. before subst. adi ayyi umi "till 
which day?"; after subst. me ayyuti "which 
water?"; pied. NA ya'u hitdya "what is my 
crime?": in subst. use "which (person); what 
(thing)", interrog. or indefinite; NB rel. pron. 
"which, that", NA in indir. question (— > GAG 
§180c); Bab. occas. for ayyumma; > ayyumma, 
ayyumme; ayyaka, ayyikiam etc.; ayyis etc.; 
ayydnu, ydnu etc. 

ayyu — > also ai II 

ayyu (a bird) jB lex. 

ayyumma, MB, NA also ya'umma; f. 
ayyitumma; pi. ayyutumma "any; anyone"; as 
adj. sarrum a. "any king"; as subst. "anyone"; 
MB a. sa "anyone who"; < ayyu + -ma 

ayyumme; pi. ayyuttimme "anyone" Am., Nuzi, 
Bogh. for ayyumma; < ayyu + -me II 

azabburu (or azappuru) (a plant) Nuzi, jB; — > 
azupiru ? 

aid illu — > azamillu 

azal mng. unkn. jB lex. 

azallu (a medicinal plant) O/jB [U.A.ZAL.LA/LA]; 

< Sum. 

azalum (or azdnum) (a tree) OAkk 
azalwannu (a precious stone) Qatna; for 

necklace, seal; < Hurr. 
azamillu(m), MA aza'illu; pi. f. "sack, net" 

O/MA, O/jB, Bogh.; for (transport of) straw, 

OA also du.; MB for flour 
azammu (part of a chariot) MB of gold; — > 

azamritu, azamrutu; pi. azamrdtu ~ "lance" 

M/jB held by figurine; — > azmaru ? 

azamru(m), NA zamru "fruit" OB(N.Mes.), 

azamrutu — > azamritu 
azamu — > zamu 

azangunu (a bird) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
azannu, azdnu, zdnu; pi. f. "quiver" MB, 

azannu — > also hazannum I 
azdnu — > azalum; azannu 
azappu — > asappu; zappu 
azappuru — > azabburu 
azarkiru mng. unkn. OB lex. 
azarru — > asarru 
azaru(m), azzaru ~ "lynx" O/jB [SA.A.RI.RI] 

living in marshes 
azaru ~ "to help" jB; < W.Sem. 
azazhum (a kind of offering) OB(Alal.); 

< Hurr.? 

azazu, hazdzu "to buzz" jB G (pres. i'azzaz) of 

azibatu ~ "help" jB lex.; < ezebu 
aziru "sputum"? jB 
azirum — > also asirum II 
azmaru, ismaru, armarru, azzamu "lance" 

M/NB; -> azamritu ? 
azu(m) I, hazu, asu "to sigh, gasp" O/jB G om., 

of ghost, dog, lizard; > hazu 
azu II (a craftsman)? Nuzi 
azugallatu, azungallatu "chief physician (f.)" 

M/jB, NA [A.ZU.GAL] as epith. of Gula; 

< Sum. > azugalliitu 

azugallu(m) "chief physician" O/jB [A.ZU.GAL]; 

< Sum.; > azugalliitu; — > asu I 

azugalliitu "higher medical art" jB; 

< azugall(at)u 
azukardnu — > azupiru 

azukarastum (desig. of horses) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

azukirdnu — > azupiru 

azumu (a plant) jB lex. 

azungallatu — > azugallatu 

azupiranitu f. "resembling saffron" jB lex.; 

desig. of spices 
azupiru(m), azupirdnu, azukilardnu "saffron" 

Bab. [U.HAR.SAG(.SAR)] freq. a. arqu 

"yellow"; — > azabburu ? 
azuru (or asuru) in a. pindi mng. unkn. jB lex. 
Azzalli — > Izalli 
azzamu — > azmaru 
azzaru — > azaru 
azzatu f.; Hurr. pi. also azzatena "she-goat" 

Nuzi; — > hazzatum 




azzubutum "status 
OB(Susa); <ezebu 

of divorced woman"? azzuzd -» zuzd 


ba "water" jB lex. 

bd — » also bd'um 

ba'alu(m), hdlu "to be dominant, exceptionally 

big, bright" Bab., NA G (Hi) [GUR4] of decree 

"be valid, in force"; of part of body "be 

exceptionally big"; of stars "be abnormally 

bright" D O/jB "make important, exaggerate" 

Dtn OB iter, of D; > ba'lu, ba'ulu 
ba'dlu — » also bdlu 
ba'dru — » bdru I 
ba'asu, NB he'eSu "to smell bad, be of bad 

quality" Ass., j/NB G (Hi) of dates "be rotten"; 

transf. of words, day "be bad"; NB pdn(i) b. 

"be angry", of animals "look bad" Gtn iter. 

D "make stink"; j/NB transf. "besmirch" name 

etc.; > bisu I, bi'iltu; bu'Su, buSdnu; tabdstanu 
ba'dSu — » also be' esu 
babaltu (a plant) jB lex. 
babalu - "leader" jB lex. 
babalu(m) "to carry, bring" var. of wabdlufm), 

supplies G forms for infin., ptcp., stat., NB 

pres. D all forms (except Am.) N all forms; 

>hahhilu, babbilutum; biblu, bibiltu; bibbulu; 

mubabbilum, mubabbilutum 
babanu, NB bdbanna "at the gate, outside" 

M/NB of building, courtyard; < bdbu I + -dnu; 

> bdbdnu 
babanu "outer" j/NB, NA of building, courtyard; 

< bdbdnu + -i 
babaru - "forest" jB lex. 

babbanu; f. babbanitu "excellent, very good" 

NB; < *ban-banu (-» banu I); > hahhanutu 
babbanutu ? "excellence, high quality" jB; 

< babbanu 

babbilu(m) "bearer, carrier; tenant farmer" O/jB; 
< babalu 

babbilutum "service as bearer" OB; < babbilu 

babbirru — » banbirru 

babrunnu "brown" Nuzi of horses; < Indo-Iran. 

babtu(m) I "city quarter, district" OAkk ? , Bab., 
MA [DAG.GI/GI4.A; MA, NB KA-] as 
municipal authority; mar b. "member of a city 
quarter"; < bdbu I; — » b. II 

babtu(m) II "commercial goods, merchandise 
outstanding" OA, OB [KA- ]; OB, NB - "loss, 
deficit", also astr.; < bdbu I; = b. I ? 

babu(m) I; pi. m. & f. "gate, door" [KA] 1. of 
house, temple, palace, oven etc.; "city gate" as 
administrative authority; "sluice gate"; bdb zlqi 
"air vent" 2. transf. "entrance" to marsh, to 
apsti.; "opening, outlet" of objects; of parts of 
body; ext. bdb ekalli(m) (a part of the liver) 
[ME.NI] 3. NB "item" of accounts (< Aram.?) 
4. "point of departure", esp. in pdna(m) u 
bdba(m) ul ISu 'have no beginning or end' = 
"be beyond recording, control"; > bdbdnu, 
bdbdnu; bdbtu I.II 

babu II "small child, baby" jB lex. 

badahu "to kiss" jB lex. 

badamu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

baddqu — » batdqu 

badasu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

baddum (or battum) mng. unci. Mari, desig. of 

badillum (a bird) O/jB 

badu "evening" NA in kilSalinalana b. "at 
evening"; < bidtum Ass. 

badu'itu (a garment) NB 

badiilu — » batulu 



balatu(m) II 

ba'ertu "huntress" jB; < ba'eru 

ba'eru(m), bd'iru(m) 1. "hunter; fisherman" 
Bab. [(LU.)SU.HA/#A6] 2. OB, Mari (a type of 
military auxiliary); < bdru I; > ba'ertu, 

ba"erutu "substantiation (of evidence)"? MA; 

< bdru III 

ba'erutu(m) "activity of fisherman" OB; NB as 

temple prebend; < ba'eru 
bagani "under the protection of NB; < Aram.; 

— ♦ gannu II ? 
bagarranu (desig. of a horse) MB 
bagurru (a ladle) Qatna, jB 
bahdsu — ♦ he'esu; buhhusu 
Bahir (a month) OAkk; < bahru st. abs.? 
bahmddu — ♦ barumtu 
bah re ? (a stone, phps.) "coral" jB, NA; 

< Arab.? 

bahru "boiling hot" jB; (a specific hot dish); 

< buhhuru; > bahrutu, Bahir" 1 - 

bahrutu "boiling state" jB med. in bahrussu "in 

its boiling condition, when boiling"; < bahru 
bahsum mng. unkn. OAkk as PN 
bahu I "thin" O/jB of onions; MB, NA of people 

as PN; < bahu II 
bahu II "to be thin; be scarce" jB G (pres. 

ibahhuli) D "make emaciated"; > bahu I 
bahulatu "men, troops" jB(Ass.), artificially 

differentiated from — ♦ ba'uldtu 
bahutu — ♦ bahd I 
ba'ilu; f. ba'iltu "ruler" M/jB; m. of DN in PNs; 

f. of goddess; < belu 
bd'iru — ♦ ba'eru 
ba"Itu "thing sought" M/jB(Ass.) in b. ili/I 

"desire(d) of the god(s)"; < hu' 'u II Ass. 
baka'is "to weeping" OB; < baku 
bakisu "wailing woman" NA; < baku ptcp.? 
bakkaru — ♦ bakru II 

bakka'um "wailer, mourner" OB lex.; < baku 
bakkitu "wailing woman, mourner" j/NB, NA; 

< bakku 

bakku "tearful" jB; < baku; > bakkitu 

bakkutu — ♦ baktu 

bakru I "(first- )born" MB, in PNs 

bakru II, pakru; pi. bakkaru "foal" of camel or 

donkey jB; < Arab. 
baktu, bakkutu (an official) NB 
baku(m) "to weep" G {Hi) [ER] of human; of 

animal "cry"; also + dat. "weep over; weep for" 

Gtn iter, of G [ER.MES] S caus. of G; 

> baka'is; bakisu; bakku, bakkitu; bakka'um; 

bakuhu ~ "bud, shoot" jB lex. 

bal(a) — ♦ balu 

balaggu — ♦ balangu 

balalu(m) "to mix (up); alloy" Bab., NA; OAkk ? 
G (a/u) [OE.HE] 1. "mix (up)" food, drink, 
drug with (= ina); "alloy" metal; stat., of colour 
"is variegated" 2. OB qablam b. "join battle" 
3. "muddle up, upset" heart, text; ext., of good 
and bad results "be mixed up, confused" 
Gt stat. OB of people "mix with each other" 
D 1. "coat, smear" with (= ina) soil, spittle etc.; 
transf. ina dumqi "with prosperity" 2. "mix 
(up)" 3. OB stat. "is numb, deep in sleep" 
Dt 1. pass, of D; jB "be covered" with 
2. OB "smear" o.s. St OB lex. N jB of people 
"mix"; > ballu, baliltu^; ballussu; billu I, hillatu; 
nabldlu, nablaltum; tabliltum 

balamgu — ♦ balangu 

balamu "to gag" jB G {Hi); < Aram. 

balangu, balamgu, blpalaggu, buluggu, NA 
palaqqu, palakku 1 -, pilaggu 1 (a large drum) jB, 
NA; OAkk in PN ? [BALAG]; < Sum. 

balar "on the other bank" NB; < Sum. 

balasu I "to stare" jB G also in worship D "fix" 
the eyes "in a stare"; > balsu 

balasu II "to thrust, jerk"? with the rump G (///) 
of animals D ~ G; >ballusitu, tuballas- 

balat(a) "without" NA; < haldtu 

bala(t)tu (an ornament) Qatna 

balatu(m) "without" OA; also haldtu- with pron. 
suff. OA, NA; > batata; -* balu 

ba'latu "mistress" jB; < W.Sem. 

balatu(m)I "life" [Tl(.LA); Am. TIL(.LA); NB 
also TIN] esp. ana baldt X "for X's life"; 
"vigour, good health"; OA haldtukka "during 
your life-time"; O/MB Id baldtu "loss of life"; 
0/jB(lit.) "(eternal) life"; sipatlsammi b. 
"life( -giving) spell/plant"; OB, Am. 
"provisions"; NA "food" for the gods; OA 
"(meagre) livelihood, small profit"; st. abs. 
Bogh., j/NB ana baldt 'within a life-time' = 
"next year"; < baldtu U infin. 

balatu(m) II "to live" [TI; TI.LA; TIN] G (ulu, 
Ass. a/a) stat. "is alive", "is healthy", OB "is 
solvent"; "live, stay alive, (be allowed to) live"; 
M/jB, Bogh. "be healed"; j/NB baldt napsdti 
"preservation of life"; OA of debt etc. "be 
revived, recognized" D of gods, people "bring 
back to life, revive"; MA "allow to stay alive", 
OB "let live; support, provide for"; O/jB 
"restore to health; cure"; OA, OB "recognize, 
credit" silver, goods to s.o.; OB "enact, 
validate" a document Dt Mari, jB "receive 
support, be maintained" S Am. "give life to"; 



banfl(m) IV 

> bahu, balittum 1 , baltutu, baltdnumma; 

baldtu I; bultu; muballittu; muballitdnu; 

tablittum; nablatu 
baldahu (or baltahil) mng. unkn. jB 
bali — ♦ balu 
baliltu, balitu "rubbish tip" or "waste land"?; sir 

b. (a type of snake) jB; < ballu f. or belu II ? 
baliltu — ♦ also sambaliltu 
balittum "(a kind of) reservoir", "fishpond"? 

Mari; < baltu f.? 
balitu — ♦ baliltu 
baliu ~ "lord" jB lex. 
ballu "mixed" j/NB, MA of perfumes; of omens 

"confused"; "mixture" of animal fodder; 

< baldlu; > baliltu* 
ballu — ♦ also balu 

ballukku(m), Mari pa(l)luk/gu (a tree) OAkk, 
Bab. [GIS.BAL]; (an aromatic substance 
produced by the b. tree) [SIM.MUG; SIM.BAL; 
SIM.BULUG]; < Sum. 

ballussu "mixture" of aromatics ? NA; < baldlu 

ballusitu, pallusitu 1. (a bird) jB (-♦ tuballas- 
qinnassa) 2. (a lizard) jB lex.; < balasu II 

balsu — ♦ palsu 

balsu, palsu in blpalsa ini(m) "staring" O/jB; 

< balasu I 

baltu(m), bastu'- (a spiny plant) Bab., NA 

baltu — ♦ bastu 

baltahd — ♦ baldahu 

baltanumma "alive" Am. [TIL.LA- ]; < baldtu II 

balti(t)tu — ♦ bustltum 

baltu(m) "living, alive" [(LU.)TI(.LA)] 1. Bab., 
NA of people, animals; "healthy", "(financially) 
solvent" 2. j/NB, NA "raw, uncooked" of meat, 
seeds 3. NA" "green" of wood 4. MA, NB 
"intact" of vessels 5. OA warham baltamma 
"for a whole month"; < baldtu II; > baltutu 

baltutu(m) "state of being alive" Bab. [TI; NB 
also TIN] of people, esp. baltussu(nu) "alive", 
of plants "fresh", Bogh. of stones; < baltu 

balu(m), bal(a), Am. bali; with pron. suff. 
baluli- "without" [NU.ME(.A)]; also ina b.; esp. 
"without (permission/knowledge of)" s.o.; 
O/jB also conj. + subjunct. "without, 
without having ...ed"; > balu; baluf, — ♦ baldtu; 

balu — ♦ belu II 

balu, ballu 'the one without'? (desig. of the 
planet Mars) jB; < balu 

balu, ba' dlu "to supplicate" G j/NB 

balu — ♦ also ba' dlu 

ba'lu; f. ba'iltu ~ "large, major" jB; < ba' dlu 

baluhhu(m), buluhhum (an aromatic plant) 

OAkk, O/jB [SIM.BULUtf]; hit b. "b. resin"; 

balut "without" MA; < balu 
bama "half and half, in half OB; < bdmtu I 
bamanis "in halves" jB; < bdmtu I + -an + -is 
bamatu(m) pi. tant. "open country, plain" Bab. 
bamtu(m) I, lex. also bantu, pdndu; pi. bdmdtu 

"half Bab., Susa, OB(Alal.); st. abs. 

bdmat . . . bdmat . . . "half . . . half . . ."; > bama, 

bamtu(m) II, blpdndltu; lex. also pi. "ribcage, 

chest; thorax" O/jB; > Panddnu 
banaikanu (desig. of a group or organization) 

banbillu (or panbillu) (a dwarf cucumber) jB 

banbirru, babbirru ~ "leather coat" jB lex. 
bandillanu "paunchy, fat" jB om.; < bandillu + 

bandillu ~ "belly" jB, NA of animal; 

> bandillanu 

bandu(m) "quotient" OB math., jB; tupsar b. 

"mathematician"?; < Sum. 
bdndu — ♦ bdmtu U 
banduddu(m) "bucket" O/jB [(GIS/GI.)BA.AN. 

DU8.DU8] esp. rit.; < Sum. 
banitu -» banu I 
bdnitu — ♦ bantu; banu 
bannu(m), banu (a ewer) OB; < Sum. 
bantis "like a mother" jB; < bantu 
bantu "mother" jB; < banu IV; > bantis 
bantu — ♦ also bdmtu I.II 
banu(m) I "good, beautiful" of person, animal 

[in PNs'du]; of object, word, deed, omen etc.; 

as subst. banitu " good"; < banu II; 

> banutu; babbanu, babbanutu 

banu(m) II "to be(come) good, beautiful" Bab. 
G {Hi) [NB in PN DU] of person, object, word, 
deed etc. D "make good, beautify" person, 
animal, object, building etc.; "look after s.o. 
kindly, respectfully"; NB "produce well", 
NB (+ tabnitu) "execute well, do a good job"; 

> banu I; babbanA, babbanutu; bunu II, bunna, 
bunnd; bunnannu; mubannu, mubannutu, 
mubannitum; tabnitu I; — ♦ hunzerru; buppdni- 

banu III "built"? jB lex.; < banu IV 

banu(m) IV "to create; build" G {Hi) [dO] of 
deity "create" person, grain etc.; of person 
"engender" child, "make" figurine etc.; "build" 
house, boat; math, "construct"; ext. of feature 
"form" a shape D Am. "erect" city S lit., caus. 
of G N pass.; > banu III; banu, bantu, bantis; 




hinitu, binutu; biniannum; nabnltu; tabnltu II; 

— » Zer-bdnitu 
banu (a type of crown) jB lex. 
banu — » also bannu 
banu; f. bdnitu "creator, begetter"; M/NB 

"builder" [(LU.)DU]; < banu IV 
banutu "distinction, beauty" M/jB; < banu I 
bappiru(m), pappirum "beer bread" [BAPPIR; 

SIM]; < Sum. 
baqalu "to malt; sprout (intrans.)" jB lex.; 

< buqlu denom.?; > bdqilu; baqlu; biqlum, 

baqamu(m), O/MA, M/NB baqdnu(m) "to 
pluck" G (a/u) "pluck" (wool from) sheep, 
(feathers from) bird, (hair from) human; "tear 
out" plants, Am. "harvest"; "pluck" cotton, 
fringe on garment D "pluck out" hair Dtn iter. 
S caus. of G N pass., of sheep, wool, grass "be 
plucked"; > baqmu; baqimu; buqqumu; 
buqumu; buqdmu; biqnu 

baqartum — » waqrum 

baqaru(m), M/NB usu. paqdru "to (lay) claim 
to" Bab., OA G (a/u, occas. ulu. Hi) "claim 
(=acc.) from s.o. (=acc.)"; absol. "make a 
claim", "contest" Gt "claim from each other" 
D ~ G, "claim for o.s.", "contest" Dt "be 
claimed" S caus. of G MB N pass, of house, 
field, slave "be claimed"; > baqru; bdqirdnum, 
pdqiru; buqurru; tapqertu; mupaqqirdnu; 
pirqu I; — » buqquru 

baqdru — » also waqdrum 

baqasu ~ "to be broad, prominent" jB, stat. of 
parts of body; > buqdsum; buqqusum 

baqbaqqu (a small gnat) jB; — » baqqu 

baqilu(m) "maltster" OAkk, O/jB; 

[MUNU4.SAR]; also as PN; < baqalu 

baqimu — » baqmu 

baqimu "plucker" Mari, of sheep; < baqdmu 

baqinu — » baqmu 

baqiqatu pi. tant. (a type of groats)? jB 

baqiranum, M/NB pdqirdnu, NB also 
paqardnu, Nuzi also pdriqdnu "claimant" Bab.; 

< baqdru ptcp. + -an 

baqlu; f. baqiltu "sprouted" jB; < baqalu 
baqmu(m), baqnu, OAkk, Nuzi also baqimlnu 

"plucked" O/jB of sheep, wool; OAkk, Nuzi as 

PN "with thinning hair"; < baqdmu 
baqqu(m), bdqu "(small) fly, mosquito 7 " Bab.; 

also as PN; — » baqbaqqu; buqdqum 
baqru(m), M/NB paqru, OB also waqrum 

"(entitlement to) claim" Bab. usu. pi.; of slave 

etc. blpaqri rasu(m) "to be claimed"; b. apdlum 

"to satisfy a claim"; ana b. izuzzum "to take 

liability for a claim"; < baqdru 

baqrum — » also waqrum 

bdqu — » baqqu 

barahu ~ "to beam, shine"? jB lex. G and D; 
> barhu; barihu*; burdhu 

barakku (a corridor or outbuilding) Bab. 
[E.BAR.RA]; < Sum.; -* parakku 

baramu I "to be variegated, multicoloured" O/jB, 
NA G [GUN.A] Gt stat. of eye, fleece "is 
multicoloured, speckled" D "make multi- 
coloured; weave (coloured cloth)"; > barmu; 
burmu; birmu I; burumitu; burumu; burrumu, 
burrumtu; burummu; bitrumu, bitrdmu; 
barumtu; birimmu; burmdmu; mubarrimu; 

baramu(m) II "to seal (up)" Bab., NA G (a/u, 
NA ///) tablet, door; "emboss" inscription on 
metal S "have sealed"; > birmu II, birimtu; 

baranu "rebel" jB(NA); <bdru II ptcp. + -an 
+ -i 

baraqu(m) "to lighten, shine" Bab.(lit.) G (///) 
[tJI.tJl] berqu + b. "lightning strikes"; of Adad 
"strike with lightning"; of eyes "flash" 
D jB stat. of woman "has flashing eyes 7 " 
S 1. "cause lightning to strike" 2. "strike" 
enemy etc. "by lightning" Stn NB iter, of S 2 
Ntn jB "flash, light up repeatedly", MB ptcp. 
^Muttabriqu as name of demon; > bdriqum; 
berqu; burruqu; barraqtu 

bardqum — » also wardqum D 

barari, bardr(a) adv. "at dusk, evening" O/jB; 

< bardru; > bardritu 

bararitu(m), barartu(m) "dusk, evening watch" 

O/jB [en.nun.(an.)usan/usan; 

TA; EN.NUN.BAR.RA]; also ace. as adv. 

barartam; < barari 
bararu "to flicker" or "be dim"? jB G (ulu) of 

eyes "flicker, be scintillating"; of star; of word, 

lex. only S jB mng. unkn.; > barari, bardritu; 

bariru I, bariritu, barirdtu; barrurum; birratu; 

birbirru, birbirrdnu; nabraru*, nabrartu* 
barasiggu, parasiggu, parsigu "house altar, 

small shrine" jB [BARA.SI/SIG/SIG5.GA]; 

< Sum. 

barasu "to light up, shine" jB G (ulu); > birsu; 

barisu*; bursa* 
barasu "to pluck out" jB lex.; > barsu; birsu; 

bardtu — » biritu 

barbartu "she-wolf ' jB; < barbaru 
barbaru(m) "wolf OAkk, Bab. [UR.BAR.RA], 

also as PN; (one of the Ellil stars) jB 



baru(m) II 

[MtJL.UR.BAR.RA]; jB b. ursi 'bedroom wolf = 

"scorpion"; > barbartu 
bardibbu (a garment) jB lex.; < Sum. 
bardu ~ "crossbar, lintel" Ug., jB lex., for door, 

window; < Sum. 
bargallu (a desig. of sheep) jB lex.; < Sum. 
barhu "shining" NA, NB in PNs; f. Barihtu as 

fPN, MB; also Ug., m. & f. (a class of 

person)?; < barahu 
barhum —* also warhum 
bari(-) "between, among" OA for Bab. bin-; 

< baru I; — » baritum 
barihu (a stone) jB; < barahu ? 
barikatu "(salt from) Bariku" jB, NA; < PIN 
barilu, banldnu (a plant, phps.) "sagapenum" 

jB; var. of barirdtu 
bariqum "flashing, lightning" OB epith. of 

Amurru; < bardqu 
bariratu(m) (a plant, phps.) "sagapenum" Bab. 

[GIS/U.LUM.tfA]; < bardru; -» barilu 
bariritu 'the glittering one'? M/jB, name of a 

female demon; < bariru I ? 
bariru I ~ "radiance, glitter" jB; < bardru; 

> bariritu* 
bariru II mng. unkn. jB 
barisu mng. unkn. j/NB astr.; < barasu 
barittannu (or parittannu) ~ "grey"? Nuzi, 

colour of old horses 
baritu (or pari tu) (an object) Qatna, of gold 
baritum "intervening space" OAkk (= later 

biritu I); (in) bariti "between"; < baru I; -» 

baritum "female diviner" OA, jB; < bam 
bariu — » beru I; biruyum 
barmu(m) "multicoloured, variegated" O/jB 

[GUN.A] of eyes, animal's skin, wool; MB, 

Nuzi as PN, fPN (Barundu, Barmatu); 

< baramu I; > barumtu 
barraqitu, pa(r)raqitu (a plant) jB 
barraqtu "emerald" NB; < bardqu 
barraqu (a court official) NA 

barru I mng. unci. M/NB, of metals, of the 

barrum II (or parrum) (a head covering) OAkk 
barru — » also baru I 
barrumu — » burrumu 
barruqu — » burruqu 
barrurum "with scintillating eyes"? OA f. as 

PN; < bardru 
barsallu (or barsallu) (a kind of sheep) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

barsillu (a garment) jB lex. 
barsillu (a vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 

barsum (ovparsum) (wooden part of ship) OB; 

< Sum. 
barsallu — » barsallu 

barsu(m) "patchy" OB of hair; < barasu 

barsu — » also burdsu 

bartu(m) "revolt, rebellion" Bab., NA [HI.GAR]; 

< baru II; > bdrdnu 
baru — » baru III 

baru(m) I "to see, look at" G (Hi) [IGI.KAR; IGI; 
IGI.TAB; col. (BA.AN.)E; ext. MAS] 1. "see, 
behold" 2. "read" a tablet, in col. "read, check 
through" 3. of deity "oversee, watch 
searchingly" 4. j/NB (+ biru) "perform 
divination" Gtn jB "see repeatedly" Gt jB "look 
at thoroughly" D "announce to s.o., 
apprise s.o. of" Dt OB of battle "be 
announced" S "make s.o. (= ace.) see", 
transf. "cause to experience" misdeeds, anger 
etc.; "make s.o. see a dream, reveal in a dream 
to s.o."; jB (+ biru) "make s.o. perform 
divination"; > baru, baru II, baritum, bdrutu; 
bari-, baritum; biru I; biri-, bird, biruyum, 
biritu, birit, birit birit; birutu; bitru I 7 ; tabritu; 
mubarru, mubarritum; nabritum III; — » b. Ill 

baru II "seen, checked" jB [e], of text; of 
poultice; < baru I 

barum IE "to be on the market, be available"? 
OA G (Hi) D "put on the market"?; or all = 

barum IV vb. mng. unkn. OAkk, OB 

baru V (having an eye defect) jB lex. 

baru — » also beru II 

baru I, barru "tax, tribute" NB; < Iran. 

baru II (a syn. for open country) jB lex. 

baru III (or baru) (a cereal) jB lex. 

baru — » also pdru II 

baru(m) "diviner" Bab., NA [(LU.)MAS. 
SU.GID.GID; lu.jjal; (lu.)azu; (lu.)numun. 
LUM, occas. MB(Alal.), NB] usu. by extispicy; 
jB mar b. "(prof.) diviner"; OB wakil b., j/NB 
rab b. "overseer of the diviners"; OB also of 
divination by oil, smoke; nepesti b. "diviner's 
procedures"; < baru I; > bdrutu, baritum 

baru(m) I, ba'dru "to catch, trap (with a net 
etc.)" Bab. G (d) fish, birds etc.; wicked 
people, enemies Gtn jB iter, of G [DAB.DAB] 
D "hunt, go hunting"; >bd'eru, bd'ertu, 
bayydru, bayyartu, bd'eriitu; nabdru, nabdrtu; 
bu'uru I.II; — » libdru-susi; pdru I 

baru(m) II "to revolt, rise against" s.o. (=acc.) 
O/jB om. G (a; Bogh. pres. also iba"alir) 
[tJI.GAR] Gt OB "rise against each other" N OB 
"be set against each other"?; > bdrtu, bdrdnu 

baru(m) HI 

baru(m) III, OAkk, Ass. budru(m) "to appear, 

turn up; be durable" G («) OAkk in PN e.g. 

DN-sumu-li-bur mng. unci., "appear, be firm"? 

(or — > labdru G); OA, OB of animal, goods ~ 

"turn up, become available"; M/NB(lit.) ~ "be 

durable, stay firm" D "affirm, convict" 1. OB, 

M/NA leg. "declare, specify, establish 

precisely", also math. 2. 0/jB "convict s.o. 

(= ace.) of (= ace.)"; OB, MA "prove s.o. 

(to be"; OB "confirm ( to s.o." 

Dt OB "be established precisely"; > beru I; 

burtu III; ba'erutu; bu'dru 
ba'rum — > beru II 
harullu — > burullum 
barumtu, jB barundu "coloured wool" M/NB, 

also pi. barmdtu, hafcmddu jB lex.; < barmu 
barutu "work, lore of the diviner" M/NB 

[nam.azu; LU.HAL- ]; b. epesu "to perform 

divination"; iskdr b. (desig. of the series of 

extispicy texts); < hdru 
basalu mng. unkn. NA of stone; — > basalu ? 
basi ~ "soon" NA as prep, "soon after"; as adv. 

"forthwith"; before vb., gen. of infin. "so that, 

in order to" 
baskiltu(m), maskiltu, biskiltu (a part of the 

middle 'finger' of the lung) O/jB ext. 
basum "(square or cube) root" OB math. [BA.SI; 

BA.Sig; IB.SI8]; < Sum. 
basaru(m) ~ "to tear off' O/jB G jB grapes 

D "tear apart"; > bisru II; bdsiru 
basasu "to trickle" jB lex., NA G; > bissu, bisu, 

busasu; — > bdsu 
basihu "inhabitant of the marshes" NB; < Aram. 
basillatu (a musical instrument) jB lex.; mistake 

for — > habasillatu 2 ? 
basiltu (a type of headcloth) jB lex. 
basiru mng. unci, (a class of person) jB lex.; 

< basdru 
basis "like sand" jB; < bdsu 
basu(m), later bassu "sand" Bab., OA; from 

river; sipik b. "sand dune", qaqqar b. "sand 

desert"; Mari "sandbank" in river; > basis; — > 

basalu(m), NA also pasdlu "to be cooked; 

become ripe" Ass., M/NB G (a/a, Hi) of food, 

medicine, glass; of dates "ripen"; also trans. 

"cook" S [SEG6(.gA); AL.SEG6.GA] "cook" 

food, drugs; NA "fire" bricks; jB "solder"? 

metal; "melt" silver, wax; "dye" textiles, wool; 

> baslu; buslu; busdlu; suhsulum; NA — > 

basalu ? 
basamu I, besdmu, also basdmatu "sackcloth; 

penitential robe" MB(Alal.), jB; jB lex. epis b. 

"maker of penitential robe" 

40 basu(m) 

basamu II "to create, form" Bab. G (Hi) (dry) 
land, shrine, sculpture; human form; plans, 
cosmic designs D ~ G "create" objects, rites, 
parts of cosmos N pass, of G, NB; > bisimtu 

basamu (m) III ~ "to allocate" OB, jB lex. 
G (alu) share of booty, field 

basasu m "to spread" (intrans.) OB G om., of 

basgigitum — > askikitu 

basitu(m) "what is present" Bab. 1. Mari, of 
troops "available, to hand" 2. "goods, \ 
property"; < bdsu 

bdsiu — > bdsu 

baslu "cooked; ripe" M/NB, NA [(AL.)SEG6.GA 
(— > sarpu)] "cooked, boiled" of meat, plants, 
liquids; "heat-treated" of stone, glazes, ivory, 
metal; Nuzi "dyed" of textiles; "ripe" of fruits; 
< basalu 

basmu(m) "(mythical poisonous) snake; homed 
viper (Cerastes cerastes)" O/jB [MUS.SA. 
TUR/TUR]; as symbol; OB (a constellation); jB 
lex. (name of a plant) 

bassu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

bastu — > baltu 

bastu(m), later baltu ~ "dignity, (source of) 
pride"? OAkk, Bab., OA, Am. [TES] of deity, 
person; esp. in PNs of protective force; of 
building, orchard as "pride" of city, land etc.; jB 
subat b. "formal dress"; < bdsu I 

basu(m), M/jB N occas. napsu "to be (at hand, 
available); exist" [GAL] G (///'; no perf.) "be in 
existence, available"; of eyes, ears "be fixed on, 
attentive"; of task, responsibility "lie with" s.o.; 
of power, characteristic "be owned" by s.o.; 
pret. ibsi "was/were" (emphatic); M/NA pres. 
ibassi, also pi., as adv. ~ "really, in fact; some"; 
j/NB mala hasu "as much as there is available, 
everything, everybody"; adi Id base (infin.) 
'until non-existence' of destruction, disease 
S "bring into being" 1. of gods "create"; "utter" 
words, incantation 2. of human beings 
"produce" crop, "procreate" children; "weave" a 
plot 3. OB "make (s.o.'s ears) fix on, call s.o.'s 
attention to" 4. "let happen" N ingress, of G 
1. of living beings "come into being; emerge, 
appear" 2. of crop "grow, be produced", 
"become ripe" 3. of event, lawsuit "happen, take 
place" 4. OA of goods, tablet "be available, in 
safekeeping", OB transf. of claim, profit 
"materialize, be realized" 5. OB of eyes "get 
fixed on" 6. jB med. of spots 7 "occur, develop" 
Ntn "happen repeatedly"; > bdsitu, bdsu; 
bisu II, bisitu; husum; musahsu; nabsium; 




basu(m), hdsiu(m); f. bdsitum "existing, 
available" O/jB, MA of com and field; of 
exchange-rate; MB (Ass.) ana umi bds&ti "for 
('the existing' =) all days"; f. pi. bdsdti "what 
exists", i.e. status quo; < hasu; > bdsitu 

basu(m) I "to be ashamed, come to shame" [TES] 
G (d) before s.o. (= ace.) D "put to shame" S 
OB mng. unci., "cause shame"?; > bayydsu; 
hayyasu; ayyabds; bastu; biistu 

basu II "to stamp, tamp" jB G (i) 

bataqu(m), baddqu "to cut off, divide, tear off 
G (alu) 1. "cut off parts of body, object, 
garment, land; "separate" an area; "hew" 
statues, slabs etc. out of stone 2. transf. OA 
"deduct" money, "drop the rate of exchange"?; 
stat. batiq of price "is (too) low"; awatam b. 
"deal with a matter" 3. "cut through, pierce" 
dyke etc.; ellipt. of water(course) "break 
through (intrans.)"; "divert" water into a canal 
4. OB "interrupt" work; OA ellipt. "break off, 
depart" 5. MA, NB "denounce", esp. bitqe b. 
"make accusations", also NA bel batdqi 
"informer" D ~ G 1. "cut off, esp. MA with pi. 
obj., parts of body, garments, trees; "cut" ropes 
2. "cut up* corpse 3. "cut through, pierce" dyke, 
"divert" watercourse — > hutuqtu Dt pass, of D, 
of breach "be opened" N pass, of G Ntn iter, of 
N; > hatqu, batiqtu; hitqu, hitiqtu; hutiqtu, 
butuqtu; biduqtum; butuqqh; bdtiqu, bdtiqdnu 

batar "thereafter, moreover" NB uncert.; 
< Aram. 

batbatti — > battubattu 

batiqanu "informer" MA; < bdtiqu + -an 

batiqtu "denunciation" jB, NA; NA, also 
"rumour"?; < hatdqu 

batiqu(m) 1. OA "express messenger" 2. NA, 
NB "informer, denouncer"; < batdqu 

batqu(m) "cut (off)" etc. 1. jB of ligament "torn" 
2. OA of price "low, cheap" 3. OB of work 
"interrupted" 4. N A "damaged" 5. j/NB as 
subst. "damage", esp. in h. sabdtu "to repair 
damage"; NB "loss" of cattle 6. NA, NB 
"(repair to) damage"; rab b. "supervisor of 
repairs"; < batdqu 

battabatte — > battubattu 

battatayya in ina b. "each of several; 
individually" NA; < battu 

battel ibatteli — > battubattu 

battu(m) "side, region around" Ass.; OA ilana 
b. "outside, to one side"; M/NA ana b. "aside, 
to one side, apart"; NA ina b. "somewhere; in 
one place"; MA batta u batta "on both sides"; 
NA "side (of river)"; > battubattu; battatayya 

battubattu/e, battel ibatteli, bat(ta)batteli, 
pattepatte "all round, on all sides of M/NA, as 
prep. + subst./pron. suff; inalissulsa b.; also 
du. ina battubatten "on both sides of MA; 
< battu 

batu "half jB lex.; — > bd'um 

hdtu — > hidtum 

batultu, NA batussu "adolescent, nubile girl" 

batulu, badulu "boy, young man" M/jB, NA 

baturru (a small chisel)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

batussu — > batultu 

batalu(m) "to cease" Bab., OA, NA G (Hi) 
"miss, fail to do, abandon" work, offerings; 
"be(come) inactive"; stat. of wool, bread "has 
run out, is exhausted" Gtn iter. OA S caus. 
"discontinue, interrupt" offerings, tribute, 
"abandon" campaign, song N jB "fall into 
disuse", of border, weapon; NB of worker 
"cease work"; jB "cease to be effective"; 
> batlu, batiltu; bitiltu 

batiltu "interruption" jB(Ass.) in b. isulrasu "to 
cease"; < batdlu 

batium — > batu 

batlu "ceased, disused" Bab., NA of offerings 
etc.; jB la batlu "incessantly"; as subst. 
"cessation, interruption", esp. in b. sakdnu "to 
cause cessation" in deliveries etc.; also (a 
person) "likely to stop work" OB lex.; < batdlu 

battum — > baddum 

batu(m), OAkk batium ?; OB pi. f. batidtum (a 
vessel)? OAkk, OB, NB, of silver, copper 

batu "to show contempt"? G (f) NB 

ba'um, bu(m) "half OB lex., math.; b. hepum 
"to halve"; ana bd "in half; < Sum.; — > batu 

ba'u(m) I "to go along" Bab., OA G (d) [DIB] 
1. with ace. "walk along, across" road, street, 
field, sky 2. "pass, overtake, defeat" s.o. 
3. MB(Ass.) "enter" into (= ana) 4. O/jB 
occas. with dat. pron. suff. "come near, up to 
s.o."?; OA imper. (bd'am, bd'dnim) before 
imper. or cohort, "come on; now then!" Gtn 
"pass repeatedly" S caus. "move along, past", 
rit. a censer, torch; "cause" water, flood "to 
flow over", s.o., "make" evil signs "pass 

ba'um II "to come" Mari, Am. G (u); < W.Sem. 

ba'ulatu(m), OB buldtum (jB — > also bahuldtu) 
"people, subjects" OAkk, Bab.(lit.), of human 
population; esp. b. Ellil; < bilu 

ba'ulu "great, important" jB lex.; < ba'dlu 

ba'uru — > bu" uru I 




bayyadu mng. unkn. NA 
bayyartu "huntress" jB; < baru I 
bayyaru "huntsman" MA(lit.); < baru I 
bayyasu, also bayyasu "modest, decent" jB; 

< hdsu I 

bayyatu; pi. hayydtdnu "nocturnal offering 

ritual" j/NB(Uruk); < biatum 
baz(a)hatum "military post, outpost" Mari; 

< W.Sem. 

baza'um, hazdhum ~ "to make (unreasonable) 

demands" G OA D OB, Mari, Am. "treat 

harshly; press" person, household for services, 

payment; > bazihtum 
baziharzi (a leather object) MB 
bazihtum ~ "claim, need" OB; < baza'um 
bazltu (an exotic animal) NA, or error for 

pagltu ? (-► pagu I); NA, NB as fPN 
be' alum — ► belu 
be' dru —* beru 
bedum (or be turn) mng. unkn. OB G (Hi) phps. 

"to be slow" D "delay" s.o.; > nabtif 
be'esu(m), ba'dsu, hehesu, bahdsu "to stir" 

Ass., jB G (Hi) D ~ G; > mubessu 
be'esu — ► also ba'dsu 
beheru "to select" NB G (i/i) "choose" animals; 

"levy" troops; < Ararn.; > behiru; hihirtu 
behiru "recruiting officer" NB, as family name; 

< beheru 
beldnum — ► bildnum 

beltu(m), poet, also beletu(m), O/MA, MB, Am., 
Bogh. belatu(m) "lady; mistress, proprietress 
(of)" [NIN; GASAN; EN] 1. goddesses, absol.: 
d B. as DN, esp. NA, NB for Ninlil and 
Sarpanitu in PN; "mistress" of person; of 
heaven, earth, city, temple etc.; d Beltiya NB 

2. OB (human) "owner" of slaves, field; "lady" 
(as respectful address in letters); belet bitim 
"head of the household, housewife"; jB "queen" 

3. "possessor, controller" of abstr. attributes, 
e.g. battle, life, fates, incantations, divination 

4. jB in compounds: as belu 5b. amdti etc.; h. 
ikki (— ► ikku I); b. ridi (— ► ridu I 3); b. serri (— ► 
serru III I ); < belu 

belu(m) I "extinguished" O/jB of brazier, fire, 
torch; < belu II 

belu(m) II, balu "to be extinguished, come to an 
end" O/jB, NA G (Hi) of fire, smoke; of oil- 
bubble "burst"; transf. of life, disease etc. 
Gtn iter., of brazier, torch D "extinguish" fire, 
disease, fever: "stop" quarrel, fight; "destroy" 
people, life etc.; > belu I; baliltu 1 - 

belu(m) "lord; proprietor (of)" [EN; rarely d EN, 
UMUN; MU.LU] 1. gods, absol.; "master" of 

person; of heaven, earth, city, temple etc.; d Bel 
as DN, from MB on esp. = Marduk, also Ellil 
2. of humans, as address to king, to superior; 
"master, owner" of slave, field, house, grain 
etc.; OB b. assatim "husband" 3. "possessor, 
controller" of attributes, e.g. strength, decision, 
divination; OA b. Id ilim of s.o. "without a 
god", jB Id h. Hani; jB h. pdni "nouveau riche, 
parvenu"?; b. hubulli(m) "creditor"; b. niqim 
"owner of the sacrificial lamb, sacrificer"; in 
divine titles "owner" of a tiara, sceptre, 
lightning etc.; "master" of life, destiny, 
decisions, wisdom etc. 4. of one concerned 
with, responsible for, e.g. b. gillati 
"sinner", b. ruhea "my bewitcher", b. diktiya 
"my killer"; jB b. gimilli "recipient of a favour"; 
NB b. misri "neighbour" 5. freq. compounds: 
b. ade "s.o. under an oath" jB; b. dli (also 
dlutu) "ruler of a city" jB, NA; b. awdtim (jB 
amdti) OA, OB, jB "litigant, opposing party (in 
court)", Mari "enemy"; b. birki 'lord of the 
knees', "runner, constable" OB, jB; b. biti 
"tribal chief NB; b. dabdbi "man of (evil) talk, 
enemy" M/NB; b. ddmi - "murderer" Bab., 
NA; h. deqti "honest"? NA; b. dini "opposing 
party" (in court) M/NA, j/NB; b. dumqim 
"friend"? OB; b. egerre 'lord of the formula', 
"sorcerer" jB besides belet e.\ b. emiiqi ~ "the 
powerful, vigorous"; b. hiti "evil-doer, 
criminal" M/NB, NA; b. ilki *• "commissioner 
for iV&M-duties" NA; b. lemutti (OB lumnim) 
"enemy"; b. narkabti "owner of a war-chariot" 
NA(jB) (— ► berkabtu); b. nukurti(m) "enemy" 
OA, NB; b. parsi OB "officeholder", jB "s.o. 
authorized, competent to perform a ritual"; 
O/MB b. pildhdti(m) (MA pdhete) 
"commissioner", M/NA, M/NB "governor"; b. 
piqitti "commissioner" NA, NB (a class of 
temple-officials); b. qasti "tenant, cultivator of 
'bow-land'" NB(Achaem.); b. qdtdte 
"guarantor" NA; b. salami "ally" NA; b. sdlti 
(NA sdsse, also selti) "enemy, (personal) 
opponent" j/NB, NA; b. terti(m) 
"commissioner" OB, jB lex.; b. tereti as divine 
title jB, NA; b. tdbti "benefactor, patron, friend" 
MA(Bogh.), ' j/NB, NA; b.-tdb(t)utu 
"friendship" NB; > belutum, belu ?, beltu 

belu(m), OA be' alum, Ass. also pe'dlu, pelu "to 
rule (over); dispose of G (e; pres. OAkk 
ibe"al; OA pret. also ib' el; ptcp. jB bd'ilu) 
[EN]; "rule over, control" countries; M/NA, 
M/jB "subject to o.'s rule, take possession of; 
jB, NA absol. "rule, be ruler"; stat. "is 
lord/lady" jB, NA; OB "detain" (s.o.); j/NB "be 
in charge of (= ace.)"; OA "be responsible for" 




silver, "lay claim to" s.o. D OB "keep s.o. in 
power" N pass. OB "be detained"; OA "be 
claimed"; <helu denom.?; > bd'ilu; be'uldtum; 
ba'uldtu, bahuldtu 
belutu(m) "rule, domination" Bab., NA [EN- ] h. 
epesu "to rule"; dl b. "city of government"; 

< belu 

bennu(m) I ~ "epilepsy" Bab., NA, also abbr. 

he, hi 
bennu II mng. unkn. jB 
beram adv. "(for) a double hour" OB, Mari; 

< beru III 

beratu, hirdtu pi. tant. ~ "waters, lagoons" jB 

beri(-) — ► biri- 

beris "in hunger, hungrily" jB; < beru I 

herittu — ► hiritu 

beritu I "treaty" Qatna; < W.Sem. 

beritu II (an insect)? jB lex. 

beritu — ► also hiritu II 

berium mng. unkn. OB lex. 

berkabtu "charioteer" NB [LU.EN.GIS.GIGIR]; 

< bel(u) + narkabtu 

berqu, hirqu "lightning (flash)" M/jB, NA 
[NIM.GIR]; also "(symbol of) lightning"; 

< hardqu 
herteli — ► birti 
bertu — > hiritu 

beru(m) I, Ass. hariu "hungry"; of people; 

< beru II; > bens, herutu 

beru(m) II, haru(m) "to be hungry, starve" 
G (ele, OAkk a/a) of humans, animals; of field 
"be starved (of water)"; transf. of silver "be 
unexploited" Gt — ► bitril II Gtn iter. D "starve 
s.o., let s.o. be hungry" S ~ D St — ► bitru II; 
> hem I, beris, herutu; biru IV; bum IV; 

beru I, biru "distant" j/NB, NA of mountains; 

< baru III 

beru(m) II, hiru(m), haleli'rum "selected" 
OAkk, Bab., NA 1. "elite" of soldiers; OA pi. 
(an administrative body)? 2. of objects 
"choice", wool, vegetables, stone, wood etc., 
building site; < beru I 

beru(m) III, biru "double hour, league" 
[danna(=KASKAL.GID)] 1. linear measure: 
"double-hour, mile" (= 1,800 ninda - 10,800 
metres) 2. angular measurement: 7i2 of a circle, 
30 degrees 3. measure of time: "V12 of a day, 
double-hour" only NA, j/NB (after 700 BC); 
NB her umi "last double-hour of a day"; her 
musi "last double-hour of a night"; her ser(t)i ? 
"double-hour in the morning"; > biris II; beram 

beru — ► also biru I-III 

beru(m) I, Ass. he'dru(m) "to choose, select" 
G (e) [BAR] people, textiles, ingredients; jB 
stat., of hair "is thin"; NB in formula lu nashd 
lu herd (whether words of prayer) "are omitted 
or merely selected"; OA "examine, check" seal 
N "be checked, tested"; > hem II; berutum II 

beru II mng. unkn. G (0 jB 

be' rum — ► hem II 

berullum — ► burullum 

berutu(m), hiriitu(m) "hunger, starvation" O/jB; 

< beru I 

berutu(m) I, birutu(m) ~ "mound" OAkk, j/NB 

[SUR7] jB, esp. of corpses after battle 
berutum II (a collegium of officials) OA; 

< beru I 
besdmu — > hasdmu I 
heskdnu — ► hiskdnu 

besu "far apart, distant" O/jB; < hesu 

besu(m) "to go away, withdraw" O/jB, O/MA G 

of living beings, star; transf., of good times; of 

part of liver "fork, produce a bifurcation" N ~ G 

of person "withdraw"; > besu; muhesu 
hetdnu — ► hitdnu 
betdnu — ► hitdnu 
betatu pi. tant. (a decoration used on garments 

and leather objects) Am.; also M/NA (or — ► 

sabattu ?) 
betu — ► bitu 
be'tu (or til'etu) (a commodity) MB, measured 

in gur 
het&m — ► bedum 
be'u (a bird) NA lex. 
be'ulatum, huldtum pi. tant. "funds available, 

working capital" OA, also OB in huldt kisim 

"business capital"; < belu 
hiddu — ► hidtum 

bi'aru "spot on the skin" jB med. 
biatum, M/NB bdtu, Ass. biddu(m) "to spend 

the night, stay overnight" G (i) NB of moon; 

med. of preparation, ointment etc. "stand 

overnight" Gtn iter, of G D NB stat., of moon 

"spends several nights" S OA "have (people 

and animals) spend the night"; Bogh., jB med. 

"let" recipe "stand overnight"; < bitu denom.; 

> bddu; hittu; bayyatu; nuhattu 
bibbu(m) f. (a kind of wild sheep) O/jB, NA 

1. "wild sheep" in mountains; Urar. "(image of) 

wild sheep" 2. "planet, star; comet ?" [ d UDU. 

IDIM; MUL.UDU.IDIM(.GU4.UD)] 3. om., desig. 

of plague 
bibbulu(m), M/jB buhlmbulu O/jB, Bogh. 

1. "flood, spate" 2. "day of the disappearance of 

the moon" [UD.NA.AM; UD.NA.a] (28th or 29th 

of month); < bahdlu 




bibenu "temple, side of head" jB, left, right; also 
"- "septum of the nose"? 

bibihtu — » bibltu 

bibiltu(m) "carrying off, deportation" O/jB of 
troops etc.; Mari pi. ~ "lies"?; < babdlu 

bibinakku (a bird) jB lex. 

bibi(r)ru(m) (a disease) O/jB med. 

bibltu (or bibittu), bibihtu (a demon or disease) 

biblu(m); pi. m. & f. "the (action of) bringing; 
things brought" 1. "(marriage) gift, present" 
2. "yield, • produce" of field, mountain 3. of 
river, "high water" [NIG.DE.A] 4. "(state of) 
being removed, invisibility (of the moon)", um 
b. "(day of the) invisibility of the moon"; NA 
pi. bib(i)ldni "(omens concerning) the new 
moon" 5. bibil libbi "heart's desire", b. qdti 
"stealing, theft"; b. pdni DN ~ "reconciliation, 
appeasement"?; < babdlu 

bibru (a bird) M/jB [BIBRA.MUSEN] also 
"figurine (of bird)"; Am., Bogh. "rhyton" in the 
shape of a bird or other animals; < Sum. 

bibu(m) "baby"? Bab., in (f)PNs 

bibu — » biu 

bidalu; pi. bidalum/na "merchant" Ug.; < Ug. 

bldiya "with my (own) hand" NB; < Aram. 

biduqtum "sluice channel" OB; < batdqu 

bidurhu — » budulhu 

bihirtu "levy" j/NB of soldiers; b. beheru "to 
raise a levy"; < beheru 

bi'iltu (a container)^j/NB for oil, ghee; < ba'dsu 

bi'iltu — » also bisu I 

bikitu(m) "weeping, mourning" Bab. [ER]; b. 
sakdnu, b. baku "to perform a mourning-ritual"; 
sa b. "(prof.) mourner" O/jB; jB qan b. - 
"shepherd's pipe"; < baku 

bikru (or pikru) (a bead or sim.) Am., of gold 

bilanum, beldnum adv., alsoina bildni "without 
(s.o.'s) knowledge"? Mari; — » balu 

billatu(m), billetu(m), NB also biltu "mixture" 
1. Bab. (a dry substance used in the preparation 
of beer) [DIDA(=KAS.U.SA); DiDA(=KAS.US. 
SA)]; "- "beer of second quality" 2. MA, MB 
"alloy" of metals 3. OB, Mari "mixing vat" 
4. NB "admixture"; < baldlu 

billu I "(ad)mixture" 1. NA "(component of 
metal) alloy" 2. MA, Nuzi "mixed beer"? 3. jB 
"complexity, intricacy"?; < baldlu 

billu II 1. MB, NB (a plant) 2. jB (a stone) 

billudu — » pelludu 

bilsu(m) mng. unkn. jB; also OAkk as PN ? 

biltu(m), NA bissu, bisu "load; talent; yield; rent; 
tribute" [GO; GUN] l."load", on donkey (also 

du.); as unit, of sticks etc.; OA sa biltim, pi. sa 
W/dft'm"carrier(s), porter(s)"; imer(um) (sa) b. 
"pack-ass"; jB transf. "burden, onus" 2. "talent" 
(as unit of weight = 60 minas; NA also 30 
minas — » qallul); st. abs. bilat "1 talent" 3. ~ 
"yield" of garden, field, land; trees; barley, 
dates, wool and metal 4. ~ "rental payment" on 
field, flock, equipment etc. 5. "tribute" of 
foreign countries; b. mahdru "to receive 
tribute"; b. nasu "to bring tribute"; b. elilina 
muhhi PN sakdnulkunnulemedu "to impose 
tribute on s.o."; < wabdlum 

biltu — » also billatu 

biltu — » bisu I 

bindtu — » binitu 

bingu(r)ru (a kind of roof)? jB lex. 

biniannum ~ "shape, physique" OB; < banu IV 

binitu(m); pi. bindtu, OB binidtum "creation; 
shape, appearance, structure" OAkk, Bab. 
1. "creature" of a god 2. "form, shape" 3. in pi. 
"limbs" [ME.DfM] 4. NB in pi. "creation" of 
river 5. (an abnormal growth) on the body 
[ME.DIM] 6. "egg; fish roe" 7. (wooden beam) 
OAkk(Sum.) of house; jB of boat 8. (an item 
of jewellery); < banu IV 

binna, ibinna "give!" (imper.) j/NB usu. vent. 
binnam(ma); f. (i)binni, (i)binnimma; also + 
dat. pron. suff., e.g. ibinnanndsi "give us!" 

binnu — > binu I 

bintu, bittu(m) "daughter" O/jB, MA; < binu I 

blnu(m) I, binnu "son" OAkk, jB, NA in PNs; 
bin bird "grandson"; jB b. qisse "sprout of a 
cucumber"?; > bintu 

blnu(m)ll "tamarisk" OAkk, OA, O/jB 
[GIS.SINIG] as tree, timber, med., mag. for 
purification; Qatna "tamarisk( -shaped gem)" of 
lapis lazuli etc. 

binutu "creation, creature; product; form" M/NB 
[DU- ] of living beings: binut (qdte) DN 
"creation of (the hands of) DN"; of animals, 
stones b. tamdlti "creatures of the sea"; b. same, 
b. apsi "formed in sky, in apsu"; of wood b. 
Hamdni "grown in the Amanus"; b. age 
'product of the current' (a marine plant); jB 
"form, appearance" of god, of fabrication of 
bow; b. mini "fish roe" jB om.; < banu IV 

biqletu pi. tant. ~ "germinating malt" jB lex.; 
< baqdlu 

biqlum ~ "sapling" Mari, of box tree 

biqnu "(what has been) plucked, pluckings" jB 
of goose; < baqdmu 

bira adv. ~ "(everywhere) in between"? M/NB; 
ana b. "in accordance with, correspondingly; by 
an equal amount"; < biri- 




birahhum — » birihhu 

birdndtu — » birtu I 

biraqdnum — » pirikdnum 

birdtu — » berdtu; birtu I 

birbasu (a plant) jB lex. 

birbirranu ~ 'the sparkler' jB (a kind of lizard); 

< birbirru 

birbirru pi. tant. "radiance; sparkle, flash" Bab. 
of sun, lightning; < bardru; > birbirranu 

birdu "pockmark"? jB med., om.; also phps. 
"pockmarked person"; — » perdum 

birhu mng. unkn. NA 

biri-, biru-, beri(-) "among, between" Bab. 
[DAL.BA.(AN.)NA] with pron. suff., after ina or 
sa; occas. after st. constr.: OB kasap birini "our 
shared silver"; j/NB also after ana, ultu; loc.- 
adv. (ina) biru(m)- OB(Susa), occas. M/jB; 
spatially "between", "(from) among"; of 
bilateral relations "between", MB mdmit birini 
"our mutual oath"; Ug. (ina) beri X u (ina) beri 
Y "between X and Y"; jB(Ass.) as adv. ina 
beri "in between"; < baru I; > biritu I; bird; 
biruyum; OA — » bari- 

birihlju(m), OAkk birahhum - "string, bundle" 
OAkk, O/jB of vegetables etc. 

birimdu — » birimtu 

birimmu (a colourful bird) Bogh. lex.; 

< bardmu I 

birimtu, MB birimdu "sealing" M/jB; 

< bardmu II 

blris I "over, to the other side" M/jB; — » beris 
blris II "for a double-hour"? MB(Ass.); 

< beru III 

bint "between, among" Bab. [DAL.BA.(AN.)NA] 
spatially (inalsa) b.; NA, NB also "within"; NA 
issu b. "from inside" PIN, "from among" 
people; < biritu I st. constr.; — » birti 

bint birit, OB also pirit pirit "mutually" O/jB; 

< biritu I 

birltu(m) I, bilertu, NB also bistu; pi. bireldtu, 
OB biridtum, NB also bardtu "space between, 
distance" [DAL.BA.(AN.)NA] "partition, dividing 
baulk" (between fields); "alley" between 
houses; om. "partition wall" as part of liver; NB 
astr. "elongation, (angular) distance" (freq. 
abbr. bi or be); compounds: b. puridi "area 
between the legs"; b. appi "nasal septum 7 "; b. 
siddi "area between curtains" in shrine; MB b. 
dldni "countryside"; b. ndri(m) "region 

'enclosed by river(s)"; igdr biritim "wall shared 
by two houses"; bit b. "common house"; 

< biri-; > birit, birit birit; OAkk — » baritum 
biritu II, beritu, MA berittu; pi. bileretu "fetter" 

M/jB, M/NA; of bronze, iron; freq. pi., biretu/i 

(parzilli) nadu "to throw s.o. (= ace.) into 

(iron) fetters" 
biriyu — » biruyum 
birkatu error for — » birratu 
birku(m) "knee" Bab. 1. of humans, animals, 

usu. du. 2. "lap"; birkdsu "on his lap", tarbit 

birkeya "raised on my lap" 3. as euph. desig. 

for genitals; also transf. "strength" 4. bel b. 

"runner, henchman"; — » burku; petan birki 
birmu I "multicoloured cloth" M/NA, M/NB 

[GUN]; < bardmu I 
birmu II in birim kunukki "seal impression" 

M/jB; < bardmu II 
birqu — » berqu 
birratu mng. unci, (a disease of the eyes) jB; 

< bardru 

birru "grille, lattice" jB, NA 

birru — » also biru III 

birsu(m) (a luminous phenomenon) O/jB, om. 

"sheen"? of oil; night-time "glow"; < bardsu 
birsu; pi. m. & f. (a coarse fabric, phps.) "felt" 

M/NA, j/NB; NA "(garment of) felt 7 "; 

< bardsu 

birti, berteli, birtu- "between" M/NA, MB; 
spatially "between, within"; "(from) among"; 
NA birtile ene maddudu 'to measure between 
the eyes' = "to make clear to s.o."; jB lex. 
b. ahi "chest"; — » birit etc. 

birtu(m) I, NB also bistu; pi. NB also birdndtu 
"fort, castle" Bab., NA [NA (URU.)tJAL.SU (-► 
halsu II)]; OB also of citadel in town; NB also 
of area protected by fortified outposts; NA, NB 
rab b. "commander of a fortress"; > birtutu 

birtu(m) II in siddulsindu (u) b. "riffraff' OB 

birtu — » also biritu; birti 

birtutu "function as fort" jB; < birtu I 

biru — ► biri- 

blru(m) I, beru "divination" [MAS] b. baru "to 
perform divination"; ina b. sakdnu, NA ina b. 
uddu "to determine through divination"; of 
god(s) bel(e) b. "lord(s) of divination"; MB pi. 
f. "oil-divination"?; < baru I 

biru II, beru "bull calf M/NB [GU4.NINDA] 

blru(m) III, beru, NB birru "baulk, ridge" 
between fields, canals OB(Susa), j/NB; — » 

biru IV "hunger, thirst" jB; < beru II 

biru — » also beru I-III; biram 

birum — » beru II 

birutu "divination" jB lex.; < baru I 

birdtu — » also berutu 

birutu — » berutu I 


biruyum, jB biriyu, OAkk barium "median" 

OAkk, O/jB; OB of standard measure of 

medium capacity; < hiri- 
bis "then, afterwards" NA 
biskiltu — » baskiltu 
bisru, bisru "leek" jB 
bissatu mng. unkn. jB lex., desig. of door strap 

hissu, hisu — » biltu 

bisiltu (a leather container for oil) jB lex. 
bisinnu — » businnu 

bisru I "bag" jB lex., of physician, diviner 
bisru II mng. uncert. jB lex.; < basdru 
bissirtanu — » hissuru 
bissu(m) "droplet" O/jB of oil, tears; < hasdsu; 

— » hisu 
bissuru(m) "female genitals, vulva" [GAL4.LA] 

of human, animal; "vulva( -shaped amulet)", of 

lapis lazuli; b. atdni, bissirtanu [NA4.PES4/SA. 

ANSE] 'jenny-ass vulva' (a type of seashell), as 

ornament, drug 
bisu "(tear) drop"? jB lex.; var. of bissul; 

< hasdsu 
bisbisu "pith" jB lex., inside reed 
bisimtu, hisemtu, bisittu "formation, shape; 

product" j/NB; b. sadi "product(s) of the 
mountains"; b. libitti "formed of brick"; 

< hasdmu II 
bisitu(m) 1. Mari, jB "property, assets" 2.jB in 

bislt uzni "intelligence, wisdom", also used as 
divine title; ina la b. u. "through absence of 
understanding" 3.jB bislt libbi mng. unci., 
phps. "the whole body"; < basu 

biskanu, heskdnu "pupa of a caterpillar" NA 

bisru "small child" jB lex. 

bisru — » also bisru 

bissu, bussu "rue"? j/NB, a garden plant 

bistu — » birltu; birtu I 

blstu — » blsu 1 

bisu — » blsu II 

bisu I, bi'su; f. NB b(i' )iltu "bad; malodorous" 
Bab., of words, actions; objects (e.g. fruit, corn, 
pastry, wool, clothing, soil); < ha'dsu 

bisu(m) II, bisu "possessions, property" O/jB 
(st. constr. hisi, OB also bis; ace. with pron. 
suff. bisasu); < has A 

bi'su — » blsu I 

bit, bite "where; when" [E] 1. conj., M/NA, jB, 
NB(Ass.) (ina) bit "where, whither"; "when"; 
/'.ww b. (temporal) "since", (spatial) "from (the 
place) where"; adi bit "until"; ana bit 
"concerning the fact that"; ina bit . . . ina bit . . . 
"if ... if ..." 2. occas. as prep. MB, NA "at"; 

< bltu st. constr. 

46 bitu(m) 

bitanu, Ass. betdnu "in the house, inside" 
M/NA, M/NB [E- ] of wall, transaction, ration; 
j/NB, NA "interior" of palace, temple, mountain 
valleys; of person, parts of the body; < bltu + 
-dnu; > bltdnu 

bitanu, Ass. betdnu "inner, interior" M/NB, NA; 
of archit. features; NA uzu hltdnltu, uzu bltdnidte 
- "viscera"?; < bltdnu + -I 

bitbitis "from house to house" jB; < bltu 

bite -» hit 

bitiqtu(m); pi. bitqdtu(m) "damage, loss; deficit" 
Ass., OB; in agriculture, trade; < batdqu 

bititu "inside"? jB of house; < bltu 

bitkulla (a kind of meat) NB 

bitqu(m) 1. Bab. "break(age); cutting"; of 
umbilical cord; "opening, sluice" through dam, 
canal bank 2. MA "accusation" 3. M/NB '/8 of 
a shekel 4. NB '/2 of a seah measure, uncert. 
5. NB qem hitqalu (a kind of flour) 6. NA 
"levy" of horses etc.; < batdqu 

bitramu(m) "multicoloured" O/jB; of eyes; of a 
stone, of tortoise(shell), jB lex.; < bardmu I 

bitru mng. uncert. jB med. in prescriptions 

bitru I "enormous, magnificent" j/NB "magni- 
ficent" of sun; "prime quality" of pigs, sheep, 
cattle, fish; "enormous" of heaps of barley; 

< baru I ? 
bitru II "to be continuous, endure" Gt of battle, 

spell St [ZAL(.ZAL)] "persevere, continue", 
"hold out; see through"; "stay permanently; 
do (=acc.) permanently"; of activities, 
natural phenomena, star etc. "continue"; jB also 
trans, "provide" harvest, rains etc. "per- 
manently"; ext. "pass all the way through", of a 
hole; > sutehrum; mustahritu; — » heru II 
bitrumu "very colourful" MA, jB; of bird; 
"multicoloured" of yarn; "piebald" of mule; 

< bardmu I 
bittu(m) (a kind of wool) OB ? , jB lex.; < bidtum 
bittu — » also bintu 
bitu(m), Ass. hetu(m) m.; pi. f. bltdtu(m), Ass. 

also m., M/NA betdnu "house" [E; pi. E.MES, 
also E.FJI.a(.MES); OB(Susa) E.A.NI] 
1. "house", leg. b. epsu(m) "built house" 
[OB(Susa) E.DU.A (also for tiitum alone)]; b. 
kisri "house to let" jB; of (nomad's) tent, in pi. 
"encampment" 2. of palace, b. mar sarri 
"palace of the crown prince" NA, NB; rablsa 
muhhi b. "palace supervisor"; b. riduti "house 
of the succession" (= palace of the crown 
prince) Bab., NA; b. kutalli "rear part of house" 
NA for ekal k. (-» ekallu), NB 3. of temple: b. 
lli(m) "temple" Bab., NA; bit DN "temple of 
DN" (— » erib blti) 4. jB, as desig. of "tomb" 




5. b. kunukki(m) "sealed storeroom" O/MB; b. 
nisirti "treasure-house" jB; b. piristi "house of 
secrets" (room in a temple) j/NB; b. makkuri 
"treasure-house" j/NB; b. kare "granary" NB; 
b. ure "shed" for sheep, cattle, also b. alpi; b. 
ruqqi - "shed (for the storage of) pots, vessels" 
M/NB 6. b. klli "prison" M/NB; b. sibitti 
"prison" jB, NA 7. "wing of building, room", 
b. ersi "bedroom" in palace or temple M/NB, 
NA; b, mayydli(m) "bedroom" Mari, jB, 
M/NA; b. simmilti "(well of a) staircase" 
M/NB 8. b. eleppi, b. narkabti "ship's cabin", 
"chariot body"; "container" for weapons, 
liquids, tablets etc.; b. qemi "flour container"; 
NB b. riqql "spice-box"; NB b. nuri "lantern"? 

9. "estate, premises"; NA, NB "plot of land", b. 
narkabtilqasti etc. "chariot/bow etc. fief (— » 
kussu, sisu); jB(Ass.) occas. for asru III 

10. "family, tribe"; "household"; b. abi(m) 
"paternal house, family" O/jB, NA, b. ahutu 
NB 11. Blt-X in names of cities, parts of cities, 
countries 12. freq. compounds: b. dli(m) "City 
House" (as institution) O/MA; b. dulli - 
"workroom", "field under the plough" NB; b. 
maskani "pledge" NB; h. meseri "confinement" 
jB; h. qdti 'house of hand(s)' NA, NB, mng. 
unci; b. rimki "bath-house" j/NB, NA, "bathing 
ritual", b. r. epesu "to perform a bathing ritual"; 
NB h. ritti 'house of the hand' (a kind of state 
or temple fee); b. sinnis(d)ti(m) "women's 
quarters" (in the palace) O/MB; b. sanu 
"outhouse, annexe" M/NA; sa b. sanile 
"lackey"; b. sarri 'house of the king' 
NB(Achaem.) = "royal exchequer"; NA b. 
sarrdni (royal mausoleum); b. sibirri 'house of 
the sceptre' mng. unkn., jB lex., NB; b. tdhti 
"salt desert" NA/jB; b. tuppi(m) 'tablet house' 
= "archive room, school" O/jB [E.DUB.BA(.a)]; 
b. zl/dqlqi 'house of the wind' = "desert", jB; 
> bit; bititu, bltdnu, bitanu; bitbitis; bidtum 

bitiltu - "inactivity"? jB, pi. "derelictions"; 

< batdlu 
bi'u, Ass. blbu; pi. blbu, blbdnu "opening, 

outlet" M/NA, M/NB; b. sa duri "drainage 

opening in wall" 
bizazu "frog"-shaped ornament jB lex.; < Sum. 
bum (or pum) (a bird) OB 
bu — » also bd'um 
budru — » baru III; bu'dru 
bu(')aru(m) - "happiness" Bab.(lit-); < baru III 
buati — » puati 
bubdtu — » buhutu I 
bubbulu — » bibbulu 
bubu(m) 1. (part of an oven) jB/NA lex. 2. (a 

topog. feature) OB 

bubuatu — » bubutu I 

bubulftu, bubuttu — » hubu'tu 

bubutu(m) I, bubdtu(m), MA bubuatu "hunger, 

starvation" [SA.GAR; SU.GU7] of individuals, 

"famine" of land; also "sustenance" 
bubutu(m) II "axle" O/jB, of cart, chariot; OB h. 

ndrim mng. unkn. 
bubu(')tu(m), buhbuhtu, bubuhtu, bubuttu; pi. 

bubu(m)dtu "boil, pustule" O/jB [C1/U4/U.BU. 

BU.UL; BU.BU.UL; U/U4.BU.BU.UL]; -» burbu'tu 
buddarhu — » hudulhu 
buddudu "to waste, dissipate" NA D 
budduru, bunduru, butturu, butturu - "bundle 

of reeds" OB, jB lex. 
budu (a cake)? NA, NB (or read gidde ?) 
budu(m) I, pudu(m), bu' du f. (an implement) 

OAkk, O/jB, of wood, metal 
budu(m) II, pudu(m) f. "shoulder" OAkk, Bab. 

[MURGU] of human beings; ext. "shoulder" of 

parts of liver etc. 
budu(m) III, pudu(m); pi. f. (a festival)? OB, 

budu IV, pudu - (a pest)? jB 
budu — » also pudu 
bu' du—* budu I 
buduhum mng. unkn. Mari 
budulhu, bidurhu, buddarhu "(resin from) 

bdellium tree" j/NB 
budurum "profusion"? OB(lit.) in buduri nuni 

"profusion 7 offish" (jB -» puzru 3) 
budussu - "roller" jB lex. (an agricultural 

buggum (or puggum) (a bird) OB 
buginnu, buninnu(m), OB also hukinum - 

"bucket, trough" O/jB, esp. rit. for (holy) 

water; "(flour-)chest"; MB (as symbol of Sin); 

bugurru (or blpuglqurru) (a cut of meat) M/NA 
buhbuhtu — » hubu'tu 
huhhu — » bu"u II 
buhhuru "to heat" jB D a liquid Dtn "keep hot"; 

>hahru, hahrutu, Bahir 1 ; buhru, huhrltu; 

huhratum 1 - 
buhhusu "to check" jB(Ass.) lex. D text; 

< Aram. 

buhlalu (or puhlalu) (an Elam. class of priests) 

buhratum (an offering) Mari; < buhhuru ? 

buhritu (a hot dish) M/jB med.; < buhru + -I 

buhru "cooked state; cooked food" jB huhra(m) 
"in cooked state, when ready"; (a hot dish made 
with cereals); tdhat h. "cooking salt"?; 

< buhhuru 


bu'itu — ♦ bu'u I 

bukanu(m), bukannu "(wooden) pestle" Bab. 

[GIS.GAN.NA] 1. as tool; O/jB leg. bukdna(m) 

siituqu(m) "to make step over the pestle" 

(symbolic act in sale transaction) 2.jB lex., 

med. (a plant) 3. jB lex. (an insect), usu. isid b. 

'base of a pestle' 
bukasum "duke" O/MB; < Kass. 
buklnum — ♦ buginnu 
bukkatu — ♦ abukkatu 
bukratu — ♦ bukurtu 
bukru(m) "son, child" Bab.(lit.) of gods, 

humans; > bukurtu 
bukum (a bird) OB 
buku (or puku) 1. Qatna (an ornament) 2.jB 

mng. unkn. 
bukurtu, bukratu(m) "daughter" 0/jB(lit.), said 

of goddesses only; < bukru 
bulalu (a plant) jB 
buldtum — ♦ ba'uldtu; be'uldtum 
bulffu — ♦ bulu 

bulili (a species of crested bird) jB lex. 
bulllu — ♦ abulllu 

bulimanu mng. unkn. MB as PN 
bullu I "to throw down, cast away" M/NB 

D hand; work; of fate (simtu) "strike down" 
bullu II subst. ~ "decay"? M/jB; > bullum, 

bullum ~ "putrid"? OB, of blood; < bullu II + -i; 

> bullutum 
bullutum "state of decay"? OB, of land in b. 

aldkum "to go to wrack and ruin"; < bullum 
bultu (a quilt or blanket) Am., Nuzi 
bultu — ♦ bustu 
bulti(t)tu — ♦ bustitum 
bultu(m) "life; cure, healing" [ti(.LA)] 

1. "lifetime" 2. "(state of) life" 3. "subsistence, 

food" 4. "cure" of illness, freq. in pi. "medical 

treatment, prescription" 5. "health(y state)"; 

< baldtu II 
bulu(m), MA buld'u "dry wood, dry reed" Bab., 

bulu(m) "animals, livestock" Bab., NA; 

[MAS.ANSE] "domestic livestock", NB rab b. 

"overseer of the herds"; jB of wild animals, b. 

seri "animals of the desert", also b. Sakkan 
buluggu — ♦ balangu 
buluhhum -* balufrhu 
bumbulu — ♦ bibbulu 
bundnu — ♦ pundnu 
bunatu "daughter" jB lex.; < bunu I 
bunbullu mng. unkn. jB, NA 
bunduru — ♦ budduru 

48 buqqumu 

buninnu — ♦ buginnu 

bunna, bunni ~ "thanks to"? MB in PNs; 
bunnamma "be so kind as to ..." OB; < banii II 

bunna(n)nu pi. tant. "physiognomy, (facial) 
features" Bab.(lit.) of human, god; jB salam 
b.-ya "likeness of my face"; esp. "(pleasant) 
features" in PNs, NB also fPN Bunnariitu; 
"(representation of) face" in art etc., also 
"image" of a chariot; of gardens b. dlisu "the 
characteristic feature of his city"?; < band II 

bunni — ♦ bunna 

bunnu — ♦ bunu II 

bunnu "beautified" j/NB, of appearance; NB 
(desig. of currency)?; < banu II 

bunnunu (or punnunu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 

buntum "daughter" OA; < bunu I 

bunum — ♦ bunum III 

bunu I "son" jB lex.; > buntum, bunatu 

bunu(m) II, bunnu "goodness"; pi. "face" Bab. 
[DU in PNs only] 1. sg., occas. du. "outward 
appearance" of god, human, tree, day etc., usu. 
"good looks"; "favour, good intentions"; NB b. 
pdni "friendly face", "prominence, distinction"; 
NB b. zed "preferential share" of jointly owned 
land; OB ana b. "in view of 2. pi., occas. du. 
"face" of god, human, b. namrutum "shining 
happy faces"; < band II; — ♦ bunzerru; buppdni- 

bunum III (or bunum) (a bird) OB 

bunzerru - "(fowler's) hide" jB, of reeds; 
transf. "web" of spider; < bunu II + zerru I 

buppanam "face down" Mari, in b. abdkum "to 
turn upside down" 

buppani- "face down, flat on the face" O/jB with 
pron. suff.; b.- saldlulsahdpulmaqdtu "to lie/be 
prostrate/fall on o.'s face"; of bowl ina b.-sa 
"upside down"?; < bunu II + panu I pi.; 
> buppdnis 

buppanis "face down" jB 

buqamu; f. buqamtu "lamb ready for plucking" 
jB; < baqdmu 

buqaqum "little gnat, fly"? OAkk, OB as PN; 

< baqqu dimin.? 
buqarum "cattle" Mari; < W.Sem. 
buqasum "broad(-shouldered)" OAkk, as PN; 

< baqdsu 
buqlu(m), buqulu(m) ; OA pi. f. 1. "malt" Bab., 

OA, Nuzi, Bogh. [MUNU4.g; Nuzi also 
BULUG.MES]; in similes kima b. hasdlulsetu "to 
crush/spread out like malt"; qem b. "malt flour" 
2. OA, NB "vegetables"; > baqdlu 
buqqumu; f. buqquntu "lamb ready for 
plucking" jB lex.; "curly-haired" person OB 
lex.; < baqdmu 



buru(m) II 

buqquru "to inquire into, investigate" NB D; 

< Aram.; — ♦ baqdru 

buqqusum "very broad" OAkk, OB, as PN; 

< baqdsu 
buqrum — ♦ buqurru 
buqulu — ♦ buqlu 

buqumu(m), MA, M/jB also buqunu "plucking" 
O/jB, MA [ZU.SI.GA; SID.SI.GA] as event, 
season, "(sheep) shearing"; bit b. "plucking 
house" [E.ZU.SI.GA]; MA, MB "plucked wool"; 

< baqdmu 
buqurru — ♦ bugurru 

buqurru, puqurru, MA b/puqurrd'u, buqrum; 
MA pi. b/puqurrdnd' u "legal claim" O/jB, MA; 

< baqdru 

burahu ~ "shining"? MB as PN; < bardhu 

burallu (a stone object) NA 

burallum — ♦ also burullum 

buranu — ♦ buru I 

burasu(m), NB also barsu "(species of) 

juniper" [GIS.LI; (GIS.)SIM.LI] "juniper tree" as 

timber; "juniper (resin)"; "(pieces of) juniper 

bura urn — ♦ buru I 
burbani mng. unkn. NA 
burbillatu (an insect) NA 
biirbu'tu; pi. burbudtu, OB burbuhdtum 

"bubble" O/jB, Bogh.; — » bubu'tu 
burddtu — ♦ purddtu 
burdi — ♦ burti samhat 
burdu — ♦ purdu 
burgu (or pur git) (a type of offering) j/NB; 

< Sum. 

burhis, burhu ~ "buffalo" MA, Am.; hunted; in 

burkitu — ♦ burkutu 

burku, purku "knee" M/NB, NA 1. du. "knees" 
2. "lap" of gods and kings, also transf. ref. to 
control, protection 3. sa b. "loincloth" 
MB(Alal.), Am., Nuzi; — » birku; meburku 

burkutu, burkitu (or purkiilitu) ~ "(hereditary) 
share" M/NB of fields 

burmahu (a big libation bowl) jB [BUR.MAtf]; 

< Sum.; — ♦ puru I 

burmamu(m) (an animal) OAkk ? , MB, jB lex.; 

< haramu I 

burmu "coloured part)" jB, in b. ini "iris"; 

< bardmu I 
burrdnu — ♦ murrdnu 
burratu mng. unkn. jB 
burrisdnu — ♦ aburrisdnu 
burrum (a kind of cereal) Mari 

burru (a temple servant)? jB lex.; also pi. 
burrutu Bogh., of women; < Sum 

burrumtu (a multicoloured bird) jB; < burrumu 

burrumu, Ass. barrumu(m); f. burrumlntu, NB 
also burrundu "multicoloured, pied, speckled" 
[GUN(.GUN); GUN.A] of cloth, clothes; metal, 
stone; birthmark; tree; bird; animals: horse, dog, 
cow, sheep, goat; < bardmu I 

burruqu, Ass. barruqu "with flashing eyes" 
M/jB, Bogh., NA, of humans; jB of goat; 

< bardqu 

burrusum "bald"? OAkk, OA Barrusum as PN; 

jB lex.; < bardsu 
bursaggu/u(m) (or pursaggu/u(m)) a kind of 

offering) Bab. [BUR.SAG.GA]; < Sum. 
bursallu (a stone bowl) jB lex. 
bursiktu — ♦ bursiktu 
bursindu, bursittu — ♦ pursindu 
bursa adv. mng. unkn. jB; < bardsu ? 
bursatu — ♦ purddtu 
bursimtu, bursimdu (or pur...); pi. also 

bursimetu ~ "pivot-stone box"? j/NB for door- 
bursasillu, bursasillu, bursusallu (or pur...) (a 

stone bowl) jB; also deified as symbol; < Sum. 
bursiktu (or bursiktu, purslsiktu) (a wooden 

implement) jB lex. 
bursusallu — » bursasillu 
bursuzaggu (a stone bowl) jB lex. 
burti samhat, burtalburdi samhat, burti 

sa(n)hat(i), NA also burdi (sahi) "caterpillar" 

jB, NA 
burtu(m) I "cistern, well; fish pond; source (of 

river); hole, pit" Bab. [PU]; < biiru I 
burtu(m) II, NB bustu "cow" Bab.; also as fPN; 

< buru II 

burtu(m) III "proof, attestation" OB in tuppi b. 
"record of attestation"; < bdru III 

buru "son" NA; < Aram. 

buru(m) I, OA burd'um, Nuzi, NB also buru; 
pi. NB also buranu "(reed) mat" Bab., OA 

MA.NIGIN.NA] to cover boat; as shelter, in cult; 

for roofing, irrigation dyke; OA (a type of rug) 
buru II (a garden plant) jB lex. 
buru(m) I "cistern, well; pool; pit" Bab., MA; of 

water; also "pit" of white naphtha, bitumen; for 

trapping animals; > burtu I 
buru(m)II "(bull) calf OAkk, O/MA, O/jB 

[(GU4.)AMAR] cow adi b.-sa "with her calf; b. 

sizbi "sucking calf; occas. of young of other 

animals, e.g. ass; as epith. of gods, e.g. Sin, 

Samas; of the king etc., in PNs; > burtu II 

buru(m) HI 



buru(m) III (a surface measure) "bur" O/jB = 18 

iku (~ 64,800 sq. metres) [BUR(.IKU)]; st. abs. 

bur"\ bur"; < Sum. 
buru(m) IV "hunger" O/jB, NA; < beru II 
buru V (a type of song) jB 
bum VI (a word for sky) jB lex.; < Sum. 
buru — ► also buru I 
buru — » bu'uru I 
burubalum I "ruin, (abandoned) building site" 

OB, Mari, Elam [BUR.BAL]; < Sum. 
burubalum II (desig. of a supernatural snake) 

OB mag. 
buruburu (a children's game) MB 
buruhli — » wuruhli 
burullum, belarullu(m), burallum (ox pur.,.) (a 

commercial police official) OA, OB(N.Mes.), 

MB(AlaL); b. rabum "chief ft." 
burumitu "sky-blue lapis lazuli" jB lex.; 

< burumu 

burummu (a bird) jB; < bardmu I 

burumu, burummu pi. tant. "heaven, sky" 

j/NB(lit.) bdb b. (name of a temple gate in 

Assur); kakkab b. "star of heaven", sitir b. 

"celestial writing" i.e. the stars; < bardmu I; 

> burumitu 
bururanu mng. unkn. NB 
burussu(m) (or purussu(m)); pi. f. "bung, plug" 

O/jB, NA, of a mash tub; OB "plug" of a 

water-outlet; NA "stopper" of waterskin 
buru(t)tum — » puruttum 
burzaggu (a stone bowl) jB lex. 
burzaras, burzarasu (desig. of horses) MB 
burzibandu (kind of vessel) NA 
burziburzi (a leather belt)? jB lex. 
burzidunbarakku (a vessel with a lip or spout) 

jB lex.; < Sum. 
burzigallu "big pursitu vessel" jB [(DUG.) 

BUR.ZI.GAL] for fumigation, incense-burning; 

< Sum. 

burzisilabandu (kind of vessel) jB lex. 

burzisilagallu (kind of vessel) jB lex. 

busarum "announcement" OB; < bussuru 

busratu — » bussurtu 

bussumu I "pleasant"? Bogh. lex.; jB lex. of beer 

bussumu(m) II "to please" OB D 

bussurtu(m), j/NB also busratu, NA passurtu 
"message, report" Bab., M/NA [KA.DU.a] b. 
hade(m)/dumqi(m)/lumnim "glad/good/bad 
tidings"; OB om. b. nurim "message of light"; 

< bussuru 

bussuru(m), NA passuru "to bring, send a 
message" O/jB, NA to s.o. (= ace); "deliver 
(pleasant) news"; "extol" a god; > busarum; 
bussurtu; mubassiru; tabsertum 

busukku (or pusukku) ~ "son" jB lex. 

busallibu, busellibu (a plant) jB lex. 

busasu pi. tant. "trifles" jB; < basdsu 

busellibu — » busallibu 

businnu, businum, OA, Nuzi also bisinnu(m) 
[(GIS.)GI.ZU.LUM(.MA)?] 1. M/jB "mullein, 
Verbascum" 2. OAkk, O/jB, NA "wick" (made 
from Verbascum leaves); NA also "lamp" 
3. }B,NA bit b. "lamp" 

busis "like a b. bird" jB; < busu I 

busu(m) I "hyaena" O/jB, NA; also (a bird) ~ 
"rock partridge"; as PN; > busis 

busu II 1. M/NA, NB "fine linen, byssus" 
2. M/NA, M/jB, Nuzi m. & f., also buzu ? (a 
type of glass); "glass vessel" for oil, salt 

busalu(m) "what has been cooked" 1. OA, jB 
lex. ~ "cooked meat" 2.jB lex. "ripe date"; 

< basdlu 

busanu(m), bu'sdnu 1. O/jB "bad smell" (a 

disease affecting the mouth, nose and skin) 

[KlR4.gAB] 2. Bogh., jB (a plant) lex., med. 

[ AB]; < ba'dsu 
busiu — » busum 
busiu ~ "ripening" of dates jB; "smelting" of 

ores, "melting" of glass MA, jB; < basdlu 
bussanitu (or pussdnitu) (a star) jB 
bussu — » bissu 
bustu(m), j/NB also bultu "shame" Bab., OA 

"sense of shame, modesty; dignity", ina Id b.-su 

"shamelessly", sa b. Id isu "who has no 

shame"; < basu I 
bustu —* also burtu II 
bustitum, j/NB, NA bu/alti(t)tu "woodworm, 

termite"? Bab., NA [AN.TI.BAL] in granary; eats 

busum, busii(m), MA busiu "goods, property" 

Bab., MA [NIG.SU; NIG.GAL(.LA)]; OB usu. 

pi.; < basu 
bu'su, busu "stench" jB; also (a stinking plant); 

< ba'dsu 

butinnu (or putinnu) "button" Am., jB lex.; on 

shoe, Am. of stone 
butiqtu "(water-flow from) dam breach" jB, 

NA; < batdqu 
butturu I ~ "with a mutilated leg" MB as name 

of a horse; < butturu II 
butturu II "to mutilate"? jB lex. D; > butturu I; 

butturu — ► also budduru 
butuqqu(m) "loss(es)" O/jB, in trade etc.; OA 

butuqqd'u pi. tant. "shortfall, deficiency"; 

< batdqu 

butuqtu(m); pi. butuqdtu(m) "breach, cutting" 
Bab. [A.MAg] 1. "breach" in dyke, bank, house; 



bu"uru II 

b. batdqu "to make a breach"; "(water from) 
breach"; transf. ref. to Marduk's word, flow of 
blood 2. "(new) cutting" for channel 3. OA (a 
type of goods) 4. jB "loss(es)"; < batdqu 

butnanu, butundnu (a garden plant) Bogh., 
j/NB, NA; < butnu 

butnatu — ► butumtu 

butnu "terebinth, Pistacia" M/jB, NA as tree, for 

timber; "terebinth (nuts)" (coll.); > butumtu; 


butturu — ► budduru 

butumtu(m), bututtu, butuntu, butnatu 
"terebinth" Bab., NA [GIS.LAM.GAL] as tree, 
wood; nut(s); as flour; < butnu 

butundnu — ► butnanu 

butuntu, bututtu — ► butumtu 

bu"u I "sought for" NB in fPN Bu"ltu; 
<bu"u II 

bu"u(m) II, Bab., Am. occas. buhhu "to look 
for" Bab., M/NA D 1. "seek for" things, 
people; life, friendship etc. 2. j/NB, NA ina qdti 
X b. 'look in X's hands' for = "call X to 
account" for 3. M/NA leg. "attempt to 
start" proceedings 4. M/NA "to demand, claim" 
5. Am., Bogh., Ug. "ask for, aspire to"; 
"intend" evil Dtn jB "keep seeking out" 
Dt (NA Dtt) pass, of D; >bu"ul; bd'itu; 
teb'itum; mube'u 1 

bu"uru I, buru, Ass. ba"uru subst. "hunting" 
jB, NA, b. epesu "to go hunting" of king, of 
falcon; "prey", transf. in love lyrics "quarry, 
catch"; < baru I D infin.; — ► mu'uru 

bu"uru II adj. "captured" jB; < bdru I 

buwati — ► puati 

buzu — ► biisu II 2 


da'dbu — » da'dpu 

da'amu(m) I "to be(come) dark, dim" Bab.(lit.) 
G (//;', ulu) [DARA4; MUD] of sun; esp. stat. of 
celestial bodies, eyes, torch etc. "is dark" Gtn 
OB of day "become dark" D "make dark, 
darken"; esp. stat., of celestial bodies, diseased 
parts of body Dt OB pass, of D; >da'mu; 
da'imul; ddmdtu; da'ummatu, da'ummis; 
du'umu, du"umis 

da'amu II, ddmu ~ "to wander about" jB 
G (pres. iddm) D ~ "make to fumble" 

da'anatte "by force" NA; < dandnu I 

da'dnu — » dandnu I. II 

da' ' dnu — > dayydnu 

da'apu, NA also da'dbu "to push (away)" jB, 
NA G (///) "push, knock (against)" part of 
body; "push away" stool etc.; "knock down" 
weapon; NA "push ahead" troops D NA 
"repulse" revolt; "injure by pressure" the nasal 
septum Dt pass, of D "be pushed away" N of 
wall "be knocked over" 

da'dqu — ► damdqu 

da'atu — » di'atum 

da" atu — » dannatu; dannu I 

dabababum "idle talk" OB; < dabdbu II 

dababtu "talk; (faculty of) speech" jB, NA; d. 
su/airdti "false talk"; d. sapti/pt; < dabdbu I 

dababu(m) I "talk" Bab., NA [DUn; NA also 
DUn.DUii] "(idle) speech"; d. kittilkinu 
"honest, straightforward, talk", neg. Id kitte; 
"complaint", leg. "litigation", bel(et) d. 
"adversary (in court)"; jB of inscription on bed, 
content of letter, document; < dabdbu II infin. 

dababu(m) II "to speak, talk" G {ulu) 
[DUn. DUn] 1. "talk" to (=ana), with (=itti) 

s.o.; itti libbisu d. "talk with o.'s heart, 
consider" 2. "speak, tell" truth, lies; "make" 
impudent "remarks" etc.; "declare, make 
statement" in front of s.o.; NA "recite" 
3. "litigate"; j/NB dlnu d. "bring an action" 
(against s.o.); NB itti X d., NA issi X d. "accuse 
X, prosecute X" 4. "plot" (NA/NB 
inalana muhhi) R Man Gtn "talk repeatedly" 
Rtn Man D "talk much" 1. OB "call on s.o. 
for" (= ana), "because of (= assum) services, 
payments etc.; "call s.o. to account", transf. of 
disease 2. "complain" 3. Bogh. for S "cause to 
speak" 4. jB "talk nonsense" DR Man Dt "be 
called on"; "be claimed" S "make s.o. speak, 
talk"; jB rit. "make s.o. say" prayer etc.; leg. 
"make s.o. declare", "make s.o. litigate"; "stir 
up, incite to gossip" etc.; "make" woman 
"compliant" St NB "be made to speak"; 
> dabdbu I, dababtu, dabababum; dabubum; 
dibbu, dibbatum; ddbibu, dabbibu; dubbubis, 
dubbubtum; musadbibu, musadbibutu 

dabaru I mng. unkn. jB G lex. only; > dabru 1 -; 

mundabru 1 
dabaru II subst. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

dabasinnu(m), tubasinnu (a leather object) 

OAkk, Bab., Bogh. 
dabatum — > tapatum 
dabbanu (a drug)? jB med. 
dabbibu; f. dabbibtu(m) "slanderer" O/jB; jB 

also "garrulous"; NB in PNs; < dabdbu II 
dabbu 1. NB ~ "bolt, pin"? in house construction 

2. jB lex. "bear" 
dabdu(m), dubdil, Man etc. daw(a)dum "defeat, 

bloodshed" O/jB [bad.bad; BAD5.BAD5 (-► 




abiktu)] d. ddkulmahdsulsakdnu "to inflict a 
dabibu "(legal) advocate"? M/NB in PN; 

< dabdbu II 

dabiru (a leather object) jB lex. 

dabitu, dabium — » dabu 

dabnu (or tldaplbnu) mng. unkn. NB 

dabru(m) ~ "aggressive" 0/jB(poet.) of person, 
storm; < dabaru I ? 

dabtu (a slab used in glass-making) jB 

dabu, OAkk dabium; f. dabitufm) "bear" OAkk, 
Bab.; also as (f)PN; > dabuis 

dabubum "conversation" OB; < dabdbu II 

dabuis "like a bear" jB; < dabu 

dada (a spiny plant) jB lex. 

dadanu (a spiny plant) jB [GlS.KlSli6-BAB ?] 

dadanu, diaddnii, jB also dadddnu pi. tant. 
"tendon of the neck" O/jB 

dadddmu — » damddmu 

dadddnu — > dadanu 

daddaris "like centaury 7 " jB; < daddaru 

daddaru(m), daddiru (a foetid plant, phps.) 
"centaury" Bab. 

daddu(m); pi. f. ~ "sole" O/jB of shoe 

daddu — > also dddu 

dadmu pi. tant. "villages, settlements; the 
inhabited world" Bab.(lit.) 

dadu(m), M/NB also daddu 1. "darling, 
favourite" of lover, father, son 2. also pi. 
"sexual attractiveness" of male, female 3. (a 
fish) [AB.KU6] as food 

dagalu(m) "to see, look" G (a/u) 1. "look, (be 
able to) see", Id dagdl mi "blindness" 2. Bogh. 
"experience" 3. stat. NB "has at his disposal, 
owns" 4. OA "look upon (as security), reserve 
to o.s." 5. "wait" 6. "obey" 7. NA ene X d. 
'"look at s.o.'s eyes', attend to s.o." S.pdn(i) X 
d. "await" s.o.; "obey" s.o.; Am. "show 
reverence"; pan X d. NA, NB of property 
"belong to s.o." 9. ana pan X d. "wait for X" 
Gtn iter, of G of eyes "look repeatedly"; "aim" 
a bow "repeatedly"; pan X d. "constantly obey" 
Gt "belong to henceforth" S caus. of G "make 
see, look", esp. in pdn(i) X s. "cause to wait for; 
make subject to"; NA (inalana p.) s. "hand 
over, transfer ownership of to s.o.; put 
under s.o.'s command"; "entrust" with a task 
N in jB ana X iddagil "attention was on X"; 
> diglu; dagiltu; ddgilu; madgaltu, madgalu; 
musadgilannu; sudugultu 

dagaru N jB mng. unci. 

dagiltu "observation" jB in sa d. "observer, spy"; 

< dagdlu 

dagilu "one who sees" 1. adj. of eyes "seeing", 
of man "sighted" 2. in d. issur(dt)e "augur, 
bird-watcher"; < dagdlu 

dahru ~ "angry" jB lex. 

dahu I "beaten"? MA, desig. of textile; < dahu II 

dahu(m) II, dehu "to beat, press down"? O/jB, 
NA G OB, NA "push s.o. on"; stat. of part of 
exta "is depressed"? Ntn of kidneys "be always 
compressed"?; > dahu I, dehu, dehutu; dihu 1 

da'ikanu(m) "murderer" Bab., MA; <dd'iku + 

da'iku(m), dayyiku; f. dayyiktu "killer; murderer" 
OA, O/jB; OB also "murderous"; jB lex. as 
desig. of abortifacient stone = aban Id alddi; 

da'imu I "gloom" jB lex.; < da'amu I 

da'imu II ~ "lance" jB lex.; — > id'umu 

dd'inutu — ► dayydnutu 

da'iqtu —* damqu 

da'isu(m) "thresher" O/jB desig. of worker, ox; 

< didsum 

dakaku I "to crush" jB G lex. only D "crush, 
grind up" drugs, in mortar; > dakkukutum; 

dakaku(m) II ~ "to gambol, scamper" O/jB 
G (ulu) of lamb, donkey etc.; of child 

dakamu ~ "to bow down" jB G lex. 
D "prostrate" s.o., of disease ? lex. 

dakasu(m) *• "to press in" O/jB G (a/u) om. of 
parts of body, stat. "are depressed"; JB med. 
"press on" s.o.; OB math, "press out, enlarge" 
geometrical figure Gt stat. tidkus(at) "is 
pressed" OB of liver D ~ G of disease ? lex. 
only; > daksu; diksu, dikistum 

dakiru ~ "tree" jB lex. 

dakkannu(m) "doorway"? O/jB [KI.GISGAL]; 

< Sum. 
dakkassu — ► takkassu 

dakkukutum (an edible commodity) OAkk(Ur 
III); < dakaku I 

daksu ~ "pressed down" jB; < dakdsu 

dakum (a kind of accommodation)? OB 

dakii — ► also deku II 

daku(m), Ass. dudku(m) "to kill; beat" G (u) 
[GAZ] 1. "kill" person; jB/NA "fight" (-► Gt) 
2. "beat" as punishment; "defeat" enemy, city in 
battle (— > dabdu); of disease and sim. "strike"; 
infin. bel(et) d. "tormentor", of sorcerer 3. OA 
"break (and so invalidate)" tablet 4. "strike 
down" mountain; "kill" part of date palm by 
pruning Gt jB/NA "fight with each other", stat. 
pi. tiduku S O/jB "make s.o. kill s.o." N [GAZ] 
pass, "be killed"; diktu idddk "a massacre will 




take place"; >dd'iku, dd'ikdnu; dikul; diktu; 
madaktu; tiduku 

dakutu — ► dikutu 

dalabdnu — ► dalbdnu 

daldbu — ► daldpu 

dalahu(m) "to disturb, stir up" Bab., OA, NA 
G (a/u) [LU] "muddy" water, "blur" eyes(ight); 
"disturb, trouble" people, land; "disturb, worry" 
heart, mind; "embarrass, interfere with" s.o.; 
stat., of omens "are confused, obscure" D ~ G 
"disturb, trouble" people, water; of face "be 
blurred" with (= ace.) tears; lex., Am. "hurry" 
S jB "cause disturbance" N [LU] pass, "be made 
turbid"; "be stirred up"; OB of fields "get mixed 
up" Ntn [LU.LU] iter, of N; > dalhu; dilhu, 
dilihtu, dulluhtu; dulluhis; duluhhd; dulhdnu; 
dalhdnis; mudallihu 

dalalu I "to be small, wretched" O/jB G OB stat. 
of part of liver "is stunted" D "oppress" s.o.; 
> dallu, dallalu 1 , dalllu II ? ; dullu*; dullulu 

dalalu(m) II "to praise" G (a/u) absol. "sing 
praise"; "praise" god, dalililtanattiltanitti DN d. 
"sing praises of DN"; jB qurud DN d. "praise 
valour of DN" S caus. of G Bogh.; > dalllu I; 

dalamu (or dalamu) (a desig. of the 
underworld)? jB lex. 

dalapis (or dalapis), dallapis adv. "awake" jB; 
< daldpu 

dalapu(m), NA daldbu "to stir up; be sleepless" 
Bab., NA G (Hi) 1. trans, "stir up, keep awake" 
2. intrans. jB/NA "stay awake"; stat. of god, 
human "is sleepless"; astr. "linger on" Gtn jB 
intrans. "stay awake all night; be always 
sleepless" D jB of enemy "disturb, harass" 
Dtn iter, of D S j/NB, NA "stir up" N "become 
restless"; > dalpu, dalpis; dulpu; dalapis; 
diliptu; dullupu; sudlupu 

dal(a)qum mng. unkn. OB as PN 

dalbanu(m), dulbdnu, NB also dalabanu; pi. f. 
"intervening space" Bab.; Susa, math.; M/NB 
"passageway", also bit d.; < Sum. 

dalhanis "into a distracted state" jB with ewum 
S; < dalhu 

dalhu "troubled, disturbed" j/NB, NA [LU] 
"cloudy" of water, beer; "obscure, confused" of 
illness, omen; of land, people "unstable, 
chaotic"; f. dalihtu as subst. sg. & pi. 
"disturbance, (political) troubles"; < daldhu 

dalTlu(m) I, M/NA dililu, usu. in pi. "praise" 
Bab., M/NA [KA.TAR] d. DN dalalu "to praise 
DN"; jB/NA ana dalili "to sing" the king's 
"praises"; also as PN; < dalalu II 

dalllu II 'poor creature' (a type of frog)? jB; 

< dalalu I ? 
dallqdtu — ► dullqatu 

dalitum "bucket" O A, for drawing water; < ddlu 
dallalu 'poor creature' (a type of frog)? jB; 

< dalalu I ? 
dallapis — ► dalapis 

dallu(m) "small, stunted" O/jB, NA of humans, 
as PN; OB of grain; < dalalu I 

dallu — ► also dalu I 

dalluqu — ► dulluqum 

dalmdhu — ► talmdhu 

dalpis "restlessly" jB; < dalpu 

dalpu "sleepless, restless; watchful" jB, of 
person; f. daliptu occas. = diliptu "restless- 
ness", also pi.; lex. (desig. of gold); < daldpu; 
— ► dalapis 

daltu(m) f. "door" [GlS/GI.IG] d. samelerseti 
cosmic "door of heaven/underworld"; OB ext. 
(feature on breast of foetus); — ► edelu 

dalu(m) I, ddlu, dallu "bucket" Bab., NA for 
drawing water, of bronze; NB bit d. "land 
irrigated by bucket", opp. of bit me; < dalii II 

dalu II "to draw" water "with bucket" G (ulu) 
[BAL], NB also "irrigate" field "with buckets"; 

> dalu I, dalutum; dalu, dalitum, ddlutu; dilum, 
dilutu I.II; dulu; madid' um; — ► dullu 

dalu III (a needle or pin) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ddlu — » dalu I 

dalu "water drawer" M/NB [LU.A.BAL] as 
occupation; also 'dipper' (a bird); < dalii II; 

> dalitum, ddlutu 

dalu(m), Ass. dudlu "to move, roam around" 
O/jB, NA G (it) "walk, run around" of human, 
demon, fox, dog, NA of boat; NA "be active in 
service"; "prowl" of ghosts, demons D "dis- 
turb, disrupt" s.o. S Mari "make s.o. run 
around"; > dayydlu I, dayyaltu, dayydlitu 

dalutum; pi. ddluwdtum "bucket-irrigated field" 
Mari; < dalii II 

dalutu "function of a water drawer" NB; < dalii 

damamis "into (a place of) lamentation" OB; 

< damdmu 

damamu(m) "to wail, moan" OA, 0/jB(lit.) 
G (ulu) of person; of animal "howl"; "creak, 
rustle" of reed-bed, house, bricks Gtn (a/a, 
ulu) "moan, howl persistently" of person, 
animal (or Ntn ?) S caus. of G "make" people 
"wail", pigeons "coo" N ~ G, OB Ntn — > 
Gtn ?; > damamis; dimmu, dimmatu; 
dumdmu II 

damaqu(m), NA also *da'dqu "to be(come) 
good" G (('/('; NA stat. de'iq, deq) [SIG5; stat. 



dananu(m) II 

also AL.SAg] 1. absol. of person, god, object, 
part of body; of proceedings etc. 2. Mari "be 
friendly" 3. of person, household "prosper, 
have success, have good luck"; om. "be 
propitious" [also KAL] 4. analelilina mahri-l 
ina pan X d. "be pleasing to" s.o. D [SIG5] 
1. "improve in quality, embellish, beautify, 
polish" 2. "carry out" proceedings, work etc. 
"well, properly"; of deity "make" s.o.'s dreams, 
fate "pleasant"; "make" prayer "acceptable" 
3. NA in hendiad., e.g. dammiqd epsd "do it 
well!" 4. "do good, do a favour" to (= OB ana, 
jB ace.) s.o.; OA, OB "supply, loan" "as a 
favour (tadmiqtum)" 5. Bogh. "approve (of)" 
Dtn OB "continually make good" S jB "make" 
omen etc. "propitious"; > damqu, damqam- 
inam; damqatu; damqis; dumqu, dumuqtum, 
dumuqqu; dumdqu; dummuqu, dummuqtum; 
mudammiqu, mudammiqatu; tadmiqu, 
damasu ~ "to humble o.s." jB G (ulu) "prostrate 

o.s." Gt ~ G; > damsum 
damasu ~ "to wipe"? jB lex.; > dumsu 
damatu, da'mdtu pi. tant. (a dark-yellow paste) 
jB, NA' ? [IM.SIG7.SIG7] in medical, glazing 
recipes; in foundation deposit; on clay figurine; 

< da'mu 

damdamu, damdammu, dadddmu (a kind of 

mule) O/jB [AN$E.NUN.NA] 
damgdru — ► tamkdru 
damgiru mng. unkn. jB in binut d. 
damiqtu — ► damqu 
damkdru — ► tamkdru 
dammuqu — » dummuqu 
damqam-inam, daqqam-inam, damqa-ini 

'good eye' jB desig. of ocular defect; < damqu 

+ inu I 
damqatu (a plant) jB lex.; < damdqu 
damqis "well; kindly" Bab., OA [SIG5]; 

< damqu 

damqu(m), NA also danqu, daqqu; f. damileqtu, 
MA da'iqtu, NA deqtu "good" [SIG5] 1. adj. of 
animal, goods, object "of good quality"; morally 
"good" of person; physically "handsome, 
beautiful"; "capable, qualified" of soldiers etc.; 
"good, favourable" name, words, deed, price, 
omen, message; "kind" of deity, eyes, hands; 
Mari, MB(Alal.), Am., Bogh. "notable, well- 
to-do" 2. M/NA, NB (mar) damqi [A/DUMU. 
SIG/SIG5] (a kind of soldier)? 3. f. damiqtu(m) 
as subst., sg. & pi. [SIG5- ; MUNUS.SIG5] "good 
fortune": with qabu etc. "to speak well on 
behalf of, intercede for" s.o.; jB amdt d. "good 

word"; with epesu "to do a good deed, a 
kindness"; < damdqu; > damqis, damqam- 

damsum, dahsum "humble" OB; < damasu 

damsillu (a kind of cucumber)? jB as name of 
one or more plants 

damtum I, tamtu O/jB mng. unci.; Mari phps. 
"blood, lineage"; < ddmu ? 

damtu II, dattu ~ "form, shape"? jB lex. 

damu — ► dawiim 

damu(m) "blood" [US] 1. liter, sg. & pi.; jB, NA 
tdbik d. "shedder of blood"; (aban) dame 
[NA4.OS] 'blood-stone' (name of a stone) 
2. transf. bel d. "murderer"; pi. "bloodshed; 
bloodguilt"; OA pi. "blood-money" 3. jB pi. 
"blood" = "lineage" 4. lex. "red wine" 
5. ddm(u) ereni(m) 'cedar-blood' = "cedar 
resin" as aromatic; > damtum V; — ► hiliddmu 

damu — ► also da'mu 

damu — ► da'dmu II 

da'mu(m), ddmu "dark" O/jB [MUD; DARA4] 
blood, weather, lex. "dark (paste)"; f. pi., lex. 
"dark wool"; < da'dmu I; > damatu 

dananis "by force" jB; < dandnu I 

dananu(m) I, M/NA da'dnu "power, strength" 
O/jB, M/NA [KALAG] of god, king, enemy; ina 
d. "by force"; "severity" of cold weather; ext. ~ 
'reinforcement' (part of liver); < dandnu II 
infin.; > dananis; da'dnatte 

dananu(m) II, M/NA da'dnu "to be(come) 
strong" G (('//) [KALAG(.GA)] liter, and transf., 
of god, king, person, animal etc.; of city, 
weapon, watch, reed, part of liver, "be heavy" 
of injury, disease, debt, NB deficit; "be hard, 
severe" of terrain, road, weather, work; transf. 
"pressurize" s.o. (=dat.), of words "be tough, 
threatening"; O A of silver, cloth etc. "be hard to 
come by"; with pdnu of attitude "become hard, 
harden" D "make strong; reinforce" person, 
building, fortress; parts of body, esp. liver, 
guard, watch; shouting, grief, fire, treaty, 
bondage; NA/jB "increase" tribute; jB "assign 
permanently, bequeath to s.o."; OAkk, OB 
"make" work "solid"; "make" words, letter 
"tough, threatening"; OB pdni- d. "harden o.'s 
attitude" Dt pass, "be reinforced, strengthened" 
R (udanannin) of part of liver "be of even 
thickness" Rt (uddanannin) "match o.'s 
strength"; > dannu I, II ? , dannatu, iddanna 1 -, 
dannutu, dannis, dannisam, adannis; 
da'dnatte; dandnu I, dananis; dandannu, 
dandanniitu; dunnu, dunndnu 1 -; dunnunu, 
dunnunis, dunnuttu 1 -; madnanu; tadnintum 



darakum II 

dandannu, NB also dannudannu "all-powerful" 
M/NB, NA(lit.) as divine, royal title; 
< dananu II 

dandannutu "all-powerfulness" jB; < dandannu 

danene —* dannina 

danistum (a type of service obligation)? OB 

danitu (or dannitu ?) (a battle garment) jB lex. 

*danna -* iddanna 

dannatu(in), NA also da"atu [BAD4; MUNUS. 
KALAG.GA] 1. "fortified (place), fortress" [NA 
E.KALAG] 2. "foundation, building site" 3. Ass. 
"firm, binding (agreement)", also pi.; NA of 
conveyance document 4. "distress, famine, 
difficulty" 5. d. sattim "hard time of year", d. 
kussimlummatim "depth of winter/height of 
summer" 6. also pi. "strict (command), firm 
(order)", "threatening, harsh (words)" 7. (a 
mark on the exta) 8. (part of the construction of 
a window); < dannu I; -♦ iddanna 

dannina/u, danene "nether world" O/jB 

dannis "very; severely"; < dannu I; -♦ adannis 

dannisam "very much" OA; < dannu I 

dannitu -* danitu 

dannu(m) I; NA f. also da" atu "strong, 
powerful, mighty, great" [KALAG(.GA)] of god, 
king, people, country; animal; of city, fortress, 
building, building material, implement, weapon, 
cloth; of mountain; "firm" of statement, 
command; OA tuppum dannum, MA dannutu 
"binding document"; "strong" of oath; "urgent" 
of business, message; "hard, difficult, severe" 
of terrain, weather, disease, distress, onslaught; 
"high" of prices; NA "big"; < dananu II; 
> adannis, dannis, dannisam, dannatu, 
dannutu; -* d. II 

dannu II; pi. NB dannutu, NA danndni "(large) 
vat, barrel" j/NB, NA; for bread, spices, dates, 
beer etc., usu. wr. du Sd.; d. kaspi "silver barrel" 
in cult; < d. I ? 

dannudannu -* dandannu 

dannutu(m) "strength, power" Ass., O/jB 
[KALAG- ; NAM.KALA(.GA)] 1. divine "power", 
human "strength" 2. "fortress", also dl d. 
"fortified city" 3. OA "strong, harsh 
(statement)"; < dannu I 

danqu —* damqu 

dansum —* damsum 

danu(m) mng. unci. OA, jB G {Hi) jB of house 
"to be of inferior quality"?; OA "disparage 
(without reason)"?; > dunndtu; dund'ii 

ddni — ► dinanu 

danu —* didnum 

dapanu(m) ~ "to bear down on violently, hurtle 
towards" 0/jB(poet.), jB lex. G (alu) of 
chariot; transf. of deity; > dapnu, dapnis; 
dapinu, dappdnu, dappinu 

dapardnum -* daprdnu 

dapdru -* duppuru I; tapdru 

dapatum -* tapatum 

dapdappum -* taptappum 

dapinu(m) "overbearing, savage" Bab., NA(lit.) 
epith. of god, king, lion etc.; astr. = Jupiter, also 
Procyon [ d / mul UD.AL.TAR]; < dapanu 

dapi'u (or tdpi'u) (a container) NA, of silver 

dapnis "aggressively" O/jB; < dapnu 

dapnu(m) "aggressive" M/jB(lit.) of god, 
enemy; battle; < dapanu; > dapnis 

dapnu —* tahnu 

dappanu "warlike, martial" M/jB(lit.); < dapanu 

dappastu -* tappastu 

dappinnum -* tappinnu 

dappinu "very warlike" jB lex.; < dapanu 

dappu(m) 1. OB d. sa ddmim "blood clot"? 
2. jB astr. mng. unkn. 

dappu —* also adappu 

dappurtum "absence" OA in d. rasumlis&m "to 
be(come) absent, default"; < duppuru I 

dapranu(m), OB also dapardnum, duprdnu 
"juniper" Bab., NA as timber; as drug; saman 
d. "juniper oil"; jB qem d. "juniper flour" 

daqaqu "to be minute, fine" G not attested 
D "crush minutely" enemy, wall; like potsherds; 

> daqqu; diqqum, daqqiqu, daqqaqu, 
daqqaqita; duqdqu; duqququ; diqdiqqu 

daqasu(m) "to bend down" G (u/u) OB; (Hi) jB, 

of person 
daqqam-inam —* damqam-inam 
daqqaqita adv.? "tinily"; < daqqaqu 
daqqaqu in pi. daqqaqutu "tiny ones" jB lex.; 

< daqaqu; > daqqaqita 

daqqiqu "very tiny" jB lex.; < daqaqu 
daqqu(m) "minute, fine" OAkk, O/jB of person 

in PN; of corn, stone, metal "pulverized"; f. pi. 

"small amounts left over" of silver, food OB; 

< daqaqu 
dar —* dardru II 
ddr -* ddru I 

dara, MB(Alal.) ddria "for ever" M/jB; < ddru 

daraggu "way, track" jB 

dardgum -* darakum II 

daraku I "to follow"? G not attested D lex. only; 

> darku 

darakum II (or dardg/qum) - "to pack up" OA, 

daraku III 


das 'urn 

daraku III D "to thresh" NA; < Aram.; 
> mudarriktu 

daranu (a plant) jB lex. 

daranu "for ever" jB lex.; < dara + -dnu 

dardqum —* darakum II 

dararu(m) I ~ "to move freely" O/jB G lex. only 
N (nadarruru) of pig "roam free"; OB of silver 
"become free" of debts; of gods "run together, 
converge"; > andurdru; sudardru* 

dararu II "to intercalate" a month NA G (alu; 
stat. ddr); < diru denom.; -♦ deru 

dardru —* also andurdru 

darasu(m), Bogh. dardsu "to trample; push 
back" Bab., NA G (Hi) people; OB "repulse"; 
"trample back, clear"? reeds; O/jB of parts of 
liver "press down"? Gt jB "push each other 
away" D OB "push away, repudiate" wife 
N "be pushed aside"; > darsu; dirsum 

darasum I "to try"? OB G (Hi) 

darasu II mng. unkn. jB lex. G of wound 

dardsu —* also dardsu 

ddrdtu —* ddritu 2 

dardarah, tartarah - "buckle"? MB, of gold, 
copper etc.; on shoe 

dargis ~ "couch" NB of wood 
( dargu "stair" NB in bit d. "staircase"; < Aram. 

ddria —* dara 

ddridta, ddridtis, ddridtum — ♦ ddritu 2 

darikum —* darku 

dariku; pi. darikdnu "pressed dates" NB; 

< Aram. 

daris "for ever" Bab., NA; also ana d., ad-d.; 
Am., Bogh., Ug. adi d.; OB d. umim/umi; 

< ddru I 

darisam "for ever" jB(roy. inscr.); < ddru I 
daritu(in) "perpetuity, eternity" Bab., NA 1. sg. 

OB(Susa), Mari ana d. "for ever"; Am., Bogh. 

istulultu d. "from time immemorial", adi d. "for 

all time" 2. freq, pi. subat d. "eternal abode"; 

kudurri d. "eternal boundary"; OB ana d. "for 

ever"; Am. adi ddridta, jB sa ddrdti "for ever"; 

OB ddridtis umi "for ever"; jB ana ddrdt sandti 

"for all years"; < ddru 
dariu —* darrum 
ddriu — ♦ ddru 
darku, derku, OB also darikum "following, 

later" OAkk, OB as PN, also fPN Darkatum; 

Bab.(lit.) nise darkdti "later people", also f. pi. 

as subst. "successors, posterity"; < daraku I 
darkullu —* tarkullu 
darrum. M/NA dariu; MA pi. f. "sacrificial 

sheep" OB(Susa), M/NA [UDU.SIZKUR.ME5] 

M/NA d. epdsu "to sacrifice a sheep"; < Sum. 

darsu "deposed" M/NA of gods; < dardsu 

daru(m) "to last (for ever)" OAkk, O/MB, NA, 
stat. only; in PNs of person; OB lu daridta/i 
"may you live for ever"; NA adi . . . daruni "as 
long as" (heaven and earth) "last"; > ddru I, 
daris, darisam; ddru, dara, daranu, ddritu, 
ddriitu, ddrutas; diiru II, duris 

daru —* also deru 

daru(m) I "era; eternity" OAkk, Bab., NA; 
OAkk, OB only st. abs., OAkk istum ddr 
"from time immemorial", OB analad-ddr "for 
ever", MB an ddr; j/NB ana (umi) ddri "for 
ever"; Ug. ana ddri duri "for ever and ever"; 

< daru; > daris, darisam; -* duru II 
daruni II - "lifetime, 60 years"? OB; < W.Sem.? 
ddru —* also dune I 

daru(m), ddriu(m) "lasting, eternal" Bab., NA 
[DA.RI] of gods, royal offspring; of life, 
kingship, days, years, protection, good deeds 
etc.; of foundation, temple, wood etc.; < daru; 
> dara, daranu, ddritu, ddriitu, ddrutas 

daruba (an animal) jB (or scribal error ?) 

darutas "for ever" jB; < ddru 

darutu "long lasting life" NA; < ddru 

dastu ~ "treachery, disrespect" M/jB; esp. pi., as 
omen interpretation; < ddsu 

dasu(m) "to treat unjustly, with disrespect" O/jB 
G (d) "pressurize"; jB ptcp. dayyis amdtiya 
"that treats my words with disrespect" D -♦ 
mudissum; > dastu 

dasannu (an item of jewellery) NA, NB of 

dasapu(m) "to be sweet" O/jB G lex. only, of 
honey (dispu), dates D "make sweet"; stat. 
transf. of song, sexual charms "are very sweet"; 

< dispu denom.; > daspu; dussupu 
dasari "(a type of) palace" NB; < OPers. 
ddsdtu -* desu 

dasgarinnum —* taskarinnu 

dasnu(m) ~ "mighty" O/jB 

daspu(m) "(honey-)sweet" Bab.; of beer, fruit; 
of person, also as PN; < dasdpu 

da(s)siya (a functionary) NB 

dassu(m), tassu "buck; ram" OAkk, Bab., 
M/NA, Nuzi [MAS.GAL] 1. "buck" male of 
gazelle, goat, also "ram" of sheep 2. pi. f. (a 
metal fitment with a leather strap?), on 
furniture etc.; -♦ masgallu 

ddsu —* desu 

ddsu -* didsum 

das'um "spring" OA, as time of year; -♦ disu II 

ddsiis — ♦ iddsus 


dat, ddti, ddtu- "behind, after; then" NA in comb, 
with ina, ana 1. as prep, spatially: "behind", 
idddtukka "behind you", idddt sarri "behind the 
king": occas. adddt 2. temporally: "after", 
idddtussu "after him", idddt anni "after this", 
also adddt; as conj. ina dat sa . . . taspuranni 
"after... you wrote to me" 3. adv. idddti/e 

databarra "legal expert" NB; < OPers.; — ► ddtu 

ddti — » dat 

datnu ~ "warlike" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 

dattu — » damtu II 

datum "member" of a family ? OB 

datu "law, decree" NB; < OPers.; — » databarra 

ddtu(m) — » also di'atum; tdtu 

ddtu — ► dat 

da'tu (part of a plough) jB lex. 

da'u (or ta'u) adj. mng. unkn. jB 

da'udu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

da'ummatu(m) "gloom, darkness" 0/jB(lit.) as 
natural phenomenon; med., mag. of physical 
condition; < da'dmu I 

da'ummis "in pitch dark" jB, also astr. [DAR4- 
mes\; < da'dmu I 

da'umtu (a cup) jB lex. 

daw(a)dum — » dabdu 

dawum, jB damu "to jerk; convulse" O/jB 
G (u/u) of person; of limb "jerk", of eyes 
"move in uncoordinated manner" Gtn iter., of 
body; > dawum, dimitu; — » tawum 

dawum ~ "convulsive"? OB lex.; < dawum 

dayyalitu f. "prowling" of witch jB; < dayyalu I 
+ -1 

dayyaltu ~ "(hunting) foray" NA; < ddlu 

dayyalu I 1. jB "prowling" of dog 2. NA ~ 
"scout", rab d. "scout commander" 3. jB lex. 
(desig. of gold); < ddlu; > dayyalitu 

dayyalu II "servant" NB; < Aram. 

dayyantu, MB also diyantu "(female) judge" 
[MUNUS.DI.KUD- ] M/jB, epith. of goddesses; 

< dayydnu 

dayyanu(m), da"dnu, MB also diydnu "judge" 
[(LU.)DI.KUD] of human beings, occas. as royal 
title; as divine title; NA sa pan d. "president of 
tribunal"; < didnum; > dayydnutu, dayyantu 

dayyanutu, NA dd'inutu "judicature, judgeship" 
O/jB, NA [DI.KUD- ]; < dayydnu abstr. 

dayyastu "threshing sledge" jB/NA in simile; 

< didsum 

dayyasu adj. "threshing" of ox jB lex.; < didsum 

dayye (a plant) jB lex. 

dayyik(t)u — ► dd'iku 

dayyiqu "siege wall(s)" jB, NA 

58 desu(m) 

dejiu "depressed, pressed in"? jB lex.; < dahu II; 

> dehutu 
dehutu "depression"? O/jB lex.; < dehu 
deku I "raised" NB of hands; < deku II 
deku(m) II, daku "to raise, shift" OAkk, Bab. 

G (e/e, Hi) [ZI] 1. "call up, levy" troops, land 
2. "wake up" person 3. "unleash, stir up" battle, 
slander 4. "lift" hand in supplication, as threat; 
from work; "raise" eyes, head, aims (in 
surrender) 5. OB "collect" silver, taxes 
6. M/NB "lift, remove" s.o. from throne, seat; 
stele, crown, commodity etc.; "clear away" 
earth, beam, monument 7. NB ~ "break up" or 
"weed" field 8. "charter" a ship D "get s.o. 
moving, incite" S OB, NB "have (troops) 
called up"; "incite" s.o., s.o.'s heart, to action 
N pass, "be called up"; "be disturbed"; NB of 
hands "be taken off (ref. to inactivity); 

> deku I, deku; diku II, dikutu; mudekku, 
mudakkiu 1 - 

deku(m) "summoner (for taxes and corvee 
work)" Bab. [LU.ZI.Zl]; lex. also "(night-) 
watchman"; < deku II 

delum "unique, single" OB lex.; < Sum. 

denu — » dinu 

depu I "warp" jB lex., of textile; < depu 

depu II (a thrusting weapon)? j/NB [DUN4] of 
iron; jB ext. (part of liver); < depu ? 

depu "to lay" the warp jB lex.; > depu I, II ? 

deq — » damdqu 

deqtu — » damqu 

derderru ~ "battle" jB lex. 

derku(m) (desig. of a priest)? OB lex. 

derku — ► also darku 

derkullum — » tarkullu 

deru, NA dam "to intercalate" a month NA, NB 
G stat. "is intercalated" Dt NB pass, "be 
intercalated"; < diru denom.; — ► dardru II 

dessu "exceedingly opulent" jB of offerings 7 ; 
< desu 

desu(m) "to sprout" Bab.(lit.) G jB lex! only 
D "let flourish" greenery, plants; "let prosper" 
abundance, wealth; "provide ( 
copiously with (" (=2 ace), "supply 
copious" offerings Dt pass, of D "be allowed to 
flourish"; of offering bowl "be copiously 
supplied" Dtn jB iter, of D; < disu II denom.; 

> desu; dessu; dussu; diisum I; mudessu 
desu — » disu II 
desu(m), ddsu "abundant, flourishing" O/jB of 

population, vegetables; < desti 
diaddnii — » ddddnu 



dimatis II 

dianum, later ddnu "to judge" G (I) [DI.KUD] 
1. dina(m) d. "administer justice" (to s.o. = 
ace.) 2. "give judgement" 3. "pass judgement 
on, sentence" s.o. 4. "litigate, engage in lawsuit" 
D OB dinam/dindtim d. "initiate litigation" N of 
decision "be pronounced"; > dinu, dittum; 
dayydnu, dayyantu, dayydnutu; Maddnu 

diasum, later ddsu "to tread down; thresh" Bab., 
NA G (f; j/NB also u) of cattle, people "tread 
out" corn, "thresh"; transf. "trample, tread 
down" countries, enemies etc. Gtn iter. D jB 
"trample down"; > disu I; dd'isu, dayyasu, 

di'(a)tum, da'atum, OA, jB lex. ddtu(m) 
"knowledge, information" OA, OB, jB lex.; 
only in d. sdlum "to inquire after", s.o.; 
usu. neg., e.g. di'ati ul tasdl "you took no 
notice of me"; < edu II 

di'dtu — » dimtu II 

dibalii — » dipalu 

dibbatum "argument, chatter" OB; < dabdbu II 

dibbu(m); OB pi. f. "words, utterance" Bab., 
NA; j/NB, NA "talk, rumour; matter"; Nuzi, 
NB "(legal) claim(s)"; < dabdbu II 

dibdibbu (or sissippul) "clepsydra" jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

v dibhu — » tibhu 

dibiru ~ "calamity" jB lex., om. 

diblu — » tublu 

didabu, didibu "scribal apprentice, pupil" NA 

didakku (a functionary) NB 

didallum, ditallu, didilu "ash(es)" O/jB lex.; 

< Sum.; > ditallis 
diddnu — » ditdnu 

didbu (a door) jB lex.; < Sum. 

didennutu — » titennutu 

didibbu "(court) judgement" jB lex.; < Sum. 

didibu — » didabu 

didilu — » didallum 

didiqqum — » diqdiqqu 

didisu (feature on liver) jB ext.; < Sum.? 

didu pi.; du. didd (female garment) M/jB, 

NB(Susa); loosened, torn, of temple attendant, 

prostitute, goddess, Lamastu 
digalu, digilu — » diglu 
digimu — » tikmenu 
digiru "god" jB lex.; < Sum. 
diglu(m), diga/ilu "vision, view" Bab., NA med. 

"(power of) sight, vision", d. ene "eyesight"; 

OB "view, opinion"; "glance, look"; j/NB (a 

precious stone)?; < dagdlu 
diglu (a metal object, phps.) "mirror" M/jB, NA; 

< dagdlu ? 

dihme(n)nu —» tikmenu 

dihu ~ "mark" (on the liver)? jB ext. ~ 

"depression"; < dahu II ?; OB —» zihhum 
dihu —» &\sodi'u I 
dikenu, dikimu — » tikmenu 
dikistum ~ "extension"? OB math.; < dakdsu 
dikkuldu "legal opponent"? NB; < Sum. 
dikmennu, dikmenu — » tikmenu 
diksu(m) "bulge, swelling" O/jB on body, on 

liver, lex. "diaphragm" of stomach ?; OB math. 

(part of geometrical figure); < dakdsu 
diktu(m), lex. also tiktu (a type of flour) Bab.; jB 

lex. (a plant) 
diktu(m) "fighting, slaughter" Bab., NA 1. O/jB 

"fight", OB pi. "blows" 2. j/NB, NA 

[GAZ(.MES)] in d. daku "to massacre", d.-sunu 

ma'atta aduk "I massacred them in great 

numbers"; < daku 
diku 1 1. Bogh., jB, NA "killed" 2. M/jB "killed" 

by pruning of date palms, reed etc.; < daku 
diku(m) II "lifting, raising" j/NB "awakening"; 

"levy, raising (of troops)"; d. biti (a temple 

ceremony); OA (ina d. >) iddik qdtimma ? 'at 

the lifting of a hand', i.e. immediately; < deku II 
dikuggallu(m), diqunlggallu "chief justice" Bab. 

[DI.KUD.GAL] 1. OB(Hana) an official 

2. M/NB of deity, esp. Samas; < Sum. 
dikuru "judgement, verdict" jB lex.; < Sum. 
dikutu(m), occas. dakutu "levy" of workers, 

troops Bab.(lit.) 1. OB ~ "corvee work", d. 

aldkum "to report for duty" 2. M/jB "levy", d. 

mdti "country(-wide) call up"; erib d. 'levy 

locusts', i.e. swarm; < deku II 
dilbu — » dulbu 
dilhu(m) "disturbed state" O/jB 1. of river water 

"turbidity" 2. of person "confusion", of country 

"disruption"; < daldhu 
dilihtu "disturbed condition" MB(Susa); 

< daldhu 
dililu —» dalilu I 

diliptu(m) "sleeplessness, anxiety" O/jB; 

< daldpu 
diliqdtu — ► duliqdtu 

dilitu (a stringed instrument) jB lex. 

dillatu (a cereal) jB lex. 

dilum "(bucket) irrigation" OB; < dalu II 

dilutu I "(action of) bucket irrigation" jB me d. 

"water drawn by bucket"; < dalu II 
dilutu II, dulutu(m); pi. dilulatu "device for water 

drawing, shaduf 7 " O/jB; < dalu II 
dimanu (an insect) jB 
dimatis I "like towers" jB; < dimtu I 
dimatis II "in tears" OB; < dimtu II 




dimgur, dimmigirru (a kind of wood)? NB for 
furniture; < Sum.? 

dimitu jB 1. (a bird) 2. (an illness, phps.) 
"convulsions"; < dawum 

dimmahhu (a priest) jB lex.; < Sum.? 

dimmatu(m) "wailing, lamentation" O/jB; sa d. 
"mourner"; < damdmu; —* dimtu II; zimmatu 

dimmeru "god" jB lex.; < Sum. 

dimmetu (a vegetable) jB lex. 

dimmigirru — ♦ dimgur 

dimmu "wailing" subst. jB of child; < damdmu 

dimmu —* also timmu 

dimmussatu (or timmussatu) ~ "reed-thicket" jB 

dimtu(m) I, M/jB also dintldu "tower" OAkk, 
O/jB [AN.ZA.GAR; Ug. E.AN.ZA.GAR] "watch- 
tower", also "(garrison of) tower", as part of 
wall, of quay; fortified dwelling, also as PIN 
D., D.-DN, D.-sa-PN; Nuzi "district, estate 
(centred on stronghold)", also bel d. (an 
administrative official); Mari %&d. "wooden 
siege tower"; OB (a feature in oil omens); jB 
"pyramid" of skulls; > dimdtis I 

dimtu(m) II, dintu, M/jB also dindu; oft. du. 
dimd-; pi. NA di' ate "tear" Bab., NA [ER], 
freq. + aldku "to flow"; NA di at pdni "tears 
(on) face, weeping"; > dummu, dimdtis II; -* 

dimuru (a substance) NB 

dinanu(m) "substitution", ana dindn X aldku "to 
go as a substitute for X; give o.s. up to X, lay 
o.'s life down for X" freq. in introduction of 
letters; jB ana d. naddnu "to give as substitute"; 
salam d. "substitute figure"; OB ana d., MB 
assu d. "for the sake of, NB letters ana 
ddnika, add- 'for your sake' = "please"; -* 
andundnu; ardandnu 

dindu -* dimtu I.II 

dingiruggu pi. "the dead (primordial) gods" jB 
[DINGIR.UG5.GA]; < Sum. 

dinnamu —* dunnamu 

din nil, dinnutu (or tin. ..)~ "bedstead" O/MB, jB 
lex. [GIS.(NA.)AS.NA/NE] 

dintu — ► dimtu I.II 

dinu (a kind of flour) NB 

dlnu(m), Ass. also denu(m); pi. m. & f. "legal 
decision: lawsuit, trial" [DI; DI.KUD] 
1. "judgement, sentence", d. didnum/ddnu "to 
pass verdict"; d. gamdru "to pronounce final 
sentence", d. gamru "completed case"; OA d. 
karim "verdict of kdrum", OB d. hit Samas 
"verdict of temple of Samas" 2. "decision" of 
deity, d. sakdnu "to give a decision" (by omen) 

3. "legal provision, statute" 4. "legal case, 
issue", OB d. amdrum "to look into, examine a 
case"; d. pardsu "to settle a case" 5. "lawsuit, 
trial", d. suhuzu "to grant a lawsuit", d. 
napistim "case of life or death"; d. epesu "to 
institute legal proceedings" against (= itti) s.o.; 
M/NA dena dabdba ba"u "to initiate legal 
proceedings"; NB d. dabdbu "to bring an action 
against"; NB d. u ragdmu "lawsuit and claim"; 
bel d. "adversary" (in court), OB also sa dinisa 
"her adversary"; NB bit d. "law-court"; NA sa 
pan dindte "president of court"; <didnum; 
> dittum 
dipalu (or dibalu) "distortion of justice" jB 


diparu(m) m. & f. "torch" Bab. [GIS/GI.IZI.GAR] 

d. nasu, d. napahulnuppuhu "to raise, light a 

torch"; transf. "torch" as title of astral deities 
dippu(m) (a kind of wooden door); < Sum. 
diqaru(m); pi. f. "large bowl, tureen" Ass., O/jB 

[(DUG.)UTUL] of clay, stone, copper, bronze; 

for oil, perfume, water, medicine, food; 

"trough" for animals 
diqarutu (a small bowl) jB lex. 
di(q)diqqu(m), duqduqqu, dugudug "wren"? 

O/jB also as PN; < daqdqu 
diqqum "small, meagre" OB of provisions; as 

PN; < daqdqu 
diqungallu — ♦ dikuggallu 
dirigum "intercalary month" OB [DERIG?]; 

< Sum.; -* diru 
diritu -* teritu II 

dirratu(m), tirratu "lash (of whip)" O/jB l.jB 
d. qinndzi "whiplash" (an astronomical 
phenomenon) 2. OB(Bogh.) ~ "halter" of 
donkey ? 

dinu — ♦ diru'u 

dirsum "trampling back, clearing"? OB, process 
on reeds; < dardsu 

diru 1. j/NB, NA "intercalation" 2. NB "inter- 
calary month"; < Sum.; > dardru II; deru; -* 

diru'u, dir(ru) (a kind of bread) NA lex. 

dishu — ♦ tishu 

diskarinnum — ♦ taskarinnu 

distum; pi. disdtum "abuse(s)" Mari; < ddsu 

disarm ~ "oats" jB lex. 

disa'u, disi'u, tisd'u "of, born in spring" Nuzi, of 
animals; < disu II 

dishu — ♦ tishu 

disiptuhhu, diziptuhhu ~ "sweet beer" jB lex.; 

< dispu + tuhhu ? 
disi'u — ♦ disa'u 



dumamu I 

disku — ♦ tisku 

dispu(m) "honey, syrup" [LAL(.MES)] d. sadi 
"mountain honey" [LAL.KUR.RA]; d. suluppi 
"date syrup"; > dasdpu; disiptuhhu 

disu I "trampled down" of palm tree jB lex.; 

< didsum 

disu(m) II, desu "(spring) growth; spring" Bab. 
[U.BAR8(.SAR)] O/jB d. eburi, kussi "summer, 
winter growth", "grass"; as time of year 
"spring"; NB as PN; MB dis mill "spring 
flood"; > desu; disa'u; — ♦ das'um 

ditallis "into ashes" j/NB, usu. d. usemi "reduced 
to ashes"; < didallum 

ditallu — ♦ didallum 

ditanu, diddnu "bison"? jB; also (a fish) 

ditennutu -* titennutu 

ditillu "final judgement" OAkk, jB lex.; < Sum. 

dittum "lawsuit" OA; < dinu nom. unit. 

di'tu —* di'atum; dimtu II 

dium —* Hum 

di'u(m) I (or di'u(m)), dihu(m) (a disease 
affecting the head) Bab., NA [SAG.GIG] also 
murus d. "d. illness"; jB as demon; > di'um 

di'u(m) II, d/tu, d/tu'u "(deity's) throne- 
( platform" in temple Bab. [DUg]; < Sum. 

dVu — ♦ di'u I 

di'um "afflicted by headache" OB; < di'u I 

diyantu -* dayyantu 

diydnu — ♦ dayydnu 

diziptuhhu — ♦ disiptuhhu 

du — ♦ di'u II 

dudku — ♦ ddku 

dudlu — ♦ ddlu 

duarum "to surround, enfold" OAkk G stat. 

du(h)bdqu -* tuhdqu 

dubbubis "into incoherent speech" jB; 

< dabdbu II D 

dubbubtum "(troublesome) negotiation(s), 

complaint(s)" OB; < dabdbu II 
dubbuqu D "to join together" Ug.; < W.Sem. 
dubdu -* dabdu 

dubdubbe adv. mng. unkn. jB lex. 
dubdubbu 1. (a bird) jB lex. 2. (a drum) jB; 

dubgallu "big tablet, compendium" jB; < Sum.; 

-* tuppu 
dublu —* tuhlu 
dubsarmahhu "chief scribe" jB lex.; < Sum.; -* 

dubur "foundation" jB lex.; < Sum.; -* tublu 
dudittu -* tudittu 

dudu(m) I (a metal vessel) Bab., Am., Nuzi, 

Ug., NA 
dudu(m) II (a bird) jB lex.; NA as PN ? 
dudu — ♦ also atiidu 
dugdnu -* tugdnu 

dugdumu (or dukdumu) (a plant) jB lex. 
duglum (or duklqlum) (a commodity) OA 
dugsdnu — ♦ dunsdnu 
dugsigakku (a vessel) Bab. lex.; < Sum. 
dugudu -* guduttu 
dugudug -* diqdiqqu 
duharum — ♦ tuharum 
duhhusu, also metath. dussuhu D "to oppress" 

s.o. Dt pass., of person "be oppressed", of 

penitent "be depressed, downhearted" M/jB 
duhnu, tuhnu "millet" M/NA, M/NB 
duhpu(r) -* tuhpu(r) 
duhsum —* dusu I 
dukdumu — ♦ dugdumu 
dulaqum mng. unkn. OB as PN 
dulbdnu — ♦ dalhdnu 
dulbu(m), dilbu; pi. f. "plane tree (Platanus 

orientalis)" OAkk, M/jB; as tree, as timber; 

OA pi. as commodity 
dulhanu "meteorological disturbance" jB; 

< dalahu 

duliqatu, Ass. also da/iliqdtu pi. tant. ~ "roast 

corn"? M/NA, jB; as offering 
dullu(m); pi. m. & f. "trouble: work, service" 

1. "trouble, hardship"; d. mullu(m) "to fill with 
misery, make full of misery" 2. "work 
obligation, corvee"; d. emedu "to impose corvee 
work"; NA d. sarri "royal service"; building, 
manufacturing "labour" etc. 3. "work", d. 
sabdtu "to set to work"; d. epesulmussuru "to 
do/neglect work"; "(product of) work"; "craft" 
4. religious "ritual"; < daldlu I ? 

dullu D "to lift out, unload" dates NB; < Aram. 
dulluhis adv. "in confusion; hurriedly" jB; 

< dalahu 

du(l)luhtu 1. "hurry, despatch" Am., Ug. 

2. "anxiety" NB of person's state; < dalahu 
dullulu "oppressed" jB of citizens; < daldlu I 
dullupu "very restless" M/NB as PN; < daldpu 
dulluqum, MA dalluqu mng. unkn. OB, MA as 

dulpu "sleeplessness" jB; < daldpu 
dulu "bucket" jB lex.; < dalu II 
duluhhu "disturbance" M/jB 1. "turbidity" in 

river 2. "confusion" of person's state 3. political 

"disorder"; < dalahu 
dulutu -* dilutu II 
dumamu I, tu(m)mamu ~ "leopard" jB 

dumamu II 



dumamu II "moaning" jB; < damdmu 
dumaqu pi. tant. "jewellery, gems" Ass.; of 

women, king, divine statue; < damaqu 
dumhundtu -* tumhundtu 
dummu D "to bring to tears" jB, esp. stat. "is 

brought to tears"; < dimtu II denom. 
dummuqtum "good deed, benevolence" OB; 

< damaqu 

dummuqu(m), Ass. dammuqu(m) 1. OA, OB 
"good quality" of metal 2. "very good" of 
sheep, action; also NB as PN; NA pi. 
dammaqute (a type of soldier)?; < damaqu 

dumqu(m), dunqu, duqqu "goodness, good 
(thing)" [SIG5] 1. "welfare" of person; pi. 
dumql qabu(m) "to decree s.o.'s wellbeing" 
2. "good condition; good appearance, beauty" 
of person, face etc. 3. "good deed" OB pi. f., 
gimil d. "reward; return favour"; Mari bel d. 
"favourite, friend" 4. "favourable, lucky 
meaning" of dreams, omens etc. 5. "good 
results" 6. "the best" of, "prime" produce 
etc.; < damaqu 

dumsu ~ "towel" jB lex.; < damdsu 

dumugabu(m); f. dumugabitu(m) "baby, 
suckling" O/jB [(MUNUS.)DUMU.GABA]; 

duinuqqu "sign of gratitude" jB; < damaqu 

dumuqtum "good deed, favour" OA; < damaqu 

dunanu — > andundnu 

duna'u pi. tant. ~ "deductions"? OA; < danu 

dunnamu, dinnamu "person of lowly status; 
fool"jB; <Sum. 

dunnanu "strong one"? jB mag.; < dunnu ? 

dunnatu f. pi. "inferior quality" NB of 
commodity; < danu 

dunnu(in) 1. OAkk, Bab. "power, strength" 
[KALAG.GA] jB d. eriyati "intense cold"; d. 
qaqqari "solid ground, bedrock"; d. qisdti 
"depth of the woods"; transf. dunni pdni "hard- 
ness of attitude" 2. Ass. "(fortified) farm- 
stead)", also (bit) d.; Bab. in PINs 3. Bab. (a 
type of bed)? 4. jB "part of lung"; < dandnu II 

dunnunis "very firmly" jB; < dunnunu 

dunnunu "very strong" jB; of fortifications; 
Bogh. adv. dunnuna "very securely"; NB of 
person "highly respected"; < dandnu II; 
> dunnunis 

dunnuttu "strengthening"? jB lex.; 

< dandnu II ? 
dunqu -* dumqu 

dunsanu, dugsanu (a vessel) OB; < Sum. 

duppuru(m) I D Bab., OA "to move away, 
withdraw; stay away" from; OA "absent o.s. 
from work"; > dappurtum; -* tapdru 

duppuru II adj.? mng. unkn. jB lex. 

duppussu, tuppussu "younger brother" 
j/NB(lit.), also transf. "second in rank"; < Sum. 

duprdnu -* daprdnu 

dupsikku — ► tupsikku 

duqaqu(m) "tiny" O/jB lex., as PN; < daqdqu 

duqdu "almond (tree)" NA; — ► siqdu 

duqduqqu -* diqdiqqu 

duqqu — ► dumqu 

duqququ "very tiny" jB; < daqdqu 

duranis "over the wall" jB; < duru I + -an + -is 

duraru -* andurdru 

dura'u "arm" NA, also "foreleg" of sheep; 

< Aram. 

durdu "goddess" jB lex. 
durgaiiu "(reed) rope" jB lex.; < Sum. 
durga(r)ru (a stool or chair) jB lex.; < Sum. 
durgu, duruku ~ "innermost, central part" 

M/jB(Ass.) of mountain terrain, foundations; 

of royal origins sa d.-su Assur "who is of pure 

Assyrian descent" 
durinnum — ► turinnum 
duris "for ever" Ug.; < duru II 
durmahis "to the durmdhu" jB 
durmahu 'mighty hawser' jB, cosmic reed rope; 

< Sum.; > durmahis 

durru(m) D "to neglect, reject"? Mari, O/jB lex. 
duru(m) I, OB also ddrum ? "(city) wall, 

rampart" [BAD; OA, Mari BAD.KI; OAkk pi. 

BAD.BAD] 1. "city wall"; transf. of DN as 

protection in PNs; jB reed "fence" of 

shepherds' camp 2. "fortified place, fortress"; 

bit d. jB, NA "fortress", NB "(temple) 

enclosure" 3. of parts of the body: d. appi 

"cheeks"; d. naglabim "pelvis"? of sheep; d. 

libbi(m) "heart wall"; jB d. sinni "gums"?; 

> duranis 
duru(m) II "permanence, eternity" Bab., NA 

1. OB "permanent status" of employment, land 

tenure 2. NA issu d. "since long ago"; Susa st. 

abs. ana dur u pala "for ever and always"; 

j/NB (analsa) d. uml "(for) all time, always"; 

(ana) d. ddr(i) "for ever"; < daru; > duris; — ^ 

ddru I 
duru III "lance" jB lex. 
duruku — ► durgu 

durummu (a bird) jB lex., om.; — ► turunnu I 
durussu "foundation (platform)" Bab. of city, 

temple; "base" of mountains; transf. of 

dwelling, support 




dusinnum (or dltuslsinnum) ~ (potential 

claimant) OA, of purchased slave, house 
dussuhu -* duhhusu 
dususu (a plant) jB lex. 
dusinnum -* dusinnum 
dusmu, dussumu; f. dusmltu "slave bom in the 

house" Bab., also transf. "servant" of deity; 

MB(Alal.) in PN; > dusmutu 
dusmutu "status of a slave bom in the house" 

jB; < dusmu 
dussu "abundant, copious" j/NB(lit.) of water, 

offerings; of tavern, storeroom "well-stocked"; 

< desu 
dussu bu — ^ dussupu 

dussumum mng. unkn. OAkk, OB as PN 
dussumu — ► dusmu 
dussupu(m), dussuhu. Ass. dassupu 

"sweetened; very sweet" O/jB, NA(lit.) of beer, 

wine, dates; < dasdpu 

dusu(m) I, OB also duhsum 1. O/jB, NA ~ 
"quartz, rock-crystal" [(NA4.)DUy.Sl.A] 2. ~ 
"untanned leather"? [(KUS.)DUH.SI(.A)]; M/NA 
eleppatlsa d. "rafts of (inflated) skins"; NA, 
NB sarip d. "tanner of d. leather"; < Sum.; -* 


dusum I (a silver object) OAkk; < desu 

dusu II mng. unkn. jB lex. 

dutu(m) "virility, manliness" O/jB; transf. Nuzi 
"codpiece" of armour, jB "nook, secret place" 
of house, shrine etc. 

du'u -* di'u II 

du"umis "in great darkness" OB; < du'umu 

du"umu "very dark" jB; of skin markings; 
< da'dmu I 

Du'uzu, Duzu "Tammuz" (4th Bab. month) 
j/NB [; 
NUMUN.NA]; < Sum. 


e — ► ai I 

ea -* ya'u 

Eannakkum "(the temple) Eanna" OAkk; 

< Sum. 
e'asu — ► widsum 

Ea'utu "Ea-ship" j/NB [ d DIS- ; d IDIM- ], i.e. the 

role of the god Ea; < DN Ea 
ebahu — ► /Tra/in 

ebar "beyond, the other side of OA; < ebiru I 
ebaruttum — ► ibrutu 
ebberu — ► ebbiru 
ebbiate — ► e/j/3 1 
ebbiru, ebberu "pacing, travelling purposefully" 

M/jB; of knees; < e/jm/ 1 
ebbis "in a state of (ritual) cleanliness" jB; 

< ebbu 

ebbu(m) "bright; pure" Bab., NA [dadag(.GA)] 
"bright, shiny" of metal, precious stone; of 
wood; "clean" of clothes, water, "pure" of 
offerings, rituals; of mythical beings; OB 
"reliable"?, also as subst. ~ "trusted agent, 
colleague"; < ebihu; > ebbis, ebbutum 

ebbum — ► ibbu I 

ebbubu(m), enbubum, embubu "flute, pipe" 
Bab. [(GIS.)GI.GfD (-+ also malllu)}; songs sa 
e. "with the flute"?; sa e. "flute-player"; e. hasi 
"windpipe"; — ► umbubu 

ebbutum "position of trusted colleague" OB; 
Mari ~ "administrative control"; < ebbu 

ebebu(m) "to be(come) bright, pure" G (ili) "be 
clean" of hands, "clear" of illness, impurity, 
omen; "be free" of claims D [DADAG] 
"cleanse", "purify (ritually)", "keep pure"; leg. 
puta ubbubu 'clear the forehead', i.e. 
"manumit"; "clear" s.o./o.s. of guilt, claims; 

"free" s.o. from duties; Mari "take census of 
Dt [DADAG] "be purified, cleared"; Mari "be 
counted in census" S ~ D NB "purify" Stn OB 
iter. St NB pass, of S; > ebbu, ebbis, ebbutum; 
mubbibum; tibibtu; ubbubu 

ebehu "to gird, belt up" O/jB G (Hi) person with 
(= ace.) garment; "surround" building with 
frieze (nibehu); stat., of moon "is encircled" 
D stat. "is surrounded with" N astr. "be 
encircled"; > ebihu; nebehu 

ebehu — ► also ebihu 

ebelu "to net, catch with a net" jB G (Hi) birds, 
Anzu; < eblu denom.?; > ibilu 

Eber nari "across the river", i.e. Syria west of 
Euphrates NA, NB; < eberu I + nam I 

eberta(m) "on the opposite bank" O/MB [MB 
BAL.RI] ina, ana, sa e:, Nuzi also "on (this) 
bank"; < ebertu I 

ebertan "on the opposite bank" M/NA, Nuzi, 
Bogh., jB; ina, istu, sa e:, as prep. e. nari "on 
the other side of the river"; < ebertu I 

ebertu(m) I "bank, esp. opposite bank; other 
side" Bab., MA [BAL.RI]; as prep, (sa) eberti 
"(land) across" river, canal; < eberu I; > eberta, 
ebertan; — ► abartu 

ebertu II "pace; step" M/NA; also of staircase; 
< eberu I 

eberu(m) I, NB occzs.epiru "to cross over" 
G (ili) [BALA] river, sea, sky etc.; ext. "stretch 
over, lie across" Gtn iter, of G S "make to 
cross, get s.o./ across, bring across"; 
> ebar, Eber nari; ebertu I.II; eberta, ebertan; 
ebbiru; abartu; niberu, nibertu; musibiru, 
musibirtu; — ► sutiburum 

eberu II 




eberu II "to paint (the face)" jB lex.; > ebrum, 

eberu III "joy, celebration"? jB lex. 
ebetu(m) I "to swell up" O/jB G (Hi) of water; of 

parts of body; stat. "is swollen" Gt "be 

permanently swollen"? D "make swollen"; lex. 

"fill (with joy)"? Dt pass, of D lex. "be filled 

(with joy)"? N "swell up, become swollen" 

Ntn iter, of N; > ebtum; ubbutu I.II 
ebetu(m) II ~ "to bind"? G MB(Bogh.), NA stat. 

"is bound" D (OB hubbutum) OA, OB mng. 

unci. N jB "be bound"?; > ubbutu III; nibettu; 

NB -+ ubbutu IV 
ebihu, ebehu, ibihu (a rope or girdle) Bab., 

M/NA; also transf., of city wall; < ebehu 
ebilu ~ "hunter" (with a net) jB lex.; < ebelu 
Ebirtum, Helibirtum, Abirtum (month at Mari) 

OAkk, OB 
ebissu, ibissu; pi. ebildte "(roped-up) bundle"? 

NA of saplings, reeds; < eblu 
ebitu, abitu (a plant) jB lex.; < W.Sem. 
eblu(m) "rope, thong, string"; as surface measure 

(= 6 iku or '/3 bur); NB "field of 1 eblu area"; 

"string" (of dried fruit); > ebelu; ebissu; — ► 

ebrum "painted, made-up" OB lex.; < eberu II 
ebru — ► also ibru 
ebtum ~ "swollen" OB lex., of part of body; 

< ebitu I 
ebu(mjl; f. pi. ebbiate "thick" O/jB, NA of 

worm, loaves, trees; "dense" of eclipse; < eb& II 
ebu II "to be thick" M/NA, M/jB G of plant 

"become thick"; stat. of part of body, urine, rim 

of pot "is thick"; > ebu I; ibitu; ubu, ubdtum; 

mubu; mumbium 
ebubatu "wood, thicket" jB lex. 
ebuhusinnu — ► abahsinnu 
eburatu — > eburu 
eburu(m), ibHru; pi. MA, NB eburdnu "harvest; 

summer" [BURU14] "crop, harvest"; "yield" of 

orchard; "(activity of) harvesting"; "(time of) 

harvest", warah E. "Harvest month" 

(=Abulll); NB "(grain for) harvest, 

seed(-corn)"; > eburu 
eburu(m) adj. "summer" Bab. "(born in) 

summer" as PN; "summer (lamb)" [OB SILA4. 

BURU14], "summer (vegetables)" (f. pi.) of 

cucumbers; < eburu 
ebuttum (or ebuttum ?) "interest-free loan" OA 
edabu — > edepu 

edadu (a flour offering) jB; < Sum. 
edakku(m) "outhouse, wing (of a building)" 

O/jB [G.DA]; < Sum. 

edakku "fish-bone" OB lex.; < Sum. 

Edammitu (a title of Istar) jB lex.; < edammu 

edammu(m) (a dream-interpreter) O/jB; < Sum. 

edamukku, adamukku jB 1. "foetal membrane"? 
2. (a membrane) as drum-skin ?; < Sum. 

edanis "alone" jB(Ass.); < edenu 

edaniu — > edenu 

edanu(m), idanu, Mari(Ass.) helidanum "fixed 
time" Ass. "time limit, appointment"; "(repay- 
ment) date"; Bab. — > addnum 

eddnu — > edenu 

eddnu — > edenu 

edappatu, eduppdtu ~ "fringe of a towel" jB lex.; 
Nuzi. sg. edaptu ?; < Sum.; — > adapu II 

edaqqu ~ "small child" jB lex. 

edatu pi. mng. uncert. MB 

edddtu — > eddittu 

eddelu "he who locks" jB; < edelu 

eddessd — > eddesu 

eddestum "new town" OB; < edesu 

eddesu — > edesu 

eddesu(m), eddessu "constantly self-renewing" 
O/jB of deities, esp. heavenly bodies; of life, 
reign; < edesu 

eddidu (a kind of thorn-bush) jB; < ededu 

eddittu; pi. eddetu, Am. edddtu (a kind of thorn- 
bush) O/jB, Am.; < ededu 

eddu(m) "pointed" O/jB of horns; < ededu 

edebu — > edepu 

ededu(m) "to be(come) pointed, spiky" Bab., 
OA G (ulu; stat. id, edud) [stat. id SIG] of 
parts of body, horn; of horns of moon, sun etc. 
Gtn OB unci. D stat. ~ G "is pointed"; OB in 
hendiad. "look sharp, do quickly"; OA 
"pressurize"? s.o. N stat. ~ G "becomes 
pointed"; > eddu; eddidu, eddittu; iddum; 
midedu; udittu 

edehu(m), edikum "to cover with patches, with a 
network" O/jB G stat. "is spotted" of stone, 
face, moon; of entrails "are patchily covered" 
with tissue D "cover (objects) with a network" 
of wool; stat. ~ G stat. "is patchily covered with 
(= ace.)" tissue, with network of veins; 
> idihum; midehtum 

edikum — » edihu 

edelu(m) "to shut, bolt" G (ili, Am pret. Mul) 
[TAB] door, city gate; house; hand, mouth; 
"shut (s.o.) off from (= ina) Gtn iter. D ~ G 
door, gate Dt pass, of D N "be shut, bolted"; 
"shut o.s. up"; > edlu; eddilu; idiltu; midelu; -* 

edimum — > addmum 

edena (a plant) jB lex. 


edennu — » edenu 

edennu — ► edenu 

edenu, edanu, edennu, Idlnu "alone" M/NB + 
pers. suff. e.g. edenukka, edenussu "on his 
own; alone"; Nuzi "single" [LU.DIL], i.e. 
without family; < wedum + -dnu; > edenu; 

edenu, edennu, Ass. eddniu, edanu "single, sole, 
lone" M/jB, NA of messenger; of things often 
in pairs, e.g. horses; of village "isolated"; 
< edenu + -J 

edepu(m), edebu, NA eddbu "to blow (away)" 
O/jB, M/NA G (Hi) of demons "blow on" s.o. 
(= ace); "blow away"; stat. "is inflated" with 
(= ace.) D ~ G of storm; revolts; stat. "is 
inflated" N MA "be blown away" Ntn iter.; 
> edpip; idiptu; uddupu 

edequ(m), addqu "to dress, clothe" Bab.(lit.) 
G (Hi) "clothe" body with (=acc.) D ~ G 
divine statue Dt pass, of D "be arrayed in" 
St OB "have o.s. dressed in" N "get dressed, 
arrayed in" (= ace); > tediqu 

ederu(m) "to embrace, wrap o.s. round" O/jB 
G (/'//') person, person's neck; of features in 
exta; astr. of moon's horns N "embrace one 
another" [GU.DA.RI] of persons; lizards; heaven 
and earth; stat. "have conspired"; > ediru; 
nanduru II 

edesu (oxeddesu) "bud"? jB lex.; < edesu ? 

edesu(m) "to be(come) new" G (Hi) of clothes, 
building; "be renewed" of person, god; OAkk 
infin. edesumma "anew" Gtn "constantly 
renew o.s." of Sin D "renew" [GIBIL] building, 
clothing, dais etc.; "resume" journey; "restore" 
life, cult; Mari in hendiad. "repeat" action Dtn 
iter, of D Dt pass, of D; > essu I, essutu, essis; 
ussusu III; eddestum, eddesu; tedistu; edesu'- 

edigu — > udugu 

edihum, edikum "basket mender"? OB, also as 
PN; < edehu 

ediltu — > edlu 

edinu, OA idinum "desert, steppe" jB lex.; OA 
mng. unci.; < Sum. 

ediptu, adiptn mng. unkn. jB lex. 

edirtu — ► idirtu 

ediru (a garment) jB lex.; < ediru 

edis "alone" jB; < wedum 

edissi — ► wedissi- 

edistu — » essu I 

edlu "shut, bolted; inaccessible" M/jB of door, 
house; bolt; road; "locked up" of prisoner; 
< edelu 

66 egalkurru 

edpu mng. unci. jB desig. of sheep's hoof; 

< edepu ? 

edu(m) I, occas. adu, atu "flood, wave" O/jB of 
river "flood, spate"; "wave(s)" of sea; as epith. 
of king; < Sum. 

edu(m) II, idu(m), OA idd'um "to know" 
(M/NA -> wadum) G (pret. only, ide (-» 
GAG §106q)) [ZU]; ina la ide "unwittingly"; 
stat. "is aware of, also "is known" to s.o.; 
"know" that = kifma), how much = mala, 
where = ema, asar; "be acquainted with" s.o.,; "be conscious of" prayer, guilt; 
"experience" defeat, fear; "know" person 
sexually; Am. with ana "care for" s.o. D(t) -> 
wad&m S "cause to know", "acquaint s.o. with" (= ace), abullam s. "show s.o. the city 
gate", i.e. confine to city; "make known, 
convey, make pronouncement" St "inform 
oneself? SD — » wadum N (nilendu) "become 
acquainted"; > di'atum; edutu; mudu, mudutu, 
mudanutu; sudutu; musedd; udu II ? 

edu — » wedum 

edd — > wedum 

eduk — ► ediitu 

edukku — ► wedum 5 

edulldnu — > edulnu 

edullu (an administrative building)? j/NB 
[E.DUL]; < Sum. 

edulnu (or edulldnu ?) (a functionary) NA lex. 
edumanu "single" NA i.e. without family [A§- ]; 

< wedum 
eduppdtu -> edappdtu 
eduru — > aduru 

edutu "sleeve"? jB lex. (var eduk erron.?) 
edutu, iddtu "knowledge, awareness" jB lex.; 

< edu II 
edutu "isolation" jB in edutiya "by myself; 

< wedum 
e'elu(m), a'dlu "to bind (on)" G (pres. i"il, pret. 

Vil) "tie up", "tie on to"; "bind" with spells, 
with legal contract Gt ~ "tie all round" D ~ G 
NA (with pi. obj.); NB "make" contract 
"binding" (on s.o.); stat. of water, foam "is 
attached together, collects together" Dt pass, of 
D, of water "be collected" St "link" hands; stat. 
of hands "are linked, folded together" N pass, 
of G of rope; of illness "be attached to, infect" 
s.o.; > i'lu; e'iltu, u'iltu; e" elu; melu 1 - 

e"elu, eilu, a'dlu "binder" jB lex., mag., desig. 
of a demon; <e'elu 

egalkurru "ritual for entering palace" j/NB 
[E.GAL.KU4/KUR.RA]; < Sum.; -» ekallu 


egalturru f. "little palace" jB [E.GAL.TUR.RA]; 
< Sum.; -► ekallu 

egaru "to write down"? MA G stat. "is written 
down"; > egertu; ugurtu 

egegu — » ekeku; eqequ 

egemgiru, egengiru, gimlngiru, gergiru (a 
medicinal plant, phps.) "Sisymbrium officinale 
or Eruca sativa" M/NB [U/GlS.NIG.GAN.GAN] 
1 egerru, O/jB also igerru(m), NA gerrd 
"utterance" Bab., NA [INIM.GAR] "ominous 
utterance" relating to s.o.; "spoken opinion, 
reputation", e. dummuqumllummunum "to 
speak well/ill" of s.o.; bel(et) e. "slanderer (m., 
f.)"; < Sum. 

egertu, igertu "inscribed tablet" NA, NB of letter, 
legal document; < egaru 

egeru(m) "to lie (transversely) across" O/jB 
G (//(') of animal across a person, another 
animal; transf. of language "be perverse, 
difficult" Gtn Mari, of enemy "continually 
thwart" s.o. Gt "lie across each other, be 
crossed over" of animals, parts of liver, transf. 
"be in disagreement" with s.o.; of heart "be 
perverse, wrong" D mag. "twist" feet of a 
figurine S mng. unci. St [GIL] "cross" feet 
"over each other"; stat. of parts of body "are 
crossed over each other" N "limp, go lame"? 
Ntn med. of feet "continually cross over each 
other"?; transf. of tongue (speech defect); of 
animal "continually cross (a path)"?; > egru; 
etguru; tegirtu 1 ; — » egaru 

eggetu — » ekketu 

egiddu — » agittu 

egisitu — > igisitu 

egitu, jB also igitu ? "negligence, omission" 
M/NB e. Ellil "negligence towards EUU"; 
"(sin(s) of) omission"; < egu I 

egizaggu, igizaggu, igizangA (an ornamental 
stone) jB/NA [NA4.IGI.ZAG.GA/GA; NA4.IGI. 
ZAG.GA], also in mag.; < Sum. 

egru(m) "transverse, crossed" O/jB, NA of 
birds, in representation; transf. of language 
"difficult"; of enemy "perverse"; < egeru 

egu, igu, egu, agu (a kind of camel-thorn) jB lex. 

egu I "negligent" OB lex., jB; f. egitu (a class of 
person); < egu III 

egu II, equ "antimony (paste), kohl" jB 

egu(m) III "to be(come) lazy; be negligent" 
OAkk, Bab.; M/NA in PNs G (ulu, Hi) "be 
negligent" towards (= ana) deity, person; with 
respect to (= ana) work, task; > egu I; egitu, 
egutu; megutu; tegif 

egu — > also agu II; egu 

67 ekelu(m) 

egubbu — > agubbu 

egumu(m) "hot water" OB lex.; < Sum. 

egusu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

egutu "negligence" jB "(act of) negligence" by 

diviner; < egti I 
eguzu mng. unci. OB lex.; < Sum. 
efce (a cry of lament) jB 
ejjele; pi. efrelena, also abbr. efre (a type of land 

tenure) MB(AlaL); mdru e. (a social class); 

< Hurr. 
ehlipakku, ehlalupakku "raw glass" Qatna, Am., 

Nuzi, Bogh.; < Hurr. 
ehrushu (or uhrushu) (a vessel) Alal.; < Hurr. 
ehzu(m) (a kind of axe) O/jB [URUDU.G1N. 

MUNUS] used on fields 
e'iltu(m), i'iltu(m) "bond, obligation" O/jB "debt, 

liability"; OA "obligation" of offerings, jB 

"obligation" to deity (pi. also elletu), esp. with 

patdru (to absolve); < e elu 
eilu -*e"elu 

eka, ekdmale "where?" M/NB; < ayyika; > ekanu 
ekallis "into the palace" jB [E.GAL- ]; < ekallu 
ekallitu — » ekallu 
ekallu(m) f., rarely m.; Mari pi. occas. ekalldnu 

"palace" [E.GAL; NA also KUR] as building; e. 

mdsarti "review p., arsenal"; e. kutalli "rear p."; 

e. tapsuhti, e. saldli "p. of rest", i.e. royal tomb; 

OB(Susa), Nuzi (part of a private house); as 

administrative authority, i.e. "the government"; 

rab(i) e. "palace overseer" [GAL.E.GAL]; sa e. 

"queen" [prob. MUNUS.E.GAL; MUNUS.KUR]; 

sa muhhi e., sa pan e. "palace supervisor"; 

< Sum.; > ekallis, ekallu, ekallutu; — > 
egalkurru, egalturru; erib-ekalli 

ekallu(m) "palace official" O/jB [(LU.)SA. 

E.GAL]; f. ekallitu j/NB, NA [MUNUS.SA.E. 

GAL] "queen(-mother) 7 " 
ekallutu — > arad-ekallutu 
ekdmale — » eka 
ekannam — > akanna I 
ekanu "where?" NB ana e. "whither?"; < eka + 

ekdis "furiously" OB; < ekdu 
ekdu "wild, furious" Bab. of animal, king, 

warrior; < ekedu; > ekdis 
ekedu(m) G mng. unci. OB D ~ "to revile, 

slander" jB; > ekdu, ekdis; ukkudu 
ekeku, egegu(m) "to scratch" O/jB G (Hi) 

Gtn iter, of G D ~ G Dt "scratch o.s." (or -» 

takdku ?); > ekketu; ukkum V; mekeku 
ekelu(m) "to be(come) dark" G (///) of sun, 

moon etc.; divine image; transf. of face, 

situation etc. Gtn "repeatedly become dark" 


Gt "become permanently dark"; infin. 
"'condition of darkness" D "darken" Dt pass, of 
D; > eklu, ekletu, eklis; iklu I; uklu I; ukkulu, 

ekemu(m) "to take away, deprive" G (///) [KAR] 
"take away" from (=acc.) s.o., usu. 
unjustly; "rescue" (from adversity); "deprive" 
s.o. of sleep, joy, life, potency; ext., of feature 
of liver, stat. "is displaced"?; "absorb, lie over" 
another feature Gtn "repeatedly take away" 
Gt ext. "(mutually or fully) absorb, lie over" 
D ~ G MB "carry away" population N pass, of 
G, OB of fields; > ekmu; ekkimu, ekkemu; 
ikimtu; ukkumu; nekemtu 

ekepu(m), NA also eqdbu ~ "to come close, 
approach" G (//;') in space, time; to girl, 
sexually; Man "come up with intent to" temple 
(< W.Sem.) Gt "come very close to"?; stat. "is 
very near" D of time "draw near", "be in good 
time, early", trans, of Adad "bring" rain "early, 
in good time" St OA of textiles "pack tightly 
together"; of cedars, hair "grow close together" 
Ntn or Nt of animals "come close together" for 
copulation; >nekepum; ukkupu, ukkupis; 

ekesu mng. unkn. jB lex.; > aksu ?, eksis ? 

ekiam "where?, whither?" jB; <ayyiklam 

ekiltu — » eklu 

ekkemu(m) "robber" O/jB; < ekemu 

Ekkena (a month) OB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

ekketu(m), eggetu "itching, scabies" Bab.; 

< ekeku 
ekkimu(m) "rapacious, thieving" O/jB esp. of 

demons; < ekemu 
ekletu(m) (or ikletu(m)) "darkness" Bab. 
[KUKKU]; bit e. "dark chamber", "underworld"; 

< eklu 
eklis "gloomily" jB; < eklu 
eklu(m) "dark" Bab. of day, water, transf. jB of 

person ekil parii "with gloomy face"; f. ekiltu 
"dark (times)"; f. pi. ekletu "dark places"; 

< ekelu 
ekmu "taken away, stolen" jB of land, fortress; 

< ekemu 
eksis "insolently" jB; < aksu 
eksu — » aksu 
eku(m) I, iku; f. ekutu; f. pi. eki'dtum 

"impoverished; orphaned, bereaved" Bab.; at 
Alal., as social class; freq. f. "orphan(s)" 
[NU.SIK]; < eku II; > ekutu 
eku(m) II "to starve, deprive (of food, water)" 
O/jB D land, people; infin. ukku sa zunni 

68 elathjpu 

"shortage of rain"; > eku I; ek&tu; mekutu; 

tekitu 1 
eku — » Iku 
Ekur 1. (temple of Enlil at Nippur) 2. jB (a name 

of the underworld, abode of demons); < Sum.; 

> ekurris; ekurru 
ekurris "into the Ekur (= underworld)" jB; 

< Ekur 
ekurru f., occas. m. "temple, chapel" M/NA, 

M/NB [E.KUR(.RA)] as building; as cult place; 

akil, satam ekurrdte "inspector of temples"; 

ekurum (or equrum) (a wooden object) OAkk 
ekutu jB "impoverishment"; Nuzi "orphanhood"; 

< eku I 
el — » eli 
ela "apart from, in the absence of Ass., O/jB 

"except (for)", "if it were not for" (— » GAG 
§1 14p); in adv. use "exclusively" OB; < elu I ?; 

> elaman; elat 
elae, elaya (desig. of horse, of tool) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
elallu "cloud" jB lex.; < Sum. 
elallu — » also alallu 
elallu mng. unkn. MB(Ass.) 
elallu — » also alallu I 
elaman "apart from" OB lex.; e. nidti "were it not 

for us"; < ela + -man 
Elama(t)tu(m) "(goddess) of Elam" O/jB 

[ELAM.MA- ] name of the Bow star (qastu); 

also MN at Susa; < elamu 
elamittu — » alamittu 
elamltu — » elamu 
elamku (a kind of arrow) jB lex. 
elammakku(m), Nuzi elalemmahhu (a tree, 

valuable wood) OAkk, O/jB (felled in Syria) 

as timber, as material for furniture; M/jB med. 

in prescriptions 
elammihuru (a craftsman) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
elamu; f. ela(m)mitu "Elamite" jB, NA desig. of 

fig, cart, wool, camelian; > Elamattu 
elamutu mng. unkn. jB 
elan — » elenu 2; elldn 
elanis "above, in the upper part" jB( Ass.); < el(i) 

+ -an + -is 
eldnu — » elenu; ilidnum 
eldnum — » ilidnum 
ela(p)pii — » alapu 
eldq pi — » liqu I 
elat "beyond, over and above" NB "in addition 

to, apart from" (prep.); with pron. suff., sa; 

also adv. "additionally"; < ela 
elathipu (a linen garment) jB lex. 


elatu — » elitu; elu I 

elaya — » elae 

eldu (a dairy product) jB lex. 

eldu — » also esdu 

elehu(m) "to strew, sprinkle" O/jB G (Hi) of dry 

substances, e.g. flour D ~ G; also ~ "to adorn", with (= ace.) wool, clothing; stat. "is 

decked out" with; transf., with abundance; 

^ > ulluhum 

elelanu "carolling merrily" jB; < elelu I 

elelu I "cheerful song" jB e. sadrutu "songs 
(written down) in sections"; < aldlu III 

elelu(m) II "to be(come) pure, free" G (i/i) [KU] 
of ominous sign "be clear"; "be pure" cultically, 
of person, incantation; OA, OB of person, 
person's forehead (putum) "be free" from 
claims D "purify" [KIJ] weapons in sea; body, 
mouth, hands; of deity "purify" humans, 
heaven; by magic; "carry out purely" ritual, 
offering; "dedicate by purification"; OB 
"manumit" slave(-woman) Dt "purify o.s."; "be 
purified"; > ellu I.II ?, ellis, ella-me, ellutu; 
elilu ?; ullulu I; mullilu; teliltu; tullal 

elelu III mng. unci. jB lex. 

elemmahhu — » elammakku 

elen — » elenu 2 

elenitu I, eliydnitu 'the superior one' jB mag. 
(desig. of witch); NB "deceitful words"? (-» 
elitu 10); < elenu 

elenitu II "upper garment" NB = elitu 4; < elenu 

elenu(m), OB also elidnuml, O/MA, Bogh., NB, 
occas. jB also eldnu "above, over" Bab. 
[AN.TA(- ): UGU- ] 1. adv. "above", topog., in 
sky; "above (ground)"; after prep, ana, adi, istu 
e. "upwards, upstream", "up to the top", "from 
above"; elenumma "in addition" 2. prep, (with 
pron. suff., e.g. elenussu; M/NB often elen, 
elan) "above, over"; Nuzi also = "to east of; 
"upstream of; OB "besides, apart from", Am. 
"more than"; elan uri "pudenda"; < el(u) I + 
-dnum; > elenu; elenitu I.II 

elenu "upper" M/NB [AN.TA- ; NB also UGU- ?] 
of fields, territory, sea; < elenu + -i; 
> elenitu I.II 

eleppatum — ^ eleppu 

eleppu(m), ilippum f., NB also m. "ship, boat" 
[GIS.MA; OAkk, OB freq. mA; OAkk pi. 
MA.MA] OB also nom. unit, eleppatum 
"(single) boat"; bel e. "ship owner"; e. bd'eri/i 
"fisherman's boat"; e. Hi "deity's boat"; e. 
qardbi "battleship"; e. neberi [GIS.MA.DIRI.GA] 
"ferry boat"; "(model) boat", Am. as toy; jB of 

69 elitu(m) 

elepu(m), alapu "to sprout, grow" Bab. G (Hi) 
astr. of halo (agu); NB stat. in PNs "grants 
growth to" Gt "grow into one another", stat. of 
parts of body, exta; "be interlocked" of 
combatants, weapons D "make grow" trees; 
MB transf. "increase" daily stint Dt/Dtn NB 
"increase, multiply" of descendants S "cause" 
stature "to grow" St "(cause to) interlock", "be 
made to interlock", of vegetation, in combat; "be 
made to grow, increase" of descendants, regnal 
years; > ellipu; lipu, lip lipi; etlupu; nelepu^ 

elesu(m) "to swell; rejoice" Bab.(lit) G (///) of 
heart, liver "rejoice", also ellipt. of person, stars 
Gtn iter. Gt "rejoice constantly" D "make 
joyful" heart, liver; stat. "is swollen", of parts of 
body Dt "be made to swell" S "cause to rejoice" 
heart, liver etc.; door (mng. unci.); ellipt. of 
person; > elsu, elsis; Usu II; ulsu, ulsdnis; 
ullusu; melesu 

elestihhuri (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

elgulla — » elkulla 

eli, elu, el, Hi, OAkk al "on, over, above; against; 
more than" OAkk, Bab., rarely NA [UGU] "on; 
on to" a place, a thing; of obligation etc. "on; on 
to" a person; of person "over" another, a task; 
"in addition to"; "more than" in quantity or 
quality; "against" enemy, person, esp. of anger, 
shout; "on account, on behalf of s.o.; "to" s.o. 
after tidbu(m), mardsu(m) "to please, 
displease"; < elu I; > elanis; — » eliya sa sise 

elidnum — » elenu 

elidtum — ^ elitu 

eligulla — » elkulla 

elihuru (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

elikulla — » elkulla 

elilu — » alilu 

elilu, ellilu, OA i(l)lilum (a kind of soapwort)? 
jB, OA ? ; < elelu II ? 

elilu — » also alilu 

elinu (a plant) jB lex. 

elis "above; in addition" [AN.TA(-w)] 1. adv. "up 
above", i.e. in heaven, or on the earth; e. u 
saplis "above and below"; "upstream"; 
"upwards", also ana e.; NA med. ana e. "by 
mouth"; "aloud"; OA "in addition", "and 
further" 2. occas. j/NB prep, "over" the water; 
"upstream of; < elu I 

elis — » also His 

elita(m), elitu, ellita 1. OB "furthermore, 
moreover" 2. Bab. "aloud"; < elu I 

elitu(m), ilitu, OAkk alitum; pi. elidtum, elatu 
'that which is above' [AN.TA] 1. OA 
"top(-load)" of donkey 2. "upper (stone)" for 


grindstone; "pestle" for mortar 3. MA, NB 
"upper room, structure" 4. "upper (garment)" 
(— » elenitu II) 5. "upper part" of moon, plant, 
sack, wheel 6. e. uzni(m), Ini, libbi "upper part 
of ear, eye, heart"; of parts of liver [AN.TA; 
NU.UM.ME] 7. eldt same [AN.PA] "zenith" 8. pi. 
eldtu "the upper world" (as opp. to 
underworld), also = "humanity" 9. OAkk 
alidtum "the upper lands"; OB "high-lying 
(fields)" 10. "deception", pi. "lies" (— » 
elenitu I) 11. jB lex. "exterior"; OA e. tuppim 
"tablet envelope" 12. gramm. (sa) ellti "(Sum.) 
prefix"; < elu II 

elitu — » also ellta 

elitu(m) "rising (amount)" Bab.; sg. OB "high 
amount" (opp. to wdrittum); pi. "additional 
payments" in inheritance, bride price; NB "extra 
payments" of dates; < elu IE f. ptcp. 

eliu (a perfume) MA 

eliu — » also elu I. II 

eliydnltu — » elenitu I 

eliyanu (a garment) jB lex.; < elu I 

eliya "rider" in e. sa slse NB(Achaem.); < eli ? 

elkulla, elgulla, eliliklgulla (a medicinal plant or 
plants) M/jB lex., med. 

ellabbuhhu(m), ellambuhhu, illabbuhu, 
(elil)libbuhu, ilbuhfyu f. "bladder" O/jB, MA*of 
bird, fish, sheep etc.; MA as container for oil; 

< Sum.? 

ella(m)-me, illa-me "pure in divine powers" O/jB 
title of Stn, Samas; lex. (a deity's garment); 

< eliu I + mu II 

ellamkusu, illaggusu (a leather object, phps.) 

"bellows" jB; < Sum. 
ellamu-, illamu- "before" (prep.) jB; OB in 

PN ?; with pron. suff. "before" s.o., in time; "in 

front of, in place; < ina + Idmu- 
ellan, elldnu(m) "over and above" Ass. 1. OA 

adv. "additionally" 2. prep, "in addition to, apart 

from"; MA "beyond"; Bogh. "more than"; 

M/NA "on the far side of; Ug. "away from"; 

> ellatdn; — » alldnum ?; ulldnu ? 
ellarutu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
ellatan "on the other side of OB(N.Mes.); 

< elldn 
ellatu — » illatu I 
ellaya — » elleya 
ellemesum — » elmesu 

ellet, elliat mng. unci. OB ina e. DN "with the 
authority of DN"?; Nuzi "beside, next to"?; 

< lew ? 

elletu — » eliu I; illatu I 
elletu — » e'iltu 

70 elsu 

elleya, elillaya 1. O/jB lex. "no! no way!"? 2. jB 
(shout of joy) 

elliat — » ellet 

ellidtu — » elu II 

ellibbuhu — » ellabbuhhu 

elligu, illigu (a stone) jB; < Sum. 

Ellil, Illil, OAkk Enlil [ d EN.LlL; d 50; NA d BAD] 
1. the god Enlil 2. Bab.(lit.) desig. of the 
supreme deity, E. ill "E. of the gods", of 
Marduk, Assur, Nergal, Ninurta; > Ellillatu; 

Elli(l)latu, Elli(l)litu (desig. of supreme goddes^) 
jB [ d EN.LfL.LA- ] of Istar, Ninlil; < Ellil 

ellilu — » elilu 

Ellilutu, Illilutum "power of Enlil, divine 
supremacy" O/jB [ d EN.LlL(.LA)- ; M/jB 
d BAD- ] of Enlil, Marduk, Assur, Sin, Istar, 
Ninlil; < Ellil 

ellimesu — » elmesu 

ellipu 1. (a plant) jB lex., med. 2. mng. unkn. jB 
lex.; < elepu 

ellis "purely" jB; "clearly" of appearance of 
moon; "in cultic purity"; < eliu I 

ellita — » elita 

elliu — » eluU 

ellu(m) I, allu "pure; clear" [KU; SIKIL] "pure, 
clean" of water, oil; "bright, shining" of metal, 
stone; of mountains, forests, onions; 
"(cultically, ritually) pure" of deity, person, 
hands; of incantation, symbol; temple, place; of 
meal, offering, wine; e. as subst., desig. of 
priest; Bogh., Ug. "free" as social class; 
< elelu II; > ella-me; ellis; ellutu; — » e. U 

ellu(m) II "sesame oil" Bab. of a specific quality 
[i.GIS (-» also samnu)]; <e.ll 

eliu — » elu I 

elluku — » illukku 

elliiru — » ilium 

ellutu — » illatu I 

ellutu "purity" M/jB; < eliu I 

elmarumma "oath"? Nuzi in e. epesu; < Hum 

elmestu, elmeru, MA elmeltu, NA elmessu (a 
kind of grass) jB, M/NA; < elmesu 

elmesu(m), ellilemesum. Ass. e/ilmusu, e/ilmisi 
(a valuable stone, phps.) "amber" Bab.(lit.), 
NA [SUD.AG] also as (f)PN; freq. in lit.; 
> elmestu 

elpetu, ilpitu, elpatu "alfalfa grass" Bab. 
[U.NUMUN; U.A.NUMUN], med. in prescriptions 

elpu — » alapu 

elsis "joyfully" Bab.(lit.); < elsu 

elsu "joyful" OB of heart; < elesu; > elsis 

eltu -» iltu I.n 

elu(m) I 



eltuhhu — » istuhhu 

elu(m) I "top, upper side" O/jB (rare); > eli, 
eldnis; elenu, elenu, elenitu I.II; eliyanu; elis; 
elu II, elitu, elutiC-; ela 1 -; — » e. II; elu TH 

elu II (part of a metal object) NB of censer (= e. I 
"top, lid"?) 

elu — » also eli; ilu 

elu(m) I, elium, eliu "high" Bab.(lit.); "tall" in 
stature; of neck, head "(raised) high"; "exalted"; 
< elu III; > elita 

elu(m) II, ilu, alum, OAkk alium. Ass. eliu(m), 
MA f. pi. also ellidtu "upper" [AN.TA; AN- ; 
NIM; Am. UGU- ] of parts of body and liver; 
buildings; matum elitum = "Upper Meso- 
potamia"; of river, sea, fields; of wind (sdru) 
"north"?; "up above, supernal" of Igigi; OB 
"outer" tablet; gramm. "(Sum.) prefix"; < elu I 
+ -i"; > elitu; elutu 

elu(m) III, OB also alum "to go up, arise; (stat.) 
is high" G (('/(') [En; jB also AN.TA] 1. stat. "is 
(too) high", "is raised up"; transf. of DN etc. 
"is exalted" 2. of living beings "move upwards, 
climb up" into heaven, mountains, upper land; 
"come up" out of water; on to roof, wall; 
"ascend" {ana) throne; of animal "mount" 
sexually 3. of things "come up, arrive"; of ship 
"go upstream"; of star, cloud, water "rise"; of 
land "emerge" (from water); "come up" of 
plant, lot, metal etc. from kiln; of ornament "go 
on to" 4. transf. of prices "rise"; "climb 
(socially)"; "apply (etc.) higher up", e.g. to 
king, law court; leg. of claimant, witnesses 
"come forward"; of person, tablet etc. "turn up, 
appear"; math, "emerge, be the result"; of 
harvest, profit "be produced, result"; NB ana 
mulfhi (X) e. "take on liability for (X)"; ina X 
<?., qdtu ina X e. "forfeit X" (— » Gt); of person 
"get away from" s.o.'s control (qdt-), of 
property "be lost" to owner Gtn iter. Gt "go up 
and away"; of person, animal, silver, illness; 
O/jB ina X e. "forfeit X" D "make higher, raise" 
wall, building, 'head' (resu) of building; of 
deity "lift up, elevate" person, kingship (also 
with resu); "extol, praise (deity)"; NA "take 
away, remove" Dtn "repeatedly extol" Dt 1. = 
Gt "forfeit" 2. "be raised high(er)" than 
(= ana) (— » utlellu) S [En] caus. of G; jB ana 
zaqlpi s. "impale"; "post, install" garrison in 
fort etc.; Susa me s. "have water close over one, 
be submerged" (in ordeal); "dedicate" to 
temple; "get out" from storage, kiln; "embark" 
person, goods; "bring forward" witnesses; 
"produce" lesion; "bring out, produce" tablet, 
lost property; "enter" on tablet; "introduce" bees 

to a region; "express" anxiety, thought; sum X 
s. "swear oath by X"; "disinherit" heir, "turn 
off, drive from" fields, land; "take" sheep from 
fold; "remove" boundary stone etc.; math, 
"subtract" [En; NIM], "determine" root; Am. sa 
dama sulu (desig. of gold) Stn iter, of S St jB 
of features in liver "be raised (as) high" as 
(= ana); Am. transf. of dowry "be made (as) 
immense as" N — » ne'ellu; > elu I, ellta; eld, 
elitu; melu, melltu, mulu; ullu n, ullutu; 
mullltum; telltu; sulu, sulutu II, selu'utum; 
muselu; utlellu; — » elu I and derivatives 

elu — » also alallu II; alu I.IV 

elu — » alu II 

elu "claimant" MB; < elu III 

elu'e (a prof, desig.)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 

Elunum, Elulu(m), j/NB Ululu (a festival; 6th 
Bab. month) [lTI.KIN(. d INNIN.NA)]; OAkk, OB 
"(festival of) £."; "month of £.", also "second 
(NB sanu, NA urkiu) £."; PN E/Ululdyu 

elupatu (an object) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

eluri — » Mure 

elutu, Hutu in subdt e. (a garment) jB; < elu II ? 

em, ema "wherever" Bab. 1. prep, "in 
whatever/every part of, em dli "in 
whatever/every part of the town"; em qabli 
"wherever there be battle"; j/NB temporal "at 
whatever time", ema arffi "at each (new) 
month" 2. conj. "wherever", ema tannamru 
"wherever you appear"; j/NB temporal 
"whenever"; < ai III + -ma (-» GAG §1 14i) 

ema'e — » miya 

emahu (a word for temple) jB; < Sum. 

emammu, emdmu — » umdmu 

emanamumma "tenfold" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

emantu "group of ten" Nuzi; < Hurr.; — » 

emantuhlu, emattuhlu "decurion" Nuzi [GAL. 10]; 
< Hurr.; — » emantu 

emartu (an ornament)? jB lex. 

emdru — » imeru 

emarukku "flood dragon" jB; < Sum. 

emasu (a temple inner room) jB 

emdsu — » also umdsu 

emattuhlu — » emantuhlu 

emba (or imbd) "baa"jB of sheep 

embubu — » ebbubu 

emdu I, endu "imposed" jB; < emedu 

emdu(m) II, endu (an aromatic tree) O/jB, 
M/NA; its wood as fumigant; NA sa e.-su "the 
e. man/supplier"; saman e. "oil of e."; — » suddu 

emedu(m) "to lean on; impose" G (OA, early 
OB alu, later /'//) [US] 1. "lean on" (=acc.) 




person, thing; ext., math., stat. "is in contact 
with, touches, reaches to"; of boat "land", of 
stars "come into contact with"; "rely on, take 
refuge with" deity, "in" corner, hiding place; 
sadd(su) e. "resort to mountain" (= disappear) 

2. "impose, put on (= ace.) s.o./"; 
"install" door, beam; "load" captives on boat; 
"put" yoke, load "on" donkey, neck; "impose" 
corvee, tribute, tax etc.; penalty, judgement, 
oath(-taking); illness, woe; O/MB put- e. "give 
guarantee" Gtn iter. MB "push ever further" 
into woods Gt OAkk "lie on each other" D 
"install" beams etc.; med. "apply" dressing; 
qdta(m) u. "lay hands on", liter, and transf. of 
legal act; "dock" a ship; "build" quay "onto" 
bank; "set" fire to; "hide (intrans.) in" 
corners; stat. "is in contact with"; OA 
"assemble, load" goods etc. Dt pass, of D with 
qdtu S caus. of G OAkk "cause to take refuge"; 
NB "cause to impose" tax St "bring" troops etc. 
"together", "put" (o.'s heads) "together"; "add 
up" amounts; "knit" o.'s eyebrows; of parts of 
body, of liver, med. "mix", "add" ingredients 
"to one another" N 1. recipr. of persons "get 
together" with (=itti), "confer"; of troops 
"combine, join up"; "meet" in battle; of parts of 
liver, stars "converge, meet up"; Nuzi stat. 
"adjoins" 2. "betake o.s. to", "seek refuge in" 

3. pass, of G "be propped up"; "be imposed"; 
"be placed next to" Ntn (or Nt ?) "continually 
join together", astr. "continually conjoin"; 

> emdu I; emidu, emmedu; imdu, imittu II; 
nemedu, nemettu; etmudu, etarndu; mummidu^; 
suteniudu; muttetendu; umdu? 

emegalammu (a Sum. dialect) jB 
[]; < Sum. 

ememu(m) "to be(come) hot" O/jB, NA G (///; 
stat. em) [KUM] of person's body "be hot, run a 
temperature"; of weather, walls of house 
Gtn [KUM. KUM] jB med. "continually have 
temperature" D "heat up" water, oil etc.; 

> emmu, emmu, emmutu; ummu II; immu, 

emequ(in) I "to be wise" OAkk, Bab. G stat. 
(emuq) of deity, person St "pray devoutly" to 
(=ana), for (=dat. pron. suff.); > emqu, 
emqis, emqutu, emuqtu; nemequ; ummuqu, 
temiqu; mustemiqu; — ► emuqu 

emequ(m) II ~ "to care for" OB G only ptcp. -» 
emiqum D "make, appoint s.o. to care" 

emerum — » amaru I 

emeru I "to be red" jB G -» emru I D "redden", 
stat. of eyes "are reddened" 

emeru(m) II ~ "to swell" O/jB G stat. of heart, 
gall, pregnant woman "is swollen" N "become 
swollen, enlarged" of body, star Ntn iter, of N; 

> emru II 
emesallu — ► mesallu 

emesu(m) I "to be sour" O/jB G stat. (emis, 

emus) of beer etc.; > emsu I 
emesu(m) II "to be hungry" OA, O/jB G (Bab. 

ulu, Ass. ///') of people, land; OA aklam e. "be 

hungry for bread" D OA "allow" s.o. "to go 

hungry"; > emsu II; umsu I; emmisum 
emesu "to strive" MB(Ass.) Gtn iter. 
emetu(m) "mother-in-law" (or other female 

relative by marriage) Bab.; < emu 
emetuku "slanderer" jB lex.; < Sum. 
emidu "tax assessor" NB; < emedu 
emiqum; f. emiqtum ~ 'one who cares for, carer' 

(a household servant) OA, OB; < emequ II; — ► 

emittam — » imitta 
emittu — ► imittu I. II 
emmea, emba "baa"jB of sheep 
emmedu ~ "lodger, tenant"? jB lex.; < emedu 
emmertu — » immertu 
emmeru — ► immeru 
emmisum ~ "in need, short of cash"? OA; 

< emesu II 

emmu(m), am/nw/n "hot" "O/jB, M/NA [KUM] of 
bitumen, water, dregs; baked brick, oven; as 
subst. "hot (water)", sa e. "servant bringing hot 
water"; emmetu "hot (bread)"; < ememu; 

> emmutu, emmu 

emmu pi. tant. ~ "fuel" MA (or "hot cinders"?); 

< emmu 
e(m)mu — ► imu 

emmutu "heat" MB in e. umi "heat of the day"; 

< emmu 

emqis "intelligently" OB; < emqu 

emqu(m), enqu; f. emuqtu "wise, clever" Bab. 

[KU.ZU]; "skilled, clever" craftsman, scribe; 

"wise" god, king etc.; "crafty" fox; < emequ I; 

> emqis; emuqtu; emqutu 
emqutu "wisdom" Am.?; < emqu 
emru I "red(dish)" jB of otter; < emeru I 
emru II "swollen" M/jB lex.; < emeru II 
emsu(m) I, ensu; f. emistu "sour" O/jB, NA 

[BIL/BIL.LA] of wine, vinegar, beer; fruit; 
pastry; < emesu I 
emsum II, ensu "hungry" OB, jB lex.; 

< emesu II 

. emsu(m), ensu, im/nsu "lower body, abdomen" 
O/jB [tfAS] 1. of human (also du.), horse 




2. (part of a harrow; pi. f. of a chair) 3. (a kind 
of lapis lazuli bead); > emsutu 1 - 
emsutu mng. unkn. Nuzi; armour ana e.; 

< emsu ? 

emu(m), imu "father-in-law" (or other male 
relative by marriage) [uSBARg]; bit e. 
"(father-)in-law's house, family"; mdr(at) e. 
"brother/sister-in-law"; e. rabu "father-in-law", 
(as opp. to) e. sehru "son-in-law"; > emetu; 
emumdtu; emutu 

emu I "tongue" jB lex. as part of plough; < Sum. 

emu II (a strap) jB lex. 

emu — » also ewum I; imu 

emumatu pi. tant. "relatives, in-laws" jB lex.; 

< emu; — ► emusutu 

emuqa(mma) "forcibly" MA, Nuzi; < emuqu 

emuqattam "forcibly, violently" OA; < emuqu 

emuqtu "carer"? jB (for emiqtu ?); < emqu 

emuqu(m), NA also amuqu, miiqu; pi. m. & f. 
"strength; force" (freq. du.) [A; USU] 1. "bodily 
strength", e. ramdni "own strength, resources"; 
often in PNs; OA transf. "(financial) support; 
authority" 2. of groups of men "military/labour 
force", "forces" 3. "force (majeure)"; ina e. 
"forcibly", "forceful, violent" deeds, words 
4. "power, ability, capability", klma emuq 
"commensurately with"; NA (Id) miiqd- "(not) 
within the power of, e.g. Id muqdsa "she 
cannot..."; > emuqamma; emuqattam; — ► 
emequ I 

emusutu error for — ► emumdtu ? 

emutin (a kind of bandage) jB lex. 

emutu(m) "relatives by marriage; marriage 
relationship" O/jB bit e. "father-in-law's 
house(hold)"; Am. "marriage alliance"; < emu 

enanna — ► enenna 

enanu (a plant) jB lex. 

endtu — ► inu I 

enbu —* inbu 

enbubum — ► ebbiibu 

endippu, enduppu (a temple cook) jB lex.; 

endu — ► emdu I.II; undu I 

enduppu — ► endippu 

enebu "to fruit" jB G not attested Gtn (or Ntn) 
jB lex. D lex. Dtn "repeatedly gather fruit"? 
Dt "be made to bear fruit"; < inbu denom.; 
> unnubu; innabu; nanndbu 

enen(na), enanna, enin(na), eninni "now" M/jB 
var. of inanna 

enenu(m) I, jB also andnu "to grant favour, be 
favourable" OAkk, OA, O/jB G (a/u) esp. in 

PNs; OA "grant leave (of absence)"; Am. "be 

merciful"; > ennu; ennandtum 
enenu II "to punish" OAkk, MA, M/jB G (///) of 

deity, esp. in PNs; > unnunu ? 
enenu III "to sin" jB G (e/u) of person, PIN; 

> ennenu; ennettu 

enenu IV "to pray" jB lex.; -♦ utnenu II 

enequ(m) "to suck" G (///) of child, animal; obj. 
breast, milk Gtn iter. D lex. "soak, steep" Dt jB 
"be suckled" S "suckle, give suck to"; > eniqu; 
uriiqu, muniqu; t eniqu; sunuqu, museniqtu 

enerhi (a plant) jB lex. 

enesu(m) "to be(come) weak" G (/'//) [SIG]; of 
person, part of body; transf. "be(come) 
poverty-stricken"; of building "become 
dilapidated, fall into disrepair" Gt stat. OB 
etnus akalam "he is short of food" D "weaken" 
person, population, land; (part of) body; cattle; 
stat. of ziggurrat "was allowed to fall into 
disrepair" Dt OA "become poverty-stricken, 
insolvent"; > ensu, ensutu; unsu; etnusu; 
unnusu, unnusutu, munnisu; menesu, menestu, 
menesutu; tanistum 

enetu — ► entu 

enetu "to flatten"? M/jB, NA G not attested D 
liter, "flatten"?; astr. stat. of moon, planets "are 
faint" Dt astr. "be faint, become faint"; 

> unnutu 

engisu, engisu (a stone) jB [NA4.EN.GI/IGI.SAg]; 

engisu, engu (a temple cook) Bab. [EN.ME.GI4]; 

engisu — ► engisu 
engu — ► engisu 

enguratti adv. mng. unkn. NA 
engurru(m) "subterranean waters" O/jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

eni, OB ini - "indeed" OAkk, OB; = anna ? 

eniktum —* enketum 

enimgallum "(legal) claim"? OB lex.; < Sum. 

enimmu — ► inimmu I 

enimtarrum "rejection of claim"? OB lex.; 

enin(na), eninni — ► enenna 
eniqu; f. eniqtu "suckling, unweaned child" NB; 

< eniqu 

eni(s)su (a kind of bandage)? jB lex. 

enita, enitu "in changed order" jB of incantation; 

parts of lung; < enu I 
enitu —* enita; enu I; initu I 
enitu — ► enu 
enketum (or enqetum) pi. (a kind of fish) OB, 

purchased for consumption 


enkummu(m) "temple treasurer" O/jB [ENKUM]; 

< Sum. 
Enli(l)latu — ► Ellillatu 
Enlilutu — ► Ellilutu 
enma "thus, saying" OAkk ptcl. introducing dir. 

speech; later — ► umma 
enna "now" NA, NB, rarely jB; also e. agd, e. 

adu; adi (sa) e., adi muhhi (sa) e. "up till now" 
ennakku mng. unkn. jB lex.; < Sum. 
ennanum; pi. f. "supplication, petition" OA; pi. 

"indulgence, dispensation"; < enenu I; — ► unlnu 
ennenu ~ "malicious" jB of Lamastu; < enenu III 
ennenu(m), inninnu (a kind of cereal) O/jB 

[SE.IN.NU.HA] sown; ground into flour 
ennettu(m), e/innintu, also ennetu "sin; 

punishment" O/jB e. patdru "to absolve sin"; 

hel e.-ya "one who has sinned against me"; 

< enenu III 
ennettu — ► also ernittu 
ennetu — ► ennettu 
ennigu (a priest) jB; < Sum. 
ennintu — ► ennettu 
ennu(m) "favour" OAkk; OA, OB in PNs divine 

"favour, mercy"; < enenu I 
ennu — ► also enu 
e(n)nungallu "chief guardian" Bogh., of forest; 

< Sum. 
enqetum — ► enketum 
enqu — ► emqu 
ensu(m) 1. "dream interpreter" OB lex., jB 2. (a 

plant) jB lex.; <Sum. 
ensu — ► emsu I. II 
ensu(m), M/jB(Ass.) also ansu; f. enistu "weak" 

[SIG] of person, animal, esp. "sick"; militarily 

"weak"; socially "weak" as opp. to dannu; 

"poor" exchange rate; of building "dilapidated"; 

< enesu; > ensutu 
ensu — » also emsu 
ensupu (a bird) jB 
ensutu, MB (Ass.) ansutu "weakness" M/NB of 

person; of building "dilapidation"; < ensu 
entu(m), enetu "high priestess" OAkk, Bab. 

[NIN.DINGIR(.RA)]; MB(Ass.), jB bit e. 

"cloister", syn. of gagu; < enu 
entu (technical term in date cultivation) jB lex.; 

enu(m), ennu Bab. 1. "lord" [EN] 2. "high 

priest(ess)" [en]; < Sum.; > entu; enutu 
enu — ► also inn I 

enu I ~ "overturned" jB lex.; < enu III; > eriita 
enu II (loincloth or kilt) jB lex. 

74 eperu(m) 

enu(m) III "to change" G (///) [BAL] "alter" 
place, street, boundary; MA ellipt. "cross 
(boundary)"; of person kallta e. "change 
kidney", i.e. lie on the other side; "change" 
dynasty, statement, order, judgement; ellipt. 
"renege" (on earlier agreement); "replace" s.o., 
"substitute for" Gt "change places with one 
another", "relieve each other" St "change 
over into else", "exchange" with s.o.; 
"have sexual intercourse"; "reassign" omen to 
s.o. else N pass, of G [BAL] M/NB "be altered" 
of decision, word (usu. negated); of person 
Ntn "be constantly changing" of facial 
expression; > enu I, eriita; enu; initu I, H ? ; tenu, 
ten&nu, tenitum; mustenniunC 

enu —* inu I 

enu; f. eriitu "substitute" O/jB; < enu III 

enuma — ► inuma 

enungallu — ► ennungallu 

Enunnakku —* Anunnakku 

enunutu — ► anunutu 

enusu — ► inusu 

enutu j/NB 1. "lordship" of gods, king 2. "office 
of high priestess"; < enu 

enutu — ► also unutu 

enzu(m), ezzu(m), inzum; pi. mostly f. "goat" 
[UZ; Oz.yi.A] "female goat"; "goat(s)" gener., 
re'i e. "goatherd"; sdrat e. "goat-hair"; astr. 
"(the constellation) Lyra" [MUL.UZ]; also (a 
kind of bird); — ► hazzum 

epa(p)pumng. unkn.jB lex. 

eparsu (or etamsu) (a garment) MB 

epartu (a garment) M/jB lex. 

epattum; pi. epaddtum (a garment) OA, from 

epdtu — ► apatu 

epeqenu —* epqenu 

epequ(m) ~ "to embrace; grow over, round" OA, 
O/jB G (Hi) "grow over" of part of liver etc., 
usu. stat.; O/jB lex. "embrace (in affection)" Gt 
"grow over each other" D ~ G ext., stat. "is 
grown over, round" part of body; of wave, 
flood "be turned over"?; OA ~ "pack an upqum 
load" Dt pass, of D (or Gt ?) OB of lung "be 
grown over"?; > epqu I; ipqum; upqu I ? , II; 
etpuqu; uppuqu 1 -; epuqurn 1 - 

eperis, epris "with earth" jB, with katdmu ("to 
cover"); < eperu 

epertu(m) "(baked) brickwork" OB(Elam), 
MB(Ass.) material of wall, of temple; < eperu 

eperu(m), epru, j/NB also ipiru "earth, soil; 
dust" [SAtfAR(.tfl.A)] "(loose) earth, soil" for 
building work; from excavation or destruction; 




as means of concealment; "dust (storm)", 
"dust" of the feet; mag. "dust" from street etc.; 
in self-debasement OA "dust" (on the head), 
MB "dust" (under king's feet) as self-descr.; jB 
hit e. 'house of dust', i.e. underworld, kisid e. 
'conquest of the soil', i.e. doomed to be buried; 
MB (Ass.) "mortar" in masonry (e. sa kupri "e. 
of bitumen"); "earth" yielding ores etc.; math, 
"volume of earth"; Mari, Alal., Bogh. "land, 
territory"; > eperis; epertu 

eperu(m) "to feed, provide for" OAkk, Bab., 
MA G (Hi) [SE.BA] of king, deity (esp. in 
PNs) S OB "cause s.o. to provide for, feed" 
Stn NB "cause to be fed regularly" St "forage; 
hurry about" (or — ► suteburuml); > ipru; 
epiru; neperetum 

eperu — ► also apdru; eberu I 

epesum "to be difficult" OB G stat. (epis) of 

decision (for = dat.) D "make difficulties" in 

contractual situation 

epesum I "action, behaviour" OB e. damqum 
"good behaviour"; < epesu II infin. 

epesu(m) II "to do; make; build" G (e/u, later 
Bab. ulu) [DU; occas. AK, Gl] 1. (without obj.) 
"act, behave"; "work"; of illness "be active, take 
effect"; math, "proceed" 2. "do"; OA, OB 
sa epalesim e. "do what has to be done"; good, 
evil (towards s.o.) 3. "do, carry out, exercise" a 
function, esp. with abstr. obj. (Akk. -utu(m), 
Hurr. -umma), e.g. abbutam, sarrutam e. 
"perform function of father, king"; with infin. 
OB aldkam e. "make a journey", NB naddnu u 
maharu e. "carry on commerce"; "commit" 
crime, "make" rebellion, battle, love; "render" 
help (usdtu); "carry out" act(ion), command, 
instruction; "realize" wish; "do" accounts; 
"effectuate" exchange; "perform" ritual, magic 
rites, incantation etc.; "try" a legal case 
4. idioms: kakki e. "take up arms"; Mari, Am. 
dla(m) e. "take" or "fortify a city"; Ug. ddma e. 
"spill blood"; jB sera e. "go hunting"; "offer 
up, sacrifice" animal (also absol. "make 
offering"); Mari awatam e. (also absol.) 
"speak". Bab.(lit.) pd{m) e. "speak (up)", OB 
"raise objections"; sipram e. "do (agricultural) 
work on" (+ 2nd ace); eqlam, kiriam e. "work 
field, orchard" (+ 2nd ace. for crop); "cultivate" 
crop; "manage" house, orchard; "process" 
wool, "work" metal 5. "(re)build" temple, 
house, room, wall, bridge, ship; "make" statue, 
furniture, garment etc.; food, drink; document; 
statement, contract; music; "put into effect" 
scheme; puzra e. "act secretively"; "cause" 
earthquake, wound, anxiety; bitam e. "form 

household, family"; "make profit in" gold, 
silver, stat. "is formed (like)" 6. "make into, 
convert"; Am., Nuzi, Bogh. ana mdrutti, 
sarruti "into son, king" etc.; jB/NA "convert" 
fields into (= ace.) own property Gtn iter. 
Gt "do thoroughly"? D OB "calculate" amount; 
"do up" hair; "treat, behave towards" s.o.; (in 
col.) "execute properly" tablet; Ass. often ~ G 
"practise" sorcery, "exercise" kingship etc., 
"conclude" agreement, "perform" prayer, 
"sacrifice" sheep, "operate" ferry, "work" gold; 
M/NA leg. in sale "carry out procedure"? S 
caus. of G St "be active, work on"; of 
demons "work against" s.o. (= ace. or dat.) N 
(OB mostly inneppes, ittenpes, innepis, later 
Bab. ulu) pass, of G siprum (ul) inneppelus 
"can(not) be done"; of person "be treated"; of 
document "be drawn up"; > epsu; ipsu, ipsis; 
epesu I; epistu, epusu, epustu; episu, epistu, 
episdnu, episdnutu; eppesu; upisu, upsassu; 
etpusu, itpesu, itepsu; uppusu, uppustu, 
muppisu, muppisiitu, muppisdnu; musepisu, 
musepisutu; mustepisu, mustepisutu; nepesu, 
nepisum, nepestu 

epidtum — ► apatu 

epinnu(m) m. & f. "(seed) plough" [(GIS.)APIN] 
OB alap e. "plough ox" [GU4.APIN(.HI.A)]; NB 
bit e. "ploughed plot"; OAkk SAG e ., NB rah(i) 
e. "official in charge of plough(-team)s"; astr. 
(a constellation) [MUL.APIN]; Nuzi (a surface 
measure = awiharu); < Sum. 

epiqtu — ► epqu I 

epirru (a bead)? jB lex. 

epiru "provider, feeder" jB lex.; < eperu 

epissu —* epistu 

episanu 1. NA "instigator" of revolt; NB 
"activist" 2. NB "confectioner" of sweetmeats 
3. NB of ox, donkey "working"; < episu + -an 

episanutu "agency" NB i.e. responsibility for 
carrying out tasks (house repairs, agriculture, 
brewing, prebends); < episanu 

epistu(m), ipistu(m), jB also epsetu "deed, 
action" Bab., NA [DU; also NiG.DiM.DiM.MA] 
"act(s), achievement(s)"; mag. "machinations"; 
"rites"; "work, (results of) labour": agricultural 
"works, operations"; "fabrication, creation" of 
ice, (artificial) precious stone; quality of "manu- 
facture, workmanship"; "building work, 
construction"; < epesu II 

epistu(m), NA epissu 1. OB "work team" 2. jB 
"sorceress" 3. NA "she who acts" (of 
goddess); < episu 

episum, ipisula (a kind of carpet)? OA in wool; 
also Bogh.? 



erbu(m) I 

episu — » upisu 

episu(m) 1. Bab. "doer; maker, builder, artisan" 
2.jB "sorcerer" 3. NA Id e. 'do-nothing', 
"idler"; < epesu II; > epistu, episdnu, episdnutu 

epitatu (a plant) jB lex. 

epitu(m) "baked product, pastry" O/MB, Ug.; 

< epu II 

epitum "female baker" OB; < epu 

eplu — » iplu 

eppesu "clever, effective" Bab. [DU] jB e. tdfodzi 

"skilled in battle"; < epesu II 
epqenu, epeqenu(m), epqennu (a skin complaint) 

O/jB; < epqu II 
epqu I "grown over" jB f. epiqtu, of part of liver, 

< epequ 

epqu(ni) II (a skin complaint, phps.) "leprosy" 
O/jB epqa(m) malu "to be afflicted with 
leprosy"; > epqenu 

epris — » eperis 

epru — » eperu 

epsetu — » epistu 

epsu(m); f. epilustu, NB also ipistu "made, built" 
[DU.A; NB also DU] bitu(m) e. "built-on 
house(-plot)"; "cultivated" field, orchard; 
"worked, prepared" metal, work, dates etc., NB 
Id epsetu "unworked items"; NB f. "adjusted, 
adjustment" of measures; < epesu II 

epsu — » also ipsu 

epu(m) I "baked" OAkk, jB; < epu II 

epu(m) II "to bake" Bab. G (Hi) bread, peaflour 
N pass., of bread; > epu I; epu, epitum; epitu; 

epu(m) "baker" Bab.; < epu II; > epitum 

epuqum mng. unci. Mari (quality/feature of a 
stone); < epequ ? 

epustu "(magical) procedure, ritual" j/NB 
[DU.DU.BI (= e.-su)]; < epesu II 

epusu "execution, carrying out" NB [DU] of 
work, accounts; < epesu II 

eqdbu — » ekepu 

eqbu(m), NA igbu> "heel" Bab., NA ? [MUD; 
MA.SIL; SIL.MUD ?] of human, demon, sheep; 
NB ina eqbinni "in succession to us" (Aram, 
usage); also NB mng. unkn. 

eqequ, egegu - "to paralyse" O/jB G (i/i?) stat. 
of person "is paralysed" Gtn iter., "be 
continuously unable to move" D stat. of tongue 
"is tied"; > uqqu; uqququ 

eqidu "cheese" jB, NA 

eqlu(m) m., OAkk f.; pi. f. "field; terrain" [A.SA; 
NA often A.SA.GA; OAkk, early OB, OA also 
GAN] "cultivated field"; OB e. sukusim "glebe, 
prebendary f.", e. akdlum "to enjoy usufruct of 

f."; Mari ina Id eqlim "on uncultivated land"; 
NB e. seri "f. in the desert"; "terrain, territory", 
e. sumdmiti "waterless terrain", e. tabu "easy 
terrain", e. namrasi, nukurti, sulmi "difficult, 
hostile, friendly terrain"; math, "area; squared 
total", also administrative; "distance" overland, 
Ass. eqla(m) "overland"; O/MA eqlam, ina 
eqlim "in the countryside" (opp. to (libbi) 
dli(m)); "wild" in names of plants, insects 

equ(m) "to anoint, smear on" OB lex., Bogh., jB 
G [MAR] eyes, with (= ace.) kohl, ointment; 
other parts of body Gtn iter. D stat., of part of 
body (mng. unci.) Dt "smear o.s. with" paste 
etc.; > mequ, meqitu; uqqu I; teqitu 

equ — ► also egu U 

equ (a cult object) M/NA, jB( Ass.); M/NA bit e. 
(a shrine); DN Belat-eqi; > equtu 

equrum — » ekurum 

equtu (a cultic practice) NA(Urar.) in ana e. 
sdluku; < equ 

era — » iria 

erdnu — ► ilidnum 

eratti(ya)nnu (part of a weapon)? Am.; < Hurr. 

erba, arbd "forty"; also jB lex. elep er-ba-ala'-ia 
"40 (gur) boat"; < erbe 

erbe, OA arbe, NA rabbi; f. erbet, Ass. arbet; 
nom. erbu(m); f. erbettu(m) "four", esp. erb- 
umi, erbe umi, erbet(ti) umu "four days"; NA 
rabbi urhi "four months"; OB erbinammatim 
"four cubits" (— » ammatul); kibrdt erbeml 
erbetti(m) [LIMMU(.BA)] "the four edges (of 
the world)" (-» arba'u); sari erbetti "the four 
winds"; suqi erbetti "four-ways, crossroads"; 
with pron. suff. erbettasu(nu) [LIMMU.BI/BA]; 
divide ana erbet "into four"; epin erbet 
"four(-ox) plough"; > erba; erbettum, 
erbettitum, erbenetum; erbesu, erbeserisu, 
erbeserU; rebu etc.; surbu'itum 

erbenetum — » erbettum 

erbeserisu "fourteen times" OB; < erbe + -serisu 

erbeseru "fourteenth" Am.; < erbe + -sera 

erbesu, erbisu, OA arbisu "four times" OA, 
O/jB; also analadi e.; < erbe ( -» GAG §71 a) 

erbet — ► erbe 

erbette — » erpette 

erbettitum "(cow) from a team of four" OB; 
< erbettum 

erbettum; pi. erbenetum "(team of) four" OB of 
plough oxen; < erbe; > erbettitum 

erbisu — » erbesu 

erbu(m) I, irbu "income" [KU4] of temple, 
palace, land, person; also pi., e.g. erbi se'im 

erbu(m) II 


eresu(m) II 

"income (in) grain"; OA (as import-tax)?; NB 
"entry fee"? to temple; < erebu I; -» urbu I 

erbu(m) II, erebu "(sun)set" Bab. in ereb samsi 
[ d UTU.SU.A; SU.20] of time "sunset"; of place 
"the west", Mari also without samsi; < erebu I 

erbu(m), jB also eribu, M/NA ar(i)bu; st. constr. 
elarib "locust" [BURU5] tibut e. "locust swarm", 
also e. tibuti; eli e. mad "more numerous than 
locusts"; erib gardbi "leprosy-1." (a plant 
name); e. ndri "river-1." (a water insect)?; e. 
tdmti "sea-1." (a crustacean)?; e. turbu'ti "dust 
storm-1."; > eribts; sinnarabu 

erbu — » also erbe 

erebu — » erbu II 

erebu(m) I "to enter" G (Bab. u/u, Ass. alu; OB 
pert", occas. iterib) [KU4(.RA)] 1. "come in" 
(vent.), "go in" to (= ana) house, to (meet) 
s.o.; "enter" house (to take up residence; in 
marriage, adoption, servitude); land, city, 
heaven, underworld; e. u (w)asu(m) "go/come 
in and out" 2. "enter" new condition, e.g. ana 
wardutim/qdt PNIilkimlade e. "go into 
slavery /possession of PN/state service/sworn 
contract" 3. "report for duty, present o.s." to, 
before deity, king, lawcourt 4. of food, drink, 
incense "enter" the body; of work, lament ana 
libbi-lina karsi- e., i.e. be painful; of building, 
feature on liver "encroach, overlap" 5. of goods, 
money etc. "come in, arrive"; of water, caravan, 
month, season; of sun "set" Gtn iter. 
[KU4.KU4(.MES)], e.g. Lamastu muterribtum sa 
bitdti "who continually enters houses"; of 
caravans "arrive at different times, 
successively"; "get into" garment "repeatedly"; 
gramm. "occur" Gt O/jB "enter permanently"? 
D (rare) OB "enter" on (= ana) a tablet; 
Am.; NA stat. (pi. subj.) S caus. of G 
"introduce" into presence; "post, station" troops 
in town, land; "take into" temple as offering, 
house as present; "bring in" harvest, "import" 
goods; "deliver" letter, tablet etc.; "send in" 
news; "consign" stele etc. to darkness etc.; 
"insert", stat. of part of liver "is inserted" 
Stn iter, of S; > erbu I. II; eribu, eribtum, erib 
biti etc.; errebu, errebtu, errebutu; erubbdtum; 
urbu I, urubdtu I; nerebu, nerebtu, nerebutum; 
surubtu, museribtum; terubtu 

erebu(m) II, OB also herebum, jB usu. arebu 
"rook, jackdaw; crow, raven" O/jB 
[UGA.MUSEN; BURU4.MUSEN]; jB alereb zeri 
(a kind of crow) [jB BURU5 zeri]; sep(d) 
"crow's feet" (a plant) [U.GIR.UGA.MUSEN]; 
astr. (a star) "Corvus", also code name for 
Mars and Saturn [MUL.UGA.MUSEN; MUL.UG5. 

GA]; occas. hard to distinguish from erbu 

eredu — » warddum 

erelju ~ "to act aggressively" M/jB G (('/(') 

* towards s.o. (= dat.); "attack" s.o. (= ace.) 
S mng. unci.; > erhu, erhdnis, erhiitu; irhu; 
merehtu; — » ardhu I.II 

eremu — » ardmu 

erenu(m) I, erinnu, Nuzi also urinu "cedar" 
[(GIS.)EREN] OAkk qisti e. "cedar forest"; 
"cedar (logs)" for roof, column, door etc.; as 
aromatic wood (OA by weight); med. in 
recipes; saman e. "cedar oil"; dam e. "cedar 
blood" (i.e. resin); ash, powder of c; e. pesu 
"white c." (= tiydru); jB qissi e. "cucumber of 
c." (a stone); sumkinnu e. "cedar shavings"?; 
< Sum.; -» umu II 

erenu II "root" jB comm.; < Sum. 

erepu(m), ardpu "to cloud over" (intrans.) O/jB, 
NA G (u/u) [SO; Su.SU.RU; SU.uS.RU] of day, 
of light "grow dark"; transf. of face (pdnu) 
D stat. "is darkened" of demon, face, eyes; 
> erpu, erpetu; urrupu; urpu, urpatu I; urpdnis 

ereqqu(m) f. "cart, waggon" [(GIS.)MAR.GID. 
DA] (later only lit.); OA, MB, Nuzi "waggon 
(-load)"; astr. "Ursa Major", also desig. of 
Venus; e. same "Ursa Minor" [MUL.MAR. 

ereru(m) "to be parched"? O/jB G of drugs "be 
dry" D "parch" drugs etc. N ? jB stat. of star, 
planet; > erru I 

eressanu "naked" jB lex.; < erissi- 

erestum — » eristu II 

eresu "lady, queen" jB lex.; < Sum. 

eresu(m) I, OAkk elardsum. Ass. ardsu(m) "to 
sow; cultivate" G (Bab. ('/(', OB pres. also irrus; 
OAkk, Ass. alu) [URU4] "cultivate, plough" a 
field; with plough (agadibbu), jB lex.; "plant, 
grow, cultivate" crop (sesame, wheat, millet 
etc.) Gtn iter., often over X years D ~ G jB 
"carry out cultivation of S caus. of G Stn jB 
lex. N pass, of G [URU 4 ] of field "be tilled"; of 
crop "be grown"; > ersu II, drisutu, arsdtum; 
eristum I; erisu I, erisdnu; erresu, erresutu; 
meresu I, merestu I; muserisu; terusum 

eresu(m) II, Ass. erdsu(m) "to request, wish for" 
G (('/(') [URU4; KAM (esp. in PN)] "request, 
demand" from s.o. (= 2 ace); or from = 
isti, itti, Bogh. ana, Nuzi asar; of deity "desire, 
request" offering, prayer, temple etc.; stat. 
isti/itti Him e. "is desired, requested by god"; of 
heart, person "desire, want" (obj. unexpressed); 
freq. in PNs Gtn iter. [URU4.ME(S); 
URU4.URU4], e.g. statue muterris baldtiya 




"constantly requesting (long) life for me" 

Dt MA pass, "be requested, wanted" N pass, of 

G "be demanded"; "be wanted, desired"; 

> ersu III; eristu II; ursu II; erisu II; erresu; 

meresu III, merestu II 
eresu — ► also erisu 
ergididu (a lament accompanied on the flute) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
ergilu, ergisu (a type of locust) jB lex. 
erginu (a colour of horses, phps.) "brown" NA 
ergisu (a flute-accompanied dirge) jB lex.; 

ergisu — ► ergilu 

erhanis "provocatively" jB; < erhu + -an + -is 
erhdnu — ► arhdnu 
erhu ~ "aggressive" M/jB of soldiers, enemy; 

transf. of mouth "provocative"; OB of bull ?; 

< erehu; > erhanis; erhutu 
erhutu "aggressiveness" MB; < erhu 
eria muri —* erium 

eridnum — ► ilidnum 

eridtu — ► eriydtu 

erib — ► erhu 

erib blti(m) 'temple-enterer' Bab., NA [(LU.) 

KU4.E] (member of temple personnel); < eribu 

+ bitu; > erib-bitutu 
erib-bit-piristutu "office carrying access to bit- 

piristi" NB [(LU.)KU4.E-b.-p.] as prebend; 

< eribu; — ► bitu 5 

erib-bitutu "status of 'temple-enterer'" NB 
[(LU.)KU4.E- ] as prebend; < erib hiti 

erib-ekalli(m) 'palace-enterer' (a palace official) 
O/jB; < eribu + ekallu 

eribis, aribis "like locusts" jB(NA); < erbu 

eribtum "import tax" OA; < eribu 

eribu — ► erbu 

eribu(m) "entering; enterer" Bab., NA 1. OB 
erib ana sarrim irubu "'enterer' who had 
access to the king"; NA eribute 
'(palace-)enterers' 2. "(in)coming" [KU4] of 
day, month, year; < erebu I; > erib-. . .; eribtum 

eridatum pi. (a container for fish)? OB 

erim "side, arm-rest" jB lex. of bed, chair; 

< Sum.; -> erimmum II ? 

erimmatu(m) 1. "(egg-shaped) bead" O/jB; 
"(stone) bead" [(NA4.)NUNUZ] of lapis lazuli 
etc.; in mag.; also of metal, wood; pi. necklace 
of e. beads (-» irimmu) 2.jB lex. (part of a 
plough), also dalat e.; NB boxwood for making 
e. [GIS.NUNUZ] ( -» erimtu II 4) 3. jB (part of 
liver); — > rimmatum ? 

erimmu I, erimu, irimmu 1. "mole (on skin)" jB 
on face, body; white, yellow, red; MA, jB 

"discoloration" of flesh 2. jB lex., also erimtu 

(a red berry) 
erimmum II mng. unkn. Mari (or = erim ?) 
erimtu I "baked brick" OB(Susa) 
erimtu II "cover(ing)" M/NA, j/NB 1. "cover, 

holder" for axe; of stone 2.jB lex. "(leather) 

cover" for chair 3. j/NB, also urindu "tablet 

envelope" 4.jB lex. (part of a plough) (— ► 

erimmatu 2); < ermu 
erimtu — » also erimmu I 2 
erimu — ► erimmu I 

erinakku (part of a building) MB( Ass.) 
erinnu "neck-stock, halter" jB for prisoner; 

transf. e. mdti held by gods; < Sum. 
erinnu — » also erenu I 

eriptu (a colourful garment) jB lex.; -> erpu 
eripu, iripu (a copper object) Nuzi 
eriqa'u (a table) jB lex. 
eriru (a garment) jB lex. 
eris "like an eagle" jB; < eru I 
erisanu "cultivator" MA of field; < erisu I + -an 
erissi- "in nakedness" OA, O/jB with pron. suff. 

e. aldku(m) "to go naked", "in destitution"; 

< erium (— ► GAG §67f); > eressdnu; erissuttu; 
— ► meressu 

erissuttu, errisuttu "destitution" Bogh.; < erissi- 
eristum I "cultivation" OB also "crop"; < eresu I 
eristu(m) II, erestum, iristu "demand, request, 

need" [KAM; KAM; MB Su.KAM.MA/Ml] 

"request" by s.o. (=gen.); "desire, request" for 

(= gen.); "desire, urge" for reproduction, in 

sheep, goat eristi "on heat"; "requirement, 

need"; e. eqli, musari, kasi etc. (plant names); 

'request' (desig. of ominous sign, feature on 

liver); < eresu II 
eristu — » also ersu I 
erisu(m), eresu(m), irisu "scent, fragrance" Bab. 

of person, meal, water, house; esp. of aromatic 

woods, incense 
erisu(m) I "ploughing" Mari, of oxen; O/jB lex. 

"cultivator"; < eresu I 
erisu II "bridegroom" jB (liter, 'one who 

requests'); < eresu II 
eritu — ► aritu I 
erium "naked" OA, of person "destitute", of 

hand, house "empty" (OB -» erissi-); O/jB lex. 

eria(m) muri(m), aria muri (a disease); 

< eru III 

eriu — ► also werum 

eri(y)atu(m), ariydtu, iriydtu "cold weather" jB 

dunnuldandn(a) e. "depths of winter" 
erkabu — » argabu 
erkallu, erkalla "underworld" jB; < Sum. 



ersu(m) III 

erkitusu (a lament) jB; < Sum. 

erku (a garment) jB lex. 

erku (a kind of tyre) jB lex., of wood; jB(Ass.) 

pi. f. erkdti in desig. of papyrus boats ? 
erkulla (a plant) M/jB med. 
ermu(m), OB also hermum "cover(ing)" O/jB; 

"envelope" of tablet; "case" of tool; jB lex. (a 

word for cultivated land); e. Ani 'Anu's 

canopy' = "sky", also wooden "baldachin" 

(£'%.); <ardmu 
ernama mng. unkn. jB 
ernamtaggadu (a dirge) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ernettu. ernintu — ► ernittu 
erninum (a drug) OB med. 
ernittu(m), emettu(m), ernintu, Bogh. ennettu 

"triumph, battle objective" Bab.(lit-), NB 

[U/U.MA] e. kasddu "to achieve victory" 
erpette; pi. erpettena mng. unkn. Nuzi; grain for 

<?.; < Hurr. 
erpetu(m) "cloud" Bab. [DUNGU] red, black etc.; 

thick; floating; transf. ref. to sorceress's 

activity; e. muti "cloud of death"; < erepu 
erpu, arpu "clouded over" j/NB, NA [Su.A] usu. 

umu e. "cloudy day" [U4.Su.Su.RU]; < erepu; 

— > eriptu 
erqu — > warqum 
erratum — » erretu I 
errebtu "immigrant (group)" NB/NA; also sdbe 

e.; < errebu 
errebu(m) "intruder, new arrival" OAkk, jB; of 

usurper; of new member of household; also jB 

lex. for arbu "fugitive"; < erebu I; > errebtu, 

errebutu "status as new member" jB lex. of 

family, household; < errebu 
erreru(m) "given to cursing" OB lex.; < ardru II 
erresu(m), OAkk also arrdsum "cultivator" 

OAkk, Bab. [Bogh. LU.APIN.LA] esp. of tenant; 

also as PN; < eresu I 
erresu "(persistently) demanding" jB lex.; 

< eresu II 

erresutu(m) "cultivation (contract)" Bab. 
[NAM.(GIS.)AP1N.LA/LA] OB ana e. 
susiimllequm "to rent" a field; ana e. naddnum 
"to lease" etc.; kariik e. "tenancy contract"; 

< erresu 

erretu(m) I, OAkk erratum "curse" OAkk, O/jB 
e. ardru "to curse (s.o.)"; < ardru II; — ► arratu 

erretu(m) II ~ "weir, barrage" O/jB of reeds, 
stone; also jB, Nuzi "pigsty" of reeds; < erru II 

errisuttu — ^ erissuttu 

erru(m) I ~ "parched" O/jB of wood, malt, 
aromatic; < ereru 

erru(m) II, eru ~ "ring, band" OAkk, Bab. 

1. "ring, washer" for peg 2. also am, 
"headband" in metal, cloth (-> waruml); jB 
also pi. f. erret qaqqade 3. Nuzi "(animal) 
enclosure, pen" 4. (enclosed plot of land); 

< Sum.; > erretu II 

erru(m)III "intestine(s)" Bab, NA [(UZU.)SA] 
of human, animal; diviner mude e. "who knows 
the entrails"; e. qatnulkabru "small/large intes- 
tine"; e. gamertu [NB UZU.SA.TIL] "rectum"; 
ext. pi. erru sdhiriitu [SA.NIGIN] "intestines 
encircling" the liver; transf. "tendrils" of 
cucumber; e. nuni, kalbi, tamti "intestine of fish, 
dog, sea" (plant names) 

erru —* also eru II; werrum 

erru "colocynth"? M/jB [(u.)UKUS.LAGAB 
(.SAR)] also as drug; aban e. = hard kernel of 
e.l; — » merru 

ersaharhubbu (a lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ersiskurru (a sacrificial lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ersu(m), ersu "ready" OA, O/jB "prepared" of 
animals, goods, flour etc.; of person "trained"; 
OB sa ersim "(cloth) finisher"; > sutersu; 

ersuppu — > arsuppu 

ersetu(m), OAkk arsatum "earth, land; 
underworld" OAkk, Bab., NA [KI (often KI- 
tumltim etc.)] 1. "the earth" (as opp. to heaven) 

2. the earth beneath the surface, i.e. "under- 
world"; DN A Belet-e. "Mistress of the 
Underworld"; also in PNs 3. "ground",- soaked; 
ploughed; quakes; for burial 4. politically "land, 
territory", jB "district", NB "city quarter" 5. ext. 
(area of liver); -> ursu II 

ersu —* ursu I 

ersabadaru (a lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ersahungu (an Emesal cultic prayer) M/jB 

[6r.Sa.FJUN.gA] also associated ritual; < Sum.; 

— » ersemsahungu 
ersannesakku, ersannasakku (a lament) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

ersemmakku (or ersemmu) (an Emesal cult 

song) jB [ER.SEM/SEM4.MA]; < Sum. 
ersemsahungu (var. of ersahungu) jB; < Sum. 
ersu(m) I; f. eristu "wise" OAkk, O/jB of deity, 

king etc.; > ersutu; meresu II 
ersu(m) II, NA arsu "tilled; cultivated" OAkk, 

O/jB, NA of field, "tilled", also subst. 

"cultivated plot"; of plant "cultivated", jB pi. 

ersutu "vegetables"; < eresu I 
ersu(m) III "demanded, desired" OAkk, O/MB 

"wanted, requested" of things; Nuzi "claimed" 

property; in PNs, of persons; < eresu II 

ersu(m) IV 

ersu(m) IV f. "bed" [GIS.NA]; of sickbed e. 

sabdtu(m) "the bed holds" s.o., i.e. person is 

confined to bed; bit e. "bedroom"; "(marriage) 

bed"; — » ursu I 
ersu — » ersu 

ersutu "wisdom" jB; < ersu I 
ertabadaru (a lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ertum — » irtu I 
ertu — » eru II 
ertu — » urtu 

erum mng. unkn. OAkk 
eru — » also aru I; citk II 
eru(m) I, aru, lex. also r« "eagle" Bab. 

[Tls.MUSEN] also vulture?; Qatna "eagle 

(figure)" of gold; astr. "constellation Aquila" 

[MUL.TI8-MUSEN]; >ardnis, ens 
eru(m) II, am, irum, jB also erru; pi. m. & f. 

"grindstone" Bab., M/NA [NA4.UR5; NA4.UR5. 

UR5]; of atbaru stone; for grain, cumin etc.; for 

grinding potsherds (for grog) 
eru(m) III, aru "to be naked" G OA stat. "is 

destitute" D "strip bare" head (of hair); of 

wind, "strip" trees, ground; OA "empty, clear 

out" container {qablitum); "strip, prepare" 

mother (for childbirth); > erium, erutum III; 

erissi-, erissuttu, eressdnu; risummdni 1 -; uru II, 

uratu n -\ merenu, merenu, meressu; murrum II 
eru — » also aru IV. VI; iri'u; werfim 
eru(m) I "awake" O/jB; < iru; > erutu 
eru(m) II, Ass. e'ru; jB lex. ertu (a tree) Bab., 

M/NA [GIS.MA.NU] in fields, mountain; esp. 

mag., med., wood for stick, stave; tdbat e. (a 

kind of salt); — » manu III 
eru(m) "to be(come) awake" G (pret. ier) of 

person; jB med. of s.o.'s heart "be awake", i.e. 

conscious D "waken"; stat. of weapon "is 

aroused" against s.o.; > eru I, erutu; mustertum 
e'ru — » eru II 
erubbatum pi. tant. "pledge, security" OA of 

person, house, tablet; < erebu I 
eruhlu, uruhlu (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
erullu (a bird) M/jB med. as ingredient 
eriitu — » ariitu 

erutu I, ariitu "back" jB lex. (part of body) 
erutu II, u(r)rutu, uruttu "fish spawn" jB; 

< arii IV 
erutum III "nakedness" OB lex. in sa e. 

"destitute person"?; < erium 
erutu(m) "wakefulness" O/jB; < eru I 
eru um — » werum 
erwissu "royal service" Nuzi with nasu "to bear 

(liability for)"; < Hurr. 
esadu mng. unkn. jB med. 

80 esigu 

esallu (an irrigation construction) NB 

esamum (a topog. term) OB 

esdydtu — » asa'itu 

esehu(m), Man, M/NA eseku(m) "to assign, 
allocate" O/jB, M/NA G (('//) field, workers, 
rations D - G S Mari "have s.o. assign" field 
N pass, of G, of field; > ishu II, isihtu, isiktum; 
mesehtu; ussuhum; ussuktu, ussuku ?; — » esequ 

esehu — » also ezehu 

eseku — » esehu; esequ 

eselu ~ "to blow up, inflate" M/jB G stat. 
libbuJsuburru e. "inner body/anus is 
constipated" D, Dt -» eselu D, Dt N "become 
inflated; be constipated" Ntn iter., of fish "be 
bloated"?; > eslu; isiltu 

esepu(m) "to gather together, collect up" OAkk, 
O/jB, M/NA G {Hi) earth, dust; OB grain at 
harvest; burning coals; locusts; "collect up" 
powder, liquid (into vessel); Ug. of demon 
"gather up" victim D - G "scrape up" earth 
from furrows S "have s.o. scrape, gather up" 
Stn "have s.o. repeatedly scrape up" N of beer 
"be decanted"; > mussipu; nesepu, neseptu 

esequ(m), eseku, lex. also ezlsequ "to incise, 
carve" Bab. G (('/(') images in stone D (mostly 
written with k) 1. < isqu denom. "assign, 
distribute" lots 2. of bones, stat. "are etched"? in 
flesh Dt pass, of D 1; > isiqtu; ussuku 1 - 

esertu, OB(poet.) esratum, jB also esettu 
"confined woman, concubine" O/jB, MA; sons 
of e.; Nuzi bit e. "harem"; < esru 

eseru(m) I "confinement" O/jB in bit e. "cage"; 
< eseru II infin. 

eseru(m) II, eslzeru, asdru "to enclose, confine" 
Bab., M/NA G {Hi) bird; person, enemy, army; 
Nuzi eserta e. "take a concubine"; "hold back" 
water, disease, shout; of design "frame" D - G 
persons, army; stat., of gall bladder "is 
enclosed" Dt pass, of D N 1. "shut o.s. in" 
2. of windpipe "be constricted"; > esru, esertu; 
asiru I, asirtu, asirutu; eseru I; isirtu I; meseru, 
mesertu; mussiru 1 ; usurtu 

eseru(m) III "to exact payment" G {Hi) from s.o. 
(= ace); of silver, grain etc.; "demand" 
document; Nuzi awilu sa eseri "debt 
collectors"; OB more gener. "put pressure on", 
stat. "is under pressure" D - G N of copper "be 
exacted"; > ism II; isirtu II; usertu, esirratu 1 - 

esettu — » esertu 

esigu "ebb, low water" jB lex.; < Sum. 

esihtu — » isihtu 



esikillu (a temple building) O/jB lex.; also sa e. 

(a temple official); < Sum. 
esiktum — » isiktum 
esiltu — » isiltu 
esirratu ~ "pressing stone"? NB for beer; 

< eseru III ? 

esirtu — » esertu; isirtu II 

esittu(m)I "pestle" O/jB [Gis.GAZ] of wood, 

stone; for grain, sesame, bitumen etc. 
esittu II (a date-palm tax) NB(Uruk) c. 6% 
esittu — » also esertu; isittu I 
esitu — » esitu 
eslu "constipated" jB of invalid; sdru e. "air 

(causing) flatulence"; < eselu 
esratum — » esertu 
esru(m) "confined" O/jB lex. "captive" bird; of 

street "enclosed", i.e. cul-de-sac; < eseru II; 

> esertu 
essesum — » essesu 
essu, esu "hole in ground, clay pit" jB [TUL.LA] 

earth from "pits"; e. dli "town pit"; sam(mi) e. 

(kind of plant) 
esu — » essu II 
esu ~ "to effectuate, bring to pass"? jB G {Hi) 

word D ~ G Gula mussdt kaldma "who brings 

everything to pass", also m. ptcp.; > isitu* 
esu — » also asu II; essu 
esadu — » esedu I. II 
esaduhlu "harvester" Nuzi; < esedu II Ass. + 

Hurr. -uhlu 
*esdu, eldu "harvested" jB lex. of grain; 

< esedu II 

esedu(m) I, Ass. esadu "harvest" Bab., NA [SE. 
KlN(GURio ? ).KU5] "harvested crop)"; "(time 
of) harvest"; "(activity of) harvest"; < esedu II 

esedu(m) II, Ass. esddu(m) "to harvest" G (('/(') 
[SE.KIN(GURio ? ).KU5] "reap" grain, field; also 
reeds, grass; plenty; transf. of battle "mow 
down" enemy Gtn "harvest" each year S caus. 
of G N pass. NB of harvest {eburu) "be 
harvested"; > esdu; esedu I; esidu, esid pan me, 
esidanum; esaduhlu 

eselu(m) ~ "to paralyse" O/jB G (('/(') esp. stat. of 
parts of body; OA qdtum eslat of slowness to 
pay D ~ G (also ussulu) of sheep; of parts of 
body Dt pass, (also utassulu) "become 
paralysed" N - Dt Ntn iter, of N, of hands, feet 
etc.; > ussulu, tissulu 1 

esemseru(m), esenseru(m) "backbone" O/jB, 
NA [GU.MUR7/8 7 ] of human, animal; OB idi e. 
= ribs; "(area of) spine" on back of animal, 
human; as cut of meat "chine"; transf. e. eleppi 

"keel of boat"; of battering ram; < esem(t)u + 

esemtu(m), esenlttu, poet, esmetu "bone" Bab., 
human, animal; esmetum sehheretum "car- 
tilage"; aza e. as offering to dead; "bony 
(structure), skeleton" of dead persons; of wood 
= "bone" of divine statues; "bodily frame"; 
M/NA (a linear measure); > esemseru 

esennii "tube, spout" on vessel jB lex. 
esenseru — » esemseru 
esentu — » esemtu 

esenu(m) "to smell" (trans.) O/jB G (//(') [IR] 
scent {erisa), incense, wind; OB oil ana esenim 
ul natu "unpleasant to smell", transf. of 
impudence D "sniff at" incense, stench; 
"snuffle" like a mongoose S caus. of G N "be 
smelled" of scent ( erisu ) 

esepu(m) "to double" Bab., NA G (('/(') 
[TAB(.BA)] math, often ana sina e. "multiply 
by two"; stat. "is double", of parts of body; in 
hendiad. e. + sardkum, NA e. + taddnu 
"give/pay twofold"; "twine" thread, two- and 
also three-ply {ana 3-su); "plait" reed mat; 
Mari, of message - "come in confirmation"; 
> espu 

eseru(m) "to draw, design" G (//(') [HUR] freq. 
with usurtu; "make (magical) drawing" on 
wall, of flour etc.; "draw" plan of, "plan" 
building; "depict" on a bas-relief; stat., "is/are 
drawn", of stars in sky, markings on liver; 
"plan, design" favourable schemes for s.o.; 
"form" (or "plan"?) wall, city; "prescribe" death 
(as punishment)?; OB ~ "cross out" a tablet 
D (OB also wussurum) - G; > esru; isurtu, 
usurtu, isratu; esiru; mesiru; ussuru I 

eseru — » also eseru II 

esettu — » esemtu 

esidanum 'reaper' OB lex., syn. of esid pan me, 
also as PN; < esidu 

esiddnu — » also esidu 

esiditu "provisions" NA; = siditu ? 

esid pan me 'reaper of the water's surface', 

"water-boatman" (an aquatic insect) jB; < esidu 

+ pdnu I + mu I 

esidu(m); Nuzi pi. esiddnu "reaper, harvester" 
[LU.SE.KIN(GURi ? )!ku 5 ; Susa also LU.SE.KU5. 
KIN]; OAkk as PN; < esedu II; > esid pan me, 

esiru "(stone) carver" Bogh., jB; < eseru 

esis "soon, shortly" OA; < wisum 

esmetu — » esemtu 


espu(m) "doubled" jB "twin" of metal vessels; 

"twined" of thread; "double" of onions; OB ext. 

of trachea; < esepu 
esru "drawn" jB i.e. shown in relief carving; 

< eseru 
essu —» isu 

essu f. "(small) gecko" jB lex. 
esu — ► isu 
esu "to slit, cut into" jB G {Hi) forehead, head; 

with blade, wheel 
esu — ► wisum 
esum — ► widsum 
esurtu — ► isurtu 

es "whither?" OB; < ayyis; — ► is; mes 
esam "whither?" OB; < ayyisa 
esam ma "in any direction" jB; < ayyisamma 
esar — ► eser 
esartu(m) "group of ten" Ass. 1. OA 'a tenner', 

i.e. ten shekels of silver [10 GlN-tum] 2. OA 

"decemvirate" [\0-tum] 3. NA in rab e. "chief 

of a group of ten" officials, scribes [LU.GAL 10- 

tile\, < eser; — ► esertu II 
esaru — ► isaru I 
esaru — ► eseru 
esdtu — ► isdtu 
esdtu — ► esitu 

esawa "(on) the other side" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
esbum — ► isbum 
esdu — ► isdu 
esebu "to flourish" M/jB G (;'/;') of plants; Ug. 

transf., of house D lex. fact, of G ? N lex. Ntn 

(Gtn ?) lex.; > ussuhu 
esegu — ► asdgu 
esequ — ► esequ 
eser, Ass. esar; f. eseret "ten" (before m. subst. 

eseret, eselarti; before f. subst. eser); -(e)seret 

"-teen" (-► GAG §69d); > asirtum II; esertu II, 

esartu; esrum, esru II; esretu; esrisu, esridtu; 

isrum HI; usurtum; usurd; -ser, -seret, -serisu, 

-serii etc.; esrd etc. 
eseris — ► isaris 
esertu(m) I, iselirtu(m), jB also aselirtu; pi. usu. 

esretu, also asrdtu, isretu, OB isrdletum 

"chapel, shrine" post-OB only lit. [ZAG. 

GAR.RA] "shrine" within temple; "chapel" of 

prince, of people, of family deity (e. bit ilisu, e. 

il biti); of gods gener. (but not e. + DN); on 

kudurru, divine "shrine", i.e. symbol; also 

"pious donation" 
esertu II "group of ten" Nuzi, NB ? [lO(.MES)-f;] 

esp. rab e,\ < eser; — ► esartu 
esertu — ► also isaru I f. 
eseru — ► also isaru I 

82 esitu(m) 

eseru(m), Ass. ilesdru(m) "to be/go well; be 
straight, fair; direct o.s. (towards)" G (;'/;') 
[SI.SA; NA, NB also Gis] "go well, be 
successful" of crop, harvest, animal breeding; 
human reproduction, birth; "be(come) healthy"; 
of house, city, land, journey "prosper"; of 
person "be successful"; of divination, omens, 
wind "be favourable"; "be(come) right, 
normal"; of gut, i.e. be evacuated; of sceptre; 
(neg.) of Lamastu; "direct o.s. towards, make 
straight for" (+ ana/dat.), of demon to person, 
army to destruction; also + ana pdn/mahar, eli; 
"go straight along" street (= ace); OA of goods 
"come straight to" s.o. S (pret. usesir, OAkk, 
OB(poet.) ususir) [SI.SA; GIS] "put in good 
condition, in order" plough, cart, house; Am. 
"prepare, get ready"; MA "process" food; 
"direct" water, canal; "sweep (out)" house, 
ground; "purge" intestines; "direct aright" feet, 
person, person's way; "make successful, cause 
to prosper"; "put right, make straight", stat. of 
parts of liver; "steer" s.o. (on right way); "make 
straight" the way, also ellipt. "go straight ahead" 
St 1 pass, of S [SI.SA] "be put in order"; of 
person "be guided aright"; of cattle "be steered 
straight"; "have straightforward (childbirth)" 
St 2 "put, keep in order", "get ready" weapons; 
house, road; "flatten out" unevennesses; "give 
correct decision", "formulate correct" plans; 
"get right" text, language; "carry out correctly" 
ritual, work; "cause to go well" animal, human 
procreation; "guide (o.'s hand) aright"; "lead" 
person, people "aright", "secure justice for" 
s.o.; harrdna (etc.) s. "take to the road"; ellipt. 
"go off, start out"; of birth "be (born) 
straightforwardly" N ~ G "become prosper- 
ous", "become successful"; "make towards, go 
for" s.o.; > isaru I.H, isaris, isartu, isarutu; 
isertunp; misaru, misaris, misartu, misarutu; 
misertu; musaru n -; museseru, musesertu, 
mustesertu; susuru, susuris; sutesuru; tesertu 1 

esestu mng. unkn. jB in mukkalli e. (a title of 

esesu —> asdsu IV 

eseum — ► esu I 

ese'u(m) ~ "to muzzle"? OB lex., jB 

esgallu "great shrine" j/NB [ES.GAL] as cosmic 
domain; temple of Anu at Uruk; lex. (a name 
for the underworld); < Sum. 

esigillu — ► sikillu 

esitin —» usu 

esittu — ► isittu I 

esitu(m), isitu(m), NB also esitu "confusion" 
Bab. "(political) disorder(s)" (sg. & pi.); 




"blurring" of the vision; "wildness" of terrain; 
pi. also asdtu (a term for eclipse) astr., lex.; 
<esu I 

esium —» usu 

eskdru —> iskdru 

eskuru — ► iskuru 

esmahu "great shrine" jB lex.; < Sum. 

esmaru, ilasmaru (a silver alloy) j/NB for 
casting and overlay [GU.AN.NA ?] 

esmekku, is/smekku (a stone, phps.) "malachite" 
Qatna, Am., jB 

espum — ► isbum 

esqarrurtu — ► isqarrurtu 

esqu "solid, massive" jB of building stone 

esqu — ► also isqu 

esra, ilasra "twenty"; < eser; > imhur-esrd; 
esru I, esru'u 

esretu(m), isretum, OA ilusrdtum, j/NB also 
usretu pi. tant. "one-tenth" 1. as fraction, OB 
isret siddim "one-tenth of the side", OA ki isrdt 
(st. abs.) "at one-tenth" 2. "payment of one- 
tenth, tithe" OA, OB, Ug. [Ug. ZAG.10]; 

< esrum f. pi. 
esretu — ► also esertu I 

esriatu "tenfold" NA in ana e. [\0(MES)-te/i]; 

< eser 
esris —> isaris 

esrisu, isrisu "ten times" OB, Ass.; also analadi 

e.; < eser 
esrum; f. esurtum "tenth" OA, OB; < eser 
esru —> also isaru I; isru II 
esru(m) I, isru(m) "20th day (of month)" Bab. 

[UD.20.KAM] as special day; also in PNs; < esrd 
esru II "tenth; one-tenth" M/NB, esp. NB 

"(temple) tithe", "tithe(-land)", sa muhhi e. 

"tithe official"; < eser 
esru'u "a twentieth" NB; < esrd 
essanna —> essesu 

essatu "headband; bandage" jB comm. 
essebitu — ► essebu 
essebu(m), essebu(m), issebulu(m) (a kind of 

owl)? M/jB, NA; OAkk as PN; > essebvP- 
essebu(m), issebu(m); f. essebilutu(m) (an 

ecstatic) O/jB, sdratllubus e. "hair/dress of 

ecstatic"; m. & f. often in mag.; < essebu ? 
essebu — ► also essebu 
essesu(m), isse(s)su(m), Mari also essesum; NB 

pi. essanna, sessannalu, e/issessdni (a feast 

day) Bab. [(UD.)ES.ES] OB essesam (ace.) etc. 

"on the holiday"; jB of Nabu (and Tasmetu); 

occasion of offerings, ritual; < Sum. 
essetit —> essu I 
esse'u, isse'u, essu "touchwood, tinder" jB lex. 

essis "anew" [GIBIL(.BI)]; also essisamma; 

< essu I 

essu(m) I; f. edistu(m), more freq. essetu(m) 
"new" [GIBIL; GIBIL4] of building, ship, tool, 
clothing etc.; of year, month, day; OB adilina 
essetim, essetamma, M/NB inalana essi "(up 
till) recently"; of people "fresh" arrivals, 
departures; of dates, grain "fresh(ly harves- 
ted)"; < edesu; > essis, essiitu; ussusu III 

essu II, esu "shrine" jB lex.; < Sum. 

essu I "cold weather"? jB lex. 

essu II (a word for a door) jB lex. 

essu —> also esse'u 

essutu, Ass. elissuttu in ana e. "anew, newly" 
M/jB(Ass.), Bogh. [GIBIL- ] of new building, 
appointment, settlement, name; ana e. sabdtu 
"to reorganize"; Bogh. "recently"; < essu I 

estagurru — ► istagurru 

estalu — ► astalu 

estu — ► istu 

estuhhu —> istuhhu 

esu(m) I, eseum, asu, isu "confused" Bab. [SUH 
in NA PNs] of thread "tangled"; of person, 
mind, face; of omens; of eyes "blurred"; also 
NA [SUH]? in PN; < esu IV; > asitu I, esitu 

esum II "confusion" Mari of political conditions; 

< esu IV infin. 

esu HI (a loincloth or kilt) jB lex. 

esu(m) IV, asu "to confuse, make unclear" Bab., 
NA G [SUH] person, road; eyes, sight; medical 
diagnosis D "confuse, throw into confusion", 
"make unclear" Dt pass, of D S ~ D "confuse, 
make uncertain" person, understanding N "be 
confused, in state of uncertainty" of person, 
land; > esu I.H, asitu I, esitu; nensum; sdsu, 
susdtu; tesu; —> misitum 

esu V mng. unkn. NA (activity connected with 
sand, ground) 

etaku "to be on guard" NA G of soldiers; stat. 
"is alert"; of king "is aware" of D "alert" 
s.o.; stat. "is alerted" 

etallu —> etellu 

etallutu —> etellutu 

etamdu, etandu "touching, laid against each 
other" OA, NA; of presents "piled up"; OA of 
silver "amassed", of witnesses "in collusion"; 
lex. of beads etandetu "strung together"?; 

< emedu I Gt; Bab. — ► etmudu 
etamsu —> eparsu 

etandu — ► etamdu 

etebranni (or etepranni) "humanity, mankind" 

jB lex. "all people" 
eteku — ► etaku 


etelletu, etellatu "pre-eminent; lady" O/jB as title 
of goddesses, e. ahhesa "supreme (among) her 
brothers"; < etellu 

etellis "as a lord" O/jB of gods, kings, persons; 
esp. e. + alaku Gtn "to proceed, walk in a lordly 
way"; < etellu 

etellu(m), Ass. etallu(m), OB also helium, Bogh. 
itillu; OAkk st. constr. eteal "pre-eminent; lord" 
[NIR.GAL] of gods, kings; of commands, esp. in 
PNs (Etel-pull-DN); OA "independent"; 
> etellu, etellis, etelletu, etellutu; metellu, 

etellutu(m), Ass. etallutu(m) "supremacy" Bab., 
OA, NA; OA "independence", e. epdsum "to 
act on own authority", ana e.- "on o.'s own 
authority"; < etellu; — ► telutu 

etemu(m), etenu(m) "to be smitten, affected"? 
Bab. G stat. of person, house, part of lung 
D "bring into contact, mix together"? St "bring 
against each other" ingredients; of deity "set" 
enemies "against each other"; > etimtum*; 

etenniwa mng. unkn. MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

eteimu — ► itinnu 

eteiiu — ► etemu 

etepvanni — ► etebranni 

etequ(m) "to go past; go through; cross over" G 
(Hi, Mari pret. also ituq) [DIB] 1. "proceed 
along, through" street, land; ellipt. of person, 
letter "move on" from one place to another 
2. "proceed further, move onward" 3. "pass by, 
go past" king (in parade), city; of bird "fly 
past" ship etc.; of demon, causing illness; of 
time (year, month, day); fixed time (a/eddnu), 
offering, eclipse (intrans.); NB (also trans.) 
"miss" date (for payment etc.), ellipt. "be late in 
payment" 4. "cross (over)" mountain, 
watercourse, boundary; ext., astr. "stretch 
across, overlie" of part of liver, astronomical 
feature; transf. "transgress" moral limit, "break" 
oath, treaty, law etc.; OB "ignore" regulation 
Gtn iter. [DIB.MES], e.g. of sun "constantly 
pass across" heaven Gt OA "proceed further 
onwards" S caus. of G [DIB] "channel" water- 
flow; "pass" ship through control; OB stat. of 
slave "is made to step over" pestle; NA "carry 
out" ritual (takpertu), also ellipt.; "send, carry 
past" in parade; NB "make s.o. pass on (empty- 
handed)"; "make" evil, bad luck, illness "pass 
on, pass by"; "allow" time "to go past", "miss 
time for" offering, also ellipt. "miss (date)"; of 
sun "miss" eclipse; "make transcend, exceed" in 
quality, rank, size etc. Stn iter, of S; or St ? N 
pass, of G; of word, boundary "be 

84 eteru(m) I 

transgressed"; jB "be made to move on, be 
resettled"; > etiqu, etiqtum; metequ, meteqtu; 
mutaqu; musetiqtu; sutuqu, sutuqtu, sutuqutu 
etguru "crossed over, intertwined" jB [GIL] of 
figures, snakes, cuneiform signs etc.; transf. 
"complicated" of speech, calculations; 

< egeru Gt 
etillu "dropsy" jB lex.; < Sum. 
etimtum mng. unkn. OAkk, item assoc. with 

flour; < etemu ? 
etiqtum "delegation in transit" Mari; < etiqu 
etiqu "passer-by" jB; also f. etiqtu; < etequ 
etlupu "bound cross-wise" jB lex.; < elepu Gt 
etmudu "touching, laid against each other" jB of 

clouds "massed up"; < emedu Gt; Ass. — » 

etnakapu (a tree, or timber) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
etnu mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
etnusu "very weak" jB; < enesu Gt 
etpuqu "grown together"? jB mng. unci.; 

< epequ Gt 
etpusu "effective"? jB of men, women; 

< epesu II Gt 
etqu — ► itqu 2 
ettitu — ► ettutu 
ettu — ► ittu II; wedum 
ettutu(m), ettitu(m), uttutum, lex. also ettuwatum 

"spider" O/jB [AS5; AS-tu] qe e. "spider web"; 
compare Uttu (Sum. goddess of textile 
manufacture; — ► utu) 

etu — ► itu 

etudum — ► atudu 

etammum — ► etemmu 

etelu(m) "to be a man, manly" O/jB G Mari stat. 
"is a man"; jB "reach manhood" D jB "bring up 
to manhood" Dt jB "become full-grown man"; 
> etlu, etlis, etlutu; metlutu 

etemmu(m), itemmum, OA also etammum 
"ghost" (of dead person) [GIDIM1/2/4; OB also 
KI.DlM; jB also GU4; Bogh. usu. d GIDIM] 
receiving libations, offerings; OA treated 
well/badly, interrogated; OB in PNs, of king; 
MB e. kimtisu "ghost of his family", d e. 
muttaggisu "wandering ghost"; Nuzi oath by 
ghost; in qdt e. [SU.GIDIM(.MA); SU.GU4 
(.MA)]; e. sulu "to raise a ghost (from 
underworld)"; sa e. "necromancer"; < Sum. 

etemmutu "state of ghost" jB in e. alaku "to 
become a ghost"; < etemmu 

eteru(m) I "to take away; save" G (Hi) [KAR; 
later also SUR] 1. "take from (= ace.)" s.o.; 
"deny" s.o. heir, wisdom; "remove, separate 
off in glass recipe 2. "save, spare" s.o., freq. in 

eteru II 



PNs; OA also napastam e. "save s.o.'s life" 
(financially); life (napistu) in battle, war, by 
medicine; from hardship, death, hand of death 
etc. Gtn iter. N pass, "be taken away", "be 
rescued"; > etru I; etiru; etteru, etteru 

eteru II "to pay" NB, D also NA G (Hi) [KAR; 
SUR] "pay" person, "pay" silver; infin. eteru sa 
eqlilagurru "payment for field/bricks"; stat. of 
person "is paid off, of commodity "is paid for" 
D "pay off" (fully); NA stat. utturu issu pan 
aha' is "they are mutually paid off, quit" 
Dt pass, of D NB of silver "be fully paid" 
N pass, of G, of person "be paid (off with 
respect to = ace.)" silver, o.'s credit (rdsussu); 
by means of (= ace.) field, dates etc. Ntn iter, 
of N "be paid off in instalments"; > etru U 

etirtu mng. unkn. jB lex.; — ► etru I.II 

etiru; f. etirtu "saviour" M/NB, NA in PNs 
[KAR; SUR]; < eteru I ptcp. 

etlis "manly" OB; < etlu 

etlu(m) "manly; young man" (pi. as adj. and 
subst.) [(LU.)GURUS; OB also SUL] 1. (as opp. 
to woman) 2. "(mature) young man" (as opp. 
to old man) 3. "man" gener.; of king, of god; 
< etelu; > etlis; etlutu 

etlutu(m) "manliness" O/jB esp. implying 
strength, bravery in battle; < etlu 

etru I "taken away" jB lex.; < eteru I 

etru II "paid (off)" NA of grain debt; NB of 
promissory note (uiltu); < eteru U 

etteru "eager to save" jB of fDN; < eteru I 

etteru "escaper, deserter" jB; < eteru I 

etu I "dark" jB of day, house; "extinguished" of 
hearth; OA etiutum of textiles ?; < etu II; 
> etutu 

etu II "to be(come) dark, dim" Bab. G (pret. iti; 
stat. etu) of day, sun, moon, star; of torch "burn 
dimly"; of building "be dimly lit"; transf. of face 
Gtn iter. D "darken, make obscure" day; transf. 
face, eyes; "make (situation) unclear" Dt "be 
darkened" of the earth; light; eyes; > etu I, etutu 

etutu "darkness" M/NB, NA esp. ana e. "into 
darkness"; < etu I 

e'u — ► ya'u 

ewisum (or ewaslsum, ewisum); pi. f. (a tool)? 

ewum I, emu "to become" Bab., OA G (Hi, jB 
usu. ele) with ace, of day "turn into" darkness, 
of loan into grain; freq. with -is, e.g. awilis 
"into a man", kisubbis "into waste land"; with 
ki(ma) "become like", with -is, e.g. kima issuris 
"like a bird"; stat. "is (like)" D with -is "make 

s.o./ like"; "falsify"? tablet S with ki(ma), 

-is "make s.o./ like" or "into" 
ewum II ~ "to impose on" OB G (pret. iwi) sins 

on (= ace.) s.o.; > iwitu 
ewuru "heir" Nuzi; < Hurr.; > ewwumma, 

ewurumma in e. epesu "to inherit" Nuzi; 

< ewuru 

ewurutu "inheritance" Nuzi; < ewuru 

eyakku — ► ayyakku 

ezbu "abandoned" jB of child; also NA in PN ?; 

< ezebu 

ezebu(m) "to leave, leave behind" G (Hi; imper. 
ezuh, ezih) [TAG4] 1. "leave, go away (from)" 
house, land; person, esp. spouse = "divorce"; 
"quit, give up" work; city, property; ext. of 
feature "be out of place 2. "leave behind, 
abandon" child, boat; "leave, put aside" to 
reserve; math, "keep back" a remainder 
[(JB.)TAG4] 3. "leave (behind one), bequeath" 
property; OB kanikam, kunukkam (etc.) e. 
"draw up" document 4. "set aside, ignore" 
command, decision; "give up, cease to do" 
S. "let go, spare" enemy etc. 6. "allow to 
remain, hold over", esp. with neg. "leave 
no ..."; "leave" for, with (= dat./ana), "put 
at s.o.'s disposal" Gtn OA ? Gt OA "separate 
from one another, get divorced" D ~ G (rare) 
jB, Nuzi, M/NA S [KAR] 1. caus. of G tuppam 
s. "have a document drawn up" 2. "save, 
rescue" people, city; napista/napsdti s. "save 
life/lives" (of o.s./others); also in PNs Stn iter, 
of S 2 St pass, of S 2 N pass, of G [TAG4] of 
land "be left" unfilled; of person "be delayed"; 
"be left over, survive"; of goods "be deposited" 
(with = dat); "be divorced"; > ezib; ezbu; izhu; 
izibtu; azibatu, azzuhutum; uzibu; uzubbu, 
uzuhhatu, uzzubu; musezibu, musezibtu; 
sezubtum, suzubu, suzubtu; tezubtum 

ezehu(m), esehu(m) "to gird on" O/jB, NA 
G (///) "strap on, tie on" weapon, belt to 
(= ace.) s.o.; pouch, wings, fish-cloak; "gird" 
loins D ~ G stat. "is girt" with belt N "gird o.s." 
with (= ace); > ezhu; izhu; mezehu; — » ishu I 

ezennu (a kind of stone) jB; < Sum. 

ezequ — » esequ 

ezeru "to curse" M/NA, jB G (Hi) s.o. with 
(=acc.) a curse (izru) D - G; > izru; — » 

ezeru — » also eseru II 

ezezu(m) "to be(come) angry, rage" Bab. G (ulu, 
later mostly Hi; stat. eziz, also ez(i)) [SUR; BUS] 
of god, person; heart, liver etc. Gt OB "rage at 




one another" D "make furious", stat. "is 
infuriated" S jB "make s.o. furious"; > ezzu, 
ezzetu, ezzis; uzzu, uzzatu; mezezu; sezuzu, 

ezhu "tied round" jB lex.; < ezehu 

ezib, O/jB also ezub "except (that)" Bab., O/MA 

1. as prep, "except", "but for"; "apart from", 
e.g. ezub Id sapdrika "despite your not writing" 

2. as conj., also e. sa "apart from the fact 
that ...", ext. "disregard (the fact) that ..." 3. as 
interj. "never mind!"; < ezebu G imper. 

ezibtu — ► izibtu 

ezizzu(m) (an alliaceous vegetable) OA, O/jB 

ezum I "to defecate" OB lex.; -► tesu; zu I 

ezu(m) II "to hurry, be hasty" O/jB stat. only; 
OB ezi aldkam, jB ina aldkisu ezi "is quick in 

ezub — ► ezib 

ezzetu "fury" jB; < ezzu 

ezzis "furiously, fiercely" Bab. [SUR-w] of 
shouting, frowning (nekelmu); < ezzu 

ezzu(m) "furious, angry" Bab., NA [SUR] of 
deity, person, animal, fire, wind; battle, weapon, 
divine attributes; < ezezu; > ezzis, ezzetu 

ezzu — ► also enzu 

ezzussihe mng. unkn. Nuzi desig. of field; 
< Hurr. 


gabdbu — ► kabdbu I.II 

gabadibbu(m), gabandibb(a)u "parapet, 
crenellation" M/NA, j/NB [GAB.DIB (mixes 
with syll. writings)]; < Sum. 

gabagallu(m) (part of chariot, phps.) "box" 
O/jB; < Sum. 

gabandibb(a)u -► gabadibbu 

gabarahbu(m), OB also kabarahhum 'breast- 
beating', "panic"? O/jB [GABA.RAH; GABA.Ra] 
of communal dismay; g. haldqisu "lamentation 
for his loss"; < Sum. 

gabaru, gabru m. & f. "copy; reply; opponent" 
M/NB, NA [GABA.RI] 1. "copy, duplicate" of 
document; NB pi. gabardne 2. "reply" to a 
letter NA, NB, esp. g. (sa) egirti 3.JB med. 
"equivalent" of herbs (sammi) 4. astr. "epact", 
"equivalence" between solar and lunar years? 
5. M/jB "opponent" [once GAB.A.RI.A]; < Sum. 

gabasu "contraction" of eye jB(Ass.) in g. 
issakin "contraction took place"; < kapdsu U 

gaba'u — ► gab'u 

gabbasu (or qabbasu) mng. unkn. jB in sen 
("shoes") gabbasdti 

ga(b)batinnu "female pudenda" jB lex. 

gabbul "the totality, all (of)" M/NA, M/NB 
(OB(Esn.) qabbuml) [DU] (absol.) "all, 
everything"; (in appos., after subst.) gabbulali; 
(before pron. suff.) MB gabbasunu (ace), 
otherwise gabbi- (all cases); (st. constr. before 
gen.) usu. gabbi; NB f. (in appos.) gabbutu 

gabbu II ~ "(animal's) brain"? j/NB as meat 

gabbu — ► gabu 

gabbubu "grilled" NA of sheep; < kabdbu II D 

gabbutu — ► gabbu I 
gabdibbu — ► gabadibbu 
gabgabu (a thorn bush) jB lex. 
gabibu (a kind of pastureland) NB 
gabidu, kabidu "liver" M/jB of person, animal; barbari "wolf's liver" (a plant); — » kabdtu 
gabiu — ► gabu 
gabru — ► gabaru 
gabsidum — ► qapsidum 
gabu, MA gabiu, NB gabbu "alum" M/NA, 

j/NB [IM.SAHAR.NA4.KUR.RA] in ab(a)n(a) 

gabe/iu used in glass-making, tanning; med. as 

drug or salve 
gab'u "(mountain) peak, hill" (pi. Mari gaba'i, 

MA/MB gab'dni) Mari, M/NA, Emar 
gabudu (a food) NA 

gadadu ~ "to separate off ' jB lex., NA G (a/u) 
gadalallu 'linen wearer' jB lex., a temple 

functionary; < Sum. 
gadalalu "linen fabric" jB [(TUG.)GADA.LAL], 

used as curtain in temple; < Sum. 
gadamahu(m), gadmdhu "superior linen 

garment" O/jB [GADA.MAH] jB used on demon 

figurines; < Sum. 
gadamu "to cut off MA G (Hi) part of body, as 

gadaru (a cloth cover) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
gaddaya — ► gatta'a 

gade "I'm going, I'm off!" OB lex.; < Sum. 
gadibbu —* agadibbu 
gadmdhu —* gadamdhu 
gadu "young goat" NA, NB of 1-2 years' age; 

< Aram. 


gamaru I 

gddu — ► gattu II 

ga'esmahu (a shrine) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ga'essu — ► ka'issum 

gagadd — ► kaqda 

gdgamu —* gayydnu 

gagddm —* kaqda 

gagu(m) "cloister" O/jB [GA.GI4/GI.A] for 
priestesses, esp. naditum at Sippar; ana g. 
erebum "to enter the cloister"; as institution; 
transactions ina bdb g. "at the cloister gate"; sa 
or atu bdb g. "cloister porter"; < Sum. 

gagu ~ "ring, tore" NA of gold, silver 

gabhu —* guhhu 

ga'issu — » ka'issum 

galddu — ► galdtu 

galalanu "gravelly" NB as PN; < galdlu I 

galalu I "stone(s)" NB building stone (for stele 
etc.); "gravel"; < Aram. 

galalu II "to roll" (trans.) Bab., M/NA G infin. 
in drug preparations D ~ G of river water; "roll" 
eyes (or "blind"?); > gallu; gillu 1 

galamahu(m), galmdhu(m), kalamdhu(m) "chief 
lamentation-priest" Bab. [GALA.MAtf; j/NB 
LU.GALA.MAtf, once SVj.MAH]; of specific deity 
(Enlil, Istar etc.); performing in cult; < Sum.; — ► 
kalu III 

galasu ~ "to flatten off? jB G stat., of moon 
D mng. unkn. lex. 

galatu(m), NA galddu "to tremble, be afraid" 
Bab., NA G {ulu, rarely Hi) [HULUH] med. of 
person, part of body, cow "tremble, shiver"; 
from fear; "be afraid of (= ace.)"; "ejaculate"; 
stat., of god, sea, sunrise etc. "is frightful, 
frightening" Gtn iter, of G [tfULUy.tfULUtf] "be 
repeatedly scared" D "frighten" s.o., of snake, 
fortification wall Dtn iter, of D of demon, ghost 
Dt pass, of D OB "be frightened" SD - D 
S 1. "make frightening" divine statue; stat. "is 
very frightening" 2. "terrify, scare off; > galtu, 
gain's; gilittu; mugallitu; suglutu 

galaturru "junior lamentation-priest" jB [LU. 
GALA.TUR; LU.SU.TUR]; < Sum.; -► kalu III 

galaussu "second-ranking lamentation-priest" jB 
lex.; < Sum.; — ► kalu III 

galdanibdtu —* kalteniwe 

galdu (a vessel) Am.; < Eg.? 

galgaltu I, galgallatu "hunger" jB lex. 

galgaltu II (a plant) jB lex. 

galittu —* galtu 

galitu "deportation"; coll. "deportees" NA; 
< galu II 

gallabtu(m) "female barber" OAkk, O/jB 
[(MUNUS.)SU.I]; < galldbu 

gallabu(m) "barber, hairdresser" [(LU.)SU.I; 
KINDA] also as family name, as PN; mar 
galldbl "member of the barbers", wakil g. 
"overseer of the barbers"; of the king, of 
Samas, of the market; transf. desig. of north 
wind g. same; naglabu, mustu (etc.) g. "razor, 
comb etc. of barber"; < gullubu II; > gallabtu; 

gallabutu "function of barber" Ass., j/NB 
[(LU.)SU.I- ] g. epesu "to act as barber", also 
cultically of king; < galldbu 

gallanis "like a gallu-demon" jB; < gallu I 

gallittu —* galtu 

gallu ~ "rolling"? j/NB in tdmtu gallatu, also 
ellipt., without tdmtu; < galdlu II 

gallu(m) (a demon) Bab. [GAL5.LA] also transf., 
as desig. of enemy; hiris g. lemni "scion of or 
"sliver from an evil demon"; "constable" as 
divine title; < Sum.; > gallanis 

gallu — ► also qallu 

galmdhu — ► galamdhu 

galpurhu — ► kalpurhu 

galtappu —* gistappu 

galteniwe —* kalteniwe 

galtis "fearfully" jB; < galtu 

galtu; f. galittu "fearful" jB; "fearsome" of noise, 
light etc.; of snake; sea; storm-chariot; < galdtu 

galu I "banished, deported" NB; < galu II 

galu II "to be deported" NA, NB G (NA Hi) 
S "take/send into exile" (partly taken as sgl 
D ?); < Aram.; > galu I; galitu; suglu, sagalutu 

gam "also" NB; < W.Sem. 

gamagallum (a ring) OB of carnelian; < Sum. 

gamalu(m) "to do a favour; spare" G {Hi, OAkk 
also alu) "do s.o. a favour, be kind to"; gimilla 
g. "do favour"; NB "give as a favour"; 
"consent"; of deity "spare, save", esp. in PN; of 
king etc.; napista g. "spare life"; OAkk Id 
gamdl of silver/gold payment, mng. unci. 
Gt "agree to, accommodate each other" St OB 
"reach agreement about" field (=acc); 
> gdmilu, gammalu I, gammalu, gammilu; 
gimlu, gimiltu, gimillu; gitmdlu, gitmdlis, 
gitmdlutu; humdlu'-, humalitu 1 

gamamu "to cut off jB lex. G 

gamarru, NA kimarru "infantry" M/NA 

gamartu(m) "totality" O/jB 1. Mari of troops 
"whole force" 2. OB kannu gamartim "signs of 
completion"? 3.jB gramm., of Sum. 
morphemes, incl. prospective u- [TIL- ] (— ► 
gamertu 4); < gamaru II 

gamaru I "completeness" MB 1. ana g. 
"completely" 2. Nuzi "end, completion" of 
month; < gamaru II infin. 

gamaru(m) II 



gamaru(m) II "to bring to conclusion, complete" 
G {alu) [TIL] "destroy, finish off people, city, 
land; "use up completely" corn etc.; "pay out 
all" silver; "finish, get to end of month, year 
etc.; stat. of days etc. "are ended, used up"; 
"complete" work, building, object; eqlam ina 
epesim g. "finish working field"; "finish, settle" 
a lawsuit, account(s); stat. of royal command 
"is final"; "finalize" decision etc.; in hendiad. 
"(do completely", OA "satisfy s.o. 
entirely"; "control, own entirely"; "totally 
occupy" space, time; astr. of halo "be complete" 
Gt OB of persons' hearts, stat. "are entirely 
(devoted) to each other" D ~ G esp. OB 
"assemble" workers etc. "in their entirety", 
"include s.o. in a group", "collect" water, 
"assign" a field "entirely" to s.o., "pay, supply 
in full" silver, offering; M/jB "be totally in 
control of lands etc.; also abstr. obj., wisdom, 
strength; libba g. "give (o.'s) heart entirely to" 
s.o., "be fully loyal to"; in hendiad. "do 
completely"; inalana + infin. + g. "finish 
(doing" Dt (NA Dtt) pass, of D OB of 
troops "be completely assembled"; "be finished, 
used up" etc. S 1. OA "cause to pay out all" 
silver 2. in hendiad. "do to the full"; stat. "is in 
complete control" 3. NB "cause to encompass" 
all wisdom 4. "have s.o. prepare" account 
"completely" N pass, of G 1. "be annihilated" 
of people, animals 2. "be fully used up" 3. of 
speech, illness "come to an end" 4. of dispute 
etc., of work, oath "be concluded" 5. of house, 
family "be fully assembled"; math, of measure 
"be filled up" 6. Nuzi, of months "pass, be 
completed"; > gamaru I; gamru I.II, gamertu, 
gamrutum; gimru, gimirtu, gimratu, gamartu; 
gamiru, gamirutu; gummurtu; mugammerum, 
mugammertu; nagmaru, nagmuru; tagmertu 

gamatu (a measure)? jB lex. 

gama'u vb. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

gamertu(m), gamirtu(m) "completeness" 1. OA 
"communal regulation" 2. "totality, everything", 
ana g. "in full"; NB kasap g. "full price"; NB 
[TIL- ] "complete amount"; erru g. — * erru III 
3. OB "destruction" 4. gramm. = gamartu 3; 

< gamru I 
gameru —* gamru I 

gamesu (a stone) NA for — ► algamisu ? 
gamgammu (a bird) jB [GAM.GAM.MUSEN]; 

< Sum. 

gamidu —* gammidatu 

gamilu(m) "merciful, sparing" O/jB in PNs, also 

fPN Gdmiltum; "pardoner"; la g. "merciless" of 

soldiers, lion; < gamdlu 

gamirtu — ► gamertu 

gamiru(m) 1. "strong, effective" OAkk, O/jB of 
king; as PN 2. OA gdmir awdtim "mediator, 
arbitrator" 3. (a kind of bolt)? O/jB, NA; 

< gamaru II; — ► kamiru ? 

gamirutu(m) "strength, efficacy" O/jB of king; 
jB g. epesu "to act effectively"; g. aldku "to be 
effective"; < gamiru 

gamlis "like a bent (throwing-)stick" jB; < gamlu 

gamlu(m); pi. f. ~ "bent stick (as projectile), 
throwing-stick" OAkk, Bab. [GIS.ZUBI] as 
weapon, of wood; epith. of gods, attribute of 
gods; d g."divine g. symbol"; om. of features 
kima g., i.e. curved, bent; astr. "constellation 
Auriga" (also code name for Jupiter) 
[MUL.ZUBI]; > gamlis 

gammalis "like a camel" jB; < gammalu II 

gammalu I "very merciful" jB; < gamdlu 

gammalu II "camel" NA [ANSE.A.AB.BA; 
ANSE.GAM.MAL]; < W.Sem.; > gammalis 

gammalu "very merciful" jB; < gammalu I + -7 

gammaru — ► gamru I 

gammidatu, NA also ga(m)midu (a garment) 
NA, NB; < kamddu ? 

gammilu "friendly, accommodating" jB; 

< gamdlu 
gammirtu —* gamru I 
gammis (a plant) jB lex., NB 
gammistu —* gamru I 
gammurtu — ► gummurtu 

gamru(m) I, gameru(m), NA, NB also 
gammaru, with f. gammirlstu "complete, total" 
[TIL; NA also PAP ?] of price, commodities etc.; 
of quantity, number; temu(m) g. "the entire 
matter", "full report"; with libbu, e.g. ina l.-su 
gamrim "whole-heartedly"; of lawsuit, 
accounts, work "completed"; OB as subst. 
"totality", "all (of ...)", analadi gamrisu "in its 
entirety", ana gamrim "totally, finally"; 

< gamaru II 

gamrum II "outlay, expenses" OA heavy 

{mddum), of trip {sa harrdnim); g. gamdrum, 

g. lamddum "to incur expenses"; < gamaru II; 

— ► gimru 3 
gamrutum "entirety" Mari ana g-su 

"completely"; < gamru I 
gamuzu mng. unkn. NA of horses 
gana "come on; yallah!" O/jB before imper.; 

before 1 sg. prec.; < Sum.; — ► agana; ingana; 

ganaddu —* ganandu 
ganahu "to cough" M/jB G {Hi) D "cough and 

retch"; — ► guhhu 


ganandu, ganaddu (an ornament) MB of gold, 

lapis lazuli; < Kass.? 
gananu, kandnu(m) ~ "to encircle, shut in" O/jB 

G (a/u) troops D ~ G stat. "is encircled"; 

> ginnatu 
ganasu "to lift (nose, lip)" jB G lex., med. D ~ G 

of sheep, of diviner (obj. KA.MES, appu) 
Dt "wrinkle o.'s nose", "sneer"; > gunnusum, 
mugannisum; — ► hanasu 
gandarasanu (linen from Gandhara) NB; 

< OPers. 
gangittu (a type of song) jB in Akkadian; 

< Sum.? 
ganinu — » ganunu I 
gannu I (part of insides of a sheep) NB, as cut 

of meat, left/right 
gannu II; pi. ganndtu/i "garden" NB; < Aram.; 

— ► hagani 
gannu — » also kannu; qannu 
ganungurru (a storeroom) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ganunmahu(m) "principal storeroom" O/jB 

[GA.NUN.MAH]; < Sum. 
ganunu(m) I, galininu(m) "storeroom" [GA.NUN 

(.NA)] OAkk, OB in private houses; Ass., O/jB 

in temple; j/NB "private chamber" in palace, 

house; < Sum. 
ganunum II (or klqanunum) (a weight or 

measure) OAkk 
ganzabaru "treasurer" NB; < OPers. 
ganzazu "dripper" jB lex.; < Sum. 
ganzer "underworld" jB; < Sum. 
gapahsu (a child's game) MB 
gapanu (or kapdnu) "bulb"? Bogh. of leek etc.; 

— ► gapnu ? 
gaparu(in) "to be superior" O/jB G — ► gapru 

D "overcome"? Dt "contend, match strengths"? 

N — ► mungapru 
gapasu(m) "to rise up, swell" O/jB G (ulu) of 

hero, heart "be(come) proud, swollen"; stat. of 

demon, part of liver, river "is enlarged, huge" 

D "enlarge", "swell number of allies; stat. "is 

enlarged, swollen" Dt of army "be enlarged"; 

"be swollen, proud" N of water-table "rise up"; 

> gapsu, gapsis, gapsiitu; gipsu, gipsutu; 
gupsu; guppusum; gitpdsu 

gapnu "bush" j/NB in wild; in gardens; of figs, 
pomegranates, apples; g. sa kardni "vine"; NB 
hit g. "vineyard"; — ► gapanu; gupnu 

gappu "wing" MA, jB of bird, ghost, winged 
beasts; pi. sir ga(p)pdni "winged snake"?; -> 
agappu; kappu I 

gapru "superior" jB; < gapdru 

gapsidum — » qapsidum 

gapsis "in spate" jB of high water; < gapsu 

90 garis(t)u 

gapsu; f. gapustu "arisen, proud" O/jB [MA{J] of 
flood waters "risen in spate"; of troops 
"numerous"; transf. of heart, person, goddess, 
animal "proud, swollen"; also as PN; < gapdsu; 

> gapsis, gapsiitu 
gapsutu "numerousness" jB in gapsiissunu "in 

their great numbers" of troops; < gapsu; — » 

garahdnu — ► garhdnu 
garabu(m) "mange, scab" O/jB med., mag.; sa g. 

"leper"; samnulahanlereh g. (kinds of plant/ 

stone/locust); > garhu, garhdnu; gurruhu'- 
garadu(m), qarddu "to pluck, tear out" (hair 

etc.) O/jB, NA G OB lex. "pluck" wool; 

transf., of pig "root out" bricks; Am. (imper. 

qurud) mng. unci. Gt "pluck beard of s.o. 

D "pluck out" hair; stat., of hair "is mangy"; 

> gardu I; gerdu; gurrudu 
gardhu — ► gardsu 

garakku, girakku (small brick altar) jB 
garamu "to follow course" G (Hi) jB of planet 
garannu — ► garunnu 
gardnu — » qardnu 
gardru — ► qardru; sugarruru 
garasum (a skin complaint) OB lex.; > garsu, 

gerrisdnu; gurrusu 
gardsu — » also kardsu 
garasgaras — ► gurusgaraS 
garasu(m), jB lex. also gardhu "to move 

towards" OAkk, O/jB, MA G (pret. igrus) 

1. OAkk, OB of person, god "go towards" s.o. 

(=dat.); MA of animal figures "stride" (or 

G2?) 2.jB lex., comm. "copulate", as euph. 

N of women "be made love to"; > gursu V; 

guristu, gurusgaras 1 ; — » nagarsu 
gardsu — » also qardsu 
gard'um — ► gerU 

garbanu, garahdnu "leprous" j/NB; < garhu 
garbu "leprous" M/jB; < gardhu 
gardapatu — ► gardupatu 

gardu(m) I, qardu(m) "mangy"? O/jB; < g'arddu 
gardu II ~ "state worker(s)" NB coll. term; 

< OPers.?; — ► gardupatu 
gardumum (or qardumum) (a prof, desig.)? 

gardupatu, gardapatu "leader of gardu" NB; 

< OPers. 
garidu "beaver"? jB med., testicle of g. 
garinnu — » agarinnu 
garis(t)u, giris(t)u "loaf (of bread)" NA, NB; 

< Aram. 
garmartu — » kanwartu 
garrdnu — ► gerrdnu 




garru(m) (a box) O/jB for bread; medicines 
garsu(m) "leprous" MB lex.; < garasum 
garum "cream" OB lex.; < Sum. 

garu — ► also geru 
gdru — > giru 

garunnu, garannu, gurunnu, agrunnu (small 

cultic vessel) jB [(DUG.)SAB.TUR] 
Gasur Salul — ► Saliltum 
gasdsu — > gazdzu; kasdsu I 
gasisu "gnashing, grinding" jB of teeth; 

< kasdsu I 

gassanu "calcareous" NA of limestone; 

< gassu III 

gassatu "firewood" NA; sa gassdtisu "firewood 

man"; < kasdsu I ? 
gassu(m) I ~ "cruel, murderous" O/jB of deities, 

gassu II ~ "chopped" NB of beams; < kasdsu I 
gassu(m) III "gypsum" Bab, NA [IM.BABBAR] 

as raw material, mineral; as building material; 

mag., esp. for figurines; me g. "lime wash"; 

> gassanu 
gassu — > also gazzu 

gasaru(m) "to be(come) strong, powerful" 
OAkk, Bab., M/NA(lit.) G (///) of deity, king; 
of command, cult-ordinance Gtn infin. 
gitassuru = Dt gutassuru ? D "make" troops 
"dominant"; stat. "is very powerful, more 
powerful" than s.o. Dt "strike with great force", 
"bully" of gods, men; NA of trees "vie with 
each other"?; > gasru, Gasrdnu, gasrutu; 
magsaru; mugdasru 

gasasu(m) "to cut off G (pret. u) Bogh. (or — ► 
kasdsu ?); > gasisu, gasisis 

gasirutu "appurtenances" jB in g. sarruti "royal 

gasisis "on stakes" jB 

gasisu(m) "stake, pole" O/jB, NA for military, 
legal impalement; < gasdsu 

gasmushu — > kasmushu 

Gasranu "strong" M/NA as DN; < gasru 

gasru(m), M/NA gesru "very strong, powerful" 
Bab., M/NA(lit.) of deity, king, lion; weapon; 
imuq(i) g. "great strength"; < gasdru; 

> Gasrdnu, gasrutu 

gasrutu, gesrutu "great strength, power" jB, NA 

of deity, king; < gasru 
gasu(m) I, NA gudsu ~ "to run, hasten" O/jB, 

NA(lit.) G (u) of deity; > gustu 
gasu II "to vomit" jB G not attested D absol. 

"vomit" S "make s.o. vomit"? 
gasilru — ► gusuru 

gattu(m) I, kattu "form, physical build" of deity, 

divine statue, human; Mari of donkeys gattam 

sehhird "of very small build" 
gattu II, gddu (name for Euphrates) j/NB 
gatta'a "reed- or wood-cutter"? NA, NB; 

< Aram. 
ga'um "to be superior" OB over s.o.; < W.Sem. 
ga'um, gawum "people, tribe" Mari; < W.Sem. 
ga'u, kau, qd'u "to spit, spew" jB, NA G 
gawum — » ga'um 
gayyanu, gdgamu mng. unkn. jB lex., archit. 

gayydtu —* qayydtu 
gazamanu(m), gazimdnu (a pole) O/jB lex.; 

gazazu(m), kazdzu, glkasdsu "to shear" OAkk, 

Bab. G (a/u) sheep N pass, of G, NB; > gazzu; 

kaziztu, kizzatu; gizzu, gizzatu; gdzizu; kuzdzu 1 -; 

magzazu; — > kizzu I 
gazimdnu — > gazamdnu 
gazizu "shearer" NB pi. gdzizi; < gazdzu 
gazzu(m), OAkk gezzum (or glkassu(m)l) 

"shorn" OAkk(Elam), Bab. of sheep; < gazdzu 
gegu(n)nu(m), OB also kikunnum, Elam 

kukunnu(m); pi. f. "raised temple" OAkk, Bab. 

often in appos. to ziqqurratu(m); < Sum. 
gelduhlu, keltuhlu, MA gelzulu "bowyer, bow- 
maker" MA, Nuzi 
gelletu -* gillatu 
gelzulu -* gelduhlu 
gennu -* kinnu 

genu ~ "to thrust, butt" M/jB G; D 
ginu — ► ginu I 
gepu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gerdu, qerdu "plucked, carded 7 wool" jB, NA 

[SU.TAB.BA] eaten as punishment; < garddu 
gerdudum mng. unkn. OB silver for g.; < Sum. 
gergiltu (ring-shaped part of plough) jB lex. 
gergilu(m) (a bird) O/jB; also OAkk (a city 

gerginakku "library" jB [IM.GU.LA; IM.LA.A] for 

tablets; < Sum. 
gerginnum (part of liver) OB; < Sum.? 
gergiru -* egemgiru 
gergisu/u (a plant) jB lex. 
gergi(s)su ~ (a small batteringTram) jB lex. 
gergissu(m) 1. "strawberry tree" jB lex. 2. (a red 

skin complaint) O/jB; sa g. "sufferer from g"; 

— ► qerqisu 
gergu — ► gerrigu 

geriddakku (a river fish) jB lex.; < Sum. 
germadu "floor-timbers (of ship)"? jB 

[GE.ER.MA.DU]; < Sum. 




germahhu — * kirmahhu 

gerrabbakku(m) (a sea-fish) jB lex.; < Sum. 

gerranu(m), jB also garrdnu "wailing, 
lamentation" OAkk, O/jB 

gerridir, kerridir (a leather item) MB; < Kass.? 

gerrigu, gergi) (a reed rope) jB lex. 

gerrisanu "mangy (sheep)" jB lex.; < gardsum 

gerru(m) I, OB also kerrum m. & f. "way; 
caravan; (military) campaign" Bab., M/NA 
[kaskal; Mari also KASKAL.a] 1. topog. 
"road, path" to (sa) PIN; difficult, narrow etc.; 
jB g. sarri "royal road"; transf. "way of life"; 
tappi g. "travelling companion" 2. Bab. 
"caravan" 3. OB "journey"; passur g. "picnic 
table" 4. military "march, campaign"; "(troops 
on) campaign" 5. "(religious) procession"; NB 
g. massartu "patrol"; astr. rikis g. (an excerpt 
from series) 6. jB pi. kerretu "marching-song"? 

gerru II "lion cub, puppy" jB 

genu — * egerru 

gerseqqu(m) (palace, temple attendant) Bab. 
[(LU.)GlR.SIG.v6/SE(.GA); MB also KI.IR.SI. 
GA]; < Sum. 

gerseqqutu "post of attendant" Bogh., NB; in 
palace; NB as prebend in temple; < gerseqqu 

gersu — * kersu 

gersanu(m), girisdnu (a kind of leek) O/jB 
[GA.RAS.SAG.SAR]; < Sum. 

gersippum (a tame bird) OB 

geru(m), gam, OA gard'um "to be hostile to, 
attack" G (///) with ace. "attack" opponent; salta 
g. "start fight with" s.o. (= ace); leg. "initiate 
proceedings against" s.o. (= ace), also dina g., 
NA denu dabdbu issi PN g.; NB bel gerisu 
(infin.) "legal opponent" Gtn iter, of G OA; jB 
stat. of Lamastu gitarrdtu Gt OB "start 
hostilities against each other" D ~ G Dtn iter, of 
D N "start hostilities, get into a fight", esp. leg.; 
> girutu; gem; magru, magritu; tagrlturrP 

geru(m), gdrd "opponent, enemy" Bab., M/NA 
in battle; of animals; in law; < gem 

gerzizu — * kerzizu 

gesu(m) "to assign to, confer on" O/jB G (pret. 
iges); > gisu 

gesu —* also gesu I 

gesru —* gasru 

gesriitu —* gasrutu 

gestu "very first, leading" jB epith. of god 
[IGI.DU-ji]; < Sum.; — ► igistum 

gesu "to belch" jB G wind, water, bile as obj. 
D ~ G wind, blood; like ox; > gisutu 

gesu(m) I, gesu "to turn over, grub up" O/jB soil 

gesu II "to spend the night" jB lex. 

gezzu —* gazzu; gizzu 

giammalu ~ "sprout, shoot" jB lex. 

giaru(m) mng. unci. O/jB G "to challenge"? 

person, "demand"? work D "demand"?, 

field; > magirtum 
giballum (a kind of reed) OB lex.; < Sum. 
gibarru, gibarbarru "reed fibres" jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

gibbaru, gibbum ~~ "hired shepherd"? MA, 

Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
gibbum (or gippum) (a sacrificial rite) Mari 
gibbum -* gibbaru 
gibetum (class of soldier) Mari 
gibillu/u ~ "touch-wood, tinder" jB lex. 
giddagiddu (an eye complaint)? jB med.; 

< Sum. 
gidde -* budu 
gi(d)dil — ► gidlu 

gidimduhum (an alcoholic drink) Mari; < Sum. 
gidimmu I; pi. f. ~ "water scoop" jB, NA 
gidimmu II (a bundle of reeds) jB lex.; < Sum.; 

-♦ gidmu 
gidlu(m), freq. wr. gi(d)dil "plaited string" Bab., 

NA 1. Bab. "plait" of onions etc., used as 

measure 2. NA (kind of gold ornament) 
gidmu, gidi(m)mu "bunch, spray of dates" NB as 

measure; < Aram.; — ► gidimmu II 
gidu(m); NB pi. f. "sinew, gristle" Bab., M/NA 

[UZU.SA] usu. of sheep; weighed; for chariot 

manufacture etc. 
gigallutu -* igigallutu 
gigiruhhe adj. mng. unci. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
gigitu (or gizitu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gigunu —* gegunnu 

gigurbalu (kind of basket) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gigurdu (a carrying basket) jB lex.; < Sum.; -♦ 

massu I 1 
gigurkigubbu (kind of basket) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gigurru(m) (a basket) OAkk, jB ? ; < Sum. 
gigursugubbu (kind of basket) jB lex.; < Sum. 
giguru 1. "(the cuneiform sign) U" jB [u] 2. (a 

kind of torch) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gigurzidakum "flour basket" OB; < Sum. 
gihannu(m), gihennu(m) (basket for wool) O/jB 

[Gl.BE.EN(.yi.A);]; < Sum. 
gihlu(m), guhlu (a mourning ceremony) O/jB 

[GI.HUL]; < Sum.; -♦ kihullu 
giladu — ► gildu 
gilammu -* gislammu 
gilamu, kildmu (a kind of ivory) Am., Nuzi 
gildu, giladu "(animal) hide, skin" NB; < Aram. 
gilgidanu "bat" (Fledermaus) jB lex. 
gilimmum mng. unkn. OB lex.; < Sum.? 




gilittu(m) "terror" Bab. [SA.MUD] g. rasu "to 
become terrified"; < galdtu 

gillatu(m), gelletu "sin, sacrilege" Bab.; bel g. 
"sinner"; > gullulu 

gillu (a piece of reed) jB lex.; < galdlu II ? 

gilsu, gissu(m), m. & f. ~ "hip(-bone)" O/jB, NA 
[TUGUL] left/right; is broken; child carried ina 
muhhi g.-ya; NB abul g. (a gate in Babylon) 

giltiu, giltu —* gistum 

gimdhu -* kimahhu 

gimgiru — * egemgiru 

gimillu(m), OAkk, NA gimlu{m)\ pi. f. "requital, 
favour" [Su] "friendly deed (for/as reward)"; 
OA awil g. "one who can do a favour"; jB bel 
g.-su "one owing him a favour"; OA, OB g. 
sakdnumlepesumlgamalum "to do a favour" to 
(= elili(na) sir) s.o.; freq. in PNs; g. turru "to 
return a favour", also "avenge" s.o.; < gamdlu 

gimiltu "act of friendliness, favour" M/NB(Ass.) 
g. sakdnu "to do a favour"; < gamdlu 

gimirtu(m) "totality" OAkk, Ass., NB esp. 
inalana gimirtisu etc. "in its totality, all of it"; in 
appos. "all", "wholly"; Mari "entire body" of 
army; < gamdru II 

gimlu(m) "spare (ox)" O/jB to be kept in 
reserve; < gamdlu 

gimlu -* also gimillu 

gimratu(m) "totality" Bab.(poet.) "all" gods, 
men etc.; < gamdru II 

gimru(m), OB also kimrum "totality; costs, 
expenses" Bab., M/NA 1. "totality", before 
gen./pron. suff., in appos. 2. pi. f. "everything, 
whole world" 3. m. "outlay, expenses" incurred 
in business, labour, travel etc. (— ► gamrum II); 

< gamdru II 

gimussu "reed pole" jB for boat; < Sum. 

gina, ginu adv. "constantly; usually" M/NB 

[DlS- ] 1. "always, permanently", NB ana g. 

"for ever" 2. "regularly, normally", kT(ma) sa g. 

"as usual"; NB astr. nasdru sa ginS "regular 

observation"; jB subdt g. "everyday clothing"?; 

< Akk. lw. in Sum. 
gingiru -* egemgiru 
ginigginakku (a reed) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ginindanakku "measuring rod" j/NB for 

surveying [GI.NlNDA.NA- ; NINDA ? (for NINDA 

as capacity measure -♦ akalu 2)]; < Sum. 
ginindanginakku (a reed) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gininu — * ganunu I 
ginnatu "enclosure" MB in g. gandnu "to hem 

in" (troops); < gandnu 
ginnu (a hallmark for silver) NB in kaspu sa g. 

"stamped silver", also kaspu sa lag. 
ginnu — * kinnti 

ginu(m) I, M/NB also genu; pi. MA gind'e, NB 
gindne "regular contribution (to temple)" Bab., 
M/NA [GI.NA; Dig- ] of wool, bread, sheep etc.; 
g. sa DN; sut g. "offerings Mta-measure"; in 
appos. sattukke g.; officials: MA rab gind'e, 
NB re'i g. "shepherd of g. sheep", sdhit g. "oil- 
presser of regular offerings" (-♦ sdhit-ginutu); 

< Sum. 

ginu II "child" jB in col.; < Sum. 

ginu -* also gina 

ginutu — * sdhit-ginutu 

giparu, giparru, also mipdru (<Emesal?) 
1. M/NB "residence of en(t)u in temple" [Gl6. 
PAR] en(t)u enters, leaves g.; g. sa fDN; also 
part of dwelling house 2.jB ~ "pastureland"; 

< Sum. 
gippum — * gibbum 

gipsu(m) "uprising, welling up" Bab., NA of 
water; transf. g. ummdni etc. "massed body of 
troops", g. libbi "pride"; ext. "thickening"? on 
liver, lung; < gapdsu 

gipsutu "fullness, numerousness" jB in 
gipsussun "in their multitude"; < gipsu; -* 

gipu "date basket" j/NB; < Sum. 

girakku — ► garakku 

girdnis —* giris 

girberushe (a wall ornament)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 

giridu(m) "access road"? O/jB; < Sum.? 

girigubbu "footboard of chariot, cart". M/jB 

[GIR.GUB]; < Sum. 
girim hilibe —* girimmu 2 
girimmis mng. unci. OB 
girimmu, girimiu 1. M/jB, NA lex., med. (a kind 

of fruit) 2. Nuzi, Bogh. (glkirinnu) (a precious 

stone), NA/jB girim hilibe "underworld g" (a 

precious stone) 3. OB as PN ?; < Sum. 
girisu-akarranu (a prof, desig.) NB; < OPers. 
giristu —* garistu 
girisu (a kind of fruit) jB lex. 
girisu -* also garistu 
giris, girdnis "like Gira, like fire" jB [ d GlS.BAR- 

is]; < giru 
girisdnu — * gersdnu 

giritu(m) (a kind of fish, phps.) "muraena" O/jB 
girratu — * kirratu 
girru —* giru 
girtablilu "scorpion-man" jB [GiR.TAB.LU.Ui8. 

LU]; < Sum. 
giru; pi. gire, giretum "'/24 shekel" NB; < Aram. 

giru(m), girru "fire(-god)" O/jB [ d GIS.BAR; 

d GIBIL6] as DN; meaning "fire", g. ittanpah 




"fire was ignited", ina g. aqmu "I burnt with 

fire"; < DN Gira; > giris 
girutu "hostility" NA; < gem 
gisallu(m) (part of roof, phps.) "eaves" Bab.; of 

domestic house; OB transf. g. mutim "g. of 

death"; MB(Ass.) pi. f. gisallat sade "g. of the 

mountains"; < Sum. 
gisandassu, gisandussu "reed figure" jB lex., 

mag. [GI.SAG.DA.SA-m]; < Sum. 
gisappum (a basket) OB; with handle; < Sum. 
gisgallu, gisgallu "station (of stars)" jB g. 

sursudu "to fix (their) station"; < Sum. 
gisgimmaru — ♦ gisimmaru 
gisitu — ♦ kisitu 
giskimmu(m), iskimmu(m), iskimbu "sign, 

omen" Bab. g. damiqti "good sign"; defined by 

gods; "brought" by heaven and earth; rdg. of 

initial GlS- uncert. (gis- or is- ?); < Sum. 
gissiu — ♦ gistum 
gisu — ♦ igisii 

glsu "endowed with" jB; < gesu 
gislsu (desig. of enemy) NA; < kasdsu I ? 
gisitu — ♦ kisitu 
gisscitu — ♦ kissatu 

gissiS "into thorn-bushes" OB of pasture 
gissu(m) "thom(-bush)" Bab., NA 1. "thorny 

bush" in steppe etc. 2. transf, of word ki gissi 

"like a thorn" 3. NA bit gissi(te) mng. unci.; 

> gissis 
gisallu "boat-pole, rudder" O/jB [GISAL]; < Sum. 
gisburru 'releasing wood' jB lex. 1. (part of 

door) 2. mag. (a ritual instrument); < Sum. 
gisdabtu (a kind of door)? jB lex.; < Sum. 
gisdedu (a musical instrument)? jB lex.; < Sum. 
gisdilu (or zagingisdilu) (a string of beads) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
gisgallu "throne-base" jB of column "bases"; 

gisgallu — ♦ also gisgallu 
gisgimmaru — ♦ gisimmaru 
gisginis "like a clamp 7 " jB; < gisginu 
gisginu (a wooden closure, phps.) "clamp" jB as 

descr. of king g. dannu; < Sum.; > gisginis 
gisgi(r)ru "(wooden) spill" NA for lighting fire; 

or is girri ? 
gisgissu "yoke" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gishassu "wooden mace" jB; < Sum. 
gishummu "bench" jB in vehicles; < Sum. 
gishu(r)ru "plan, design, blueprint" M/NB 

[GlS.HUR] for building; of cosmic scheme; mag. 

"design" in flour; < Sum. 
gisimmaru(m), lex. var. gis/sgimmaru, 

gisnimmaru etc. m. & f "date palm" [(GlS.) 

GISIMMAR] in plantations; g. sarru "false d."; 

products of d.; door, bowl, images of wood of 

d.; < Sum. 
giskallu (a heavy stick) jB lex.; < Sum. 
giskanakku (part of doorframe) j/NB; < Sum. 
giskurru (a mountain tree) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gislammu, gilammu "mullein" jB lex. used for 

wicks; < Sum. 
gismahhu "tree-trunk" or "long beam" jB(Ass.) 

of cedars; < Sum. 
gisnimmaru — ♦ gisimmaru 
gisnu "bed" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gisnugallu — ♦ asnugallu 
gisparru, OB gisperrum "trap, snare" O/jB, NA 

transf. esp. of Samas; in similes; < Sum. 
gisrinnu(m) "scales" OAkk, O/jB [GlS.ERlN] of 

Samas in judgement; also (part of door); OAkk 

as deified symbol; < Sum. 
gisru(m) "(wooden) bar; bridge" Bab., NA 

1. "bar" to close door; "barrier" 2. NA, NB 

"bridge" 3. NB "(bridge) toll"; rab g. "toll- 
gissappum — ♦ gistappu 
gissakanakku (part of doorframe) j/NB; coated 

with bitumen; < Sum. 
gissasku (a pole) jB lex; < Sum. 
gissu mng. unkn. NB in abut g. (a gate at 

gissu — ♦ also gilsu 

gistaggu "offering" NB(roy. inscr.); < Sum. 
gistalgiddu "barrier" jB; < Sum. 
gistallu ~ "cross-bar" j/NB, NA [GIS.DAL] on 

door; as carrying pole for divine statue ?; ext. — ♦ 

tallu I; < Sum. 
gistalu "cross-bar"? Mari, of wooden vessel- 
stand; < Sum. 
gistappu(m), OAkk glkissappum, galtappu(m), 

jB kersappu, kilzappu Bogh., Syria also 

kiltappu "footstool" OAkk, Bab. [GIR.GUB; NB 

also GIR.GUB.BU]; also "threshing-sledge"; 

Qatna, Am. as element of ornament; Am. 

transf, ref to pharaoh's subjects; — ♦ kaltappu 
gistelu (a dignitary) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
gistum, giltu, MA giltiu, NA gissiu "cross-bar" 

O/jB, M/NA of table, throne etc.; < Sum.; -♦ 

helta'u ? 
gistuppu(m) "plaque" O/jB [(NA4.)GIS.DUB] i.e. 

flat ornament of precious stone or metal; 

< Sum. 
gistu "(writing) board" jB; < Sum. 
gisubbu — ♦ kisubbu 

gisutu "eructation, belch" M/jB; < gesu 
gitepatu (a Persian official) NB; < OPers. 
gitmalis "perfectly" jB; < gitmdlu 




gitmalu(m), lex. also gittamlu "perfect, ideal"? 

Bab. epith. of gods, warriors; Gilgames g. 

emuqi "perfect in strength"; of animals, palm- 
fronds, parts of liver; < gamdlu 
gitmalutu "perfection" jB in g. epesu "to act 

perfectly"; < gitmdlu 
gitnu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gitpasu in emiiqi g. "fully supplied with troops" 

jB; < gapdsu 
gitrunu — ♦ qitrunu 
gittamlu — ♦ gitmdlu 

gitipu "fresh-pulled stems" of leek NB; < Aram. 
gittu "oblong tablet" NB [(iM.)GfD.DA; IM.GI.DA] 

in lit. col. etc.; leg. as receipt; also ref. to 

parchment document [KUS.GID.DA]; < Sum.; — ♦ 

giwara, giwarumma "tanning"? Nuzi, bag of g. 

"tanning 7 agent"; giwarumma epesu "to tan 7 " 

leather; < Hurr. 
gizgazu "beater" jB lex. stick for fulling; < Sum. 
gizgizu (a prof, desig.)? jB 
gizillu "torch, brand" Bab., NA [GI.IZI.LA], esp. 

rit.; < Sum. 
gizinakku(m), kizind "offering place for Sin" 

O/jB; < Sum. 
gizitu — ♦ gigitu 
gizzdnu — ♦ kizzdnu 
gizzatu "shearing, wool yield" NB of sheep, 

goat; < gazdzu 
gizzatu — ♦ also kizzatu 
gizzu(m) "shearing" Bab., NA "(activity, process 

of) shearing"; bit g. "shearing shed"; Bab. pi. 

"(product, yield of) shearing"; < gazdzu 
gizzu — ♦ also kizzu I 
gudsu — ♦ gasu I 
gubabtu — ♦ ugbabtu 

gubarum, kubdrum ~ "(metal) bar, ingot" OB 
gubdru — ♦ also gupdru II 
gubbu "cistern" NA, NB g. (sa) me "water 

cistern"; < Aram.? 
gubbuhu, qubbuhu "bald" O/jB, also as PN 
gubgubu (a part of the body) jB 
gubgubu — ♦ also guggubu 
gubibatu pi. tant. "roasted grain" NA; 

< kabdbu II 
gubnatu "(a) cheese" NB; < Aram. 
gubru(m) (a kind of lance) O/jB lex.; -♦ gupru 
gudddu — ♦ kudddu 

gu(d)danagadu "ox-herd" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gudapsu(m) (a priest) O/jB [GUDU4.ABZU] of 

Nanna, Nusku etc.; < Sum. 
guddanagadu — ♦ gudanagadd 

gudgudu; pi. f (side-toes of animals)? MA in 

descr. of animals' feet 
gudu; pi. guddnu "leather bag, waterskin" NB; 

< Aram. 

guduballata'u "off-duty pasis u-priest" jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

guduballaturru, guduballu "(junior) on-duty 

paiwu-priest" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gududu "battle troop" NB; < Aram. 
gudugu (a kind of door) jB lex. 
guduttu, dugudu (an offering table) jB lex.; 

< Sum.? 

guennakku (the governor of Nippur) Bab., NA 

[GU.EN.NA]; < Sum. 
guennakkutu "governorship (of Nippur)" MB 

[GU.EN.NA- ]; < guennakku 
gugallu(m) I "irrigation controller" OAkk, Bab., 

NA [(LU.)GU.GAL; OAkk KU.gAl; jB once 

UGU.GAL] as official, also PN; as epith. of king; 

of god; < Sum.; > gugallutu 
gugallu II 'big ox' jB desig. of drum; < Sum. 
gugallutu "post of irrigation controller" Nuzi, 

NB [LU.GU.GAL- ]; also "payment to irrigation 

controller"; < gugallu I 
gugamlu — ♦ kigamlum 
gugaru mng. unkn. jB desig. of stone 
guggalipu — ♦ gungulipu 
guggubu, gubgubu (a precious ornament or 

gemstone) Qatna, Am., of lapis lazuli 
gugguru(m), gukkurum; pi. f (a clay vessel) 

O/jB, holding lard; sealed; < Sum. 
gugittu (a shout)? jB lex. 
gugu "shout(ing), cry(ing)" jB lex. 
gugudum — ♦ gugutum 
gugupinnu — ♦ gungupinnu 
gugutum (or gugudum, ku(k)kutidum) (a fodder 

plant) OAkk(Ur III) 
guhassum, guhassu, guhalsu "wire; cord; 

trimming" Bab., MA [GU.yAS] "wire" of gold, 

copper etc.; for lyre; mag. "string, cord"; 

"fringe, trimming" of carpet, garment 
guhhu, gahhu "cough(ing)" jB; -♦ gandhu 
guhhubu D "to cough" jB 
guhlu "kohl, antimony paste" j/NB [SIM.BI.ZI.DA 

(— ♦ simbizidu)] as raw material; med.; as eye 

guhlu — ♦ gihlu 
guhsu(m), OB, MA also gusu (a reed altar) 


loaded with bread; < Sum. 
gukallu — ♦ mukkallu 
gukkalldnu — ♦ kukkalldnu 
gukkallu — ♦ kukkallu 
gukku — ♦ kukku I 


gukkurum — ► gugguru 

gulanu — ► gulenu 

gulbutu, gulubiitu; OB pi. gulbdtum ? (a kind of 
cereal) O/jB lex.; < gullubu II 

gulenu, gulinu, gulanu; pi. m. & f. (an over- 
garment) NA, NB 

gulgullu(m), gulgullatu(m); pi. m. & f. "skull" 
Bab., NA of humans; dog, bird; NB 
"skull( -shaped vessel)" 

gullbatu pi. tant. "hair-trimmings, clippings" jB 
from armpit; < gullubu II 

gulinnu mng. unkn. NB 

gulinu — ► gulenu 

gullenu "man" jB lex. 

gullu(m); pi. f. "bowl" Bab., NA of metal; Mari, 
Qatna "bowl( -shaped ornament)" in gold; NA 
"(column) bases" in copper; NB (iron part of 
defensive grating) 

gullubu(m) I "shorn, shaved" Bab.; OB as PN; 
j/NB cultically "shaven" priest, also as subst., 
pi. gullubutu; f. gulubtu (desig. of wool) lex.; 

< gullubu II; > gullubutu 
gullubu(m) II D "to shear; shave" Bab., M/NA 

[SAR] muttata(m) g. "shave half (head)" as 
punishment; as sign of slavery, esp. abbutta(m) 
g:. also lips, cheeks, temples etc.; "excise" 
tattoo ?; animal, plant; j/NB, NA "shave" as part 
of cultic dedication; Nuzi, NA "clear" crop from 
field; Nuzi "plunder, clear out" house S OB 
uncert.; > galldbu, gallabtu, galldbutu; 
gullubu I, gullubutu; gullbatu; gulbutu; naglabu 
gullubutu "(cultic) shaving, i.e. ordination" NB; 

< gullubu I 
gullultu(m) "sin, sacrilegious act" Bab. g. 

epesu(m), g. rasu(m) "to commit sin"; < gullulu 
gullulu(in) D "to sin, commit sacrilege" Bab. 

towards (= ana) s.o.; annl g. "commit sins" 

Dtn iter, of D; < gillatu denom.; > gullultu 
gullusu D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gulubtu — ► gullubu I 
gulubiitu — ► gulbutu 
gumahu(m), gummahu "prize bull" Bab. 

[GU4.MAH; NB also GU4.MAtJ.EJ for offerings; 

transf. ref. to king; < Sum. 
gumaki(l)lu (a wooden item) NA 
gumalu (a kind of tamarisk) jB lex. 
gumanu (part of a plant)? jB lex. 
gumaru "carbonized wood, charcoal" NA 
gumgumsu (an altar) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gummahu — ► gumdhu 
gummatu "summer" NB; < Aram. 
gummurtu(m), Ass. gammurtu "totality, 

completion" O/jB, NA 1. ana g. "at all, 

altogether" 2. jB gummurta "altogether" 3. NA 

96 guristu 

in ilana g. libbi "whole-heartedly, i.e. loyally" 

(also abbr. gu-um /.); < gamdru II D 
gummutu D "to anger" NB; stat. "is very 

angry"; < Aram. 
gum'u mng. unkn. NA (part of an ornament) 
gumuru (or kumuru) "sword-hilt" Am. 
gunakku (an animal-skin skirt) NB (= Gk. 

kaunakes ?); < OPers. 
gungitu (a net)? jB lex. 
gungu — ► kungu II 
gungubinnu — ► gungupinnu 
gungubu (or gungupu) (part of a chariot) Am. 
gungulipu, gu(g)galipu "(camel's) hump" NA 
gungupinnu, gungubinnu, gugupinnu (an 

ornament) NA, NB [GU.GAB(-w-/jm)?] 
gungupu — ► gungubu 
gunnu ~ "mass, bulk" M/NA, jB of troops; 

"main force"? [GU ?] 
gunnu — ► also gurnu 
gunnusum adj. "nose-wrinkling, sneering" OB 

lex., also as PN; < gandsu 
gunte memetu (an object) Am., in large 

-gunu — ► -kunu 

gunum (a storeroom) OB [E.GU.NA]; < Sum. 
-guniisu — » -kunusi 
guparum I mng. unkn. Mari 
guparu II, gupdru, gubdru "neck; mane" jB also 

of stone/gold ornament; < Sum. 
gupnu "tree( -trunk )"jB, NA; -» gapnu 
guppusum "very proud"? OB as PN: < gapdsu 
gupru(m) "shepherd's hut" OA, O/jB; also lex. 

(a table)?; — > gubrum 
gupsu "surge, swell (of water)" jB; < gapdsu 
guqdnu — ► quqdnu 
guqqu; pi. guqqdnu (a monthly offering) j/NB 

[GUG] of sheep, oxen, beer, dates; for specific 

day, month; < Sum. 
gurabu "sack, wrapping" NB for alum; for large 

pot; < Aram. 
gurartu — ► kurartu 
gurdru — ► kurdru 
gurasu — ► gurusgaras 
gurastu — ► kurartu 
gurduppum, kurduppum "basket (for fish)" 

OB; < Sum. 
gurgugu "roller"? jB for moving ship; < Sum.? 
gurgurratu — ► qurqurratu 
gurgurru (a plant) jB lex. 
gurgurru — ► also qurqurru 
gurgussu (a big offering-vessel) jB lex. 
guristu, kuristu "vulva" M/jB; < gardsu; — ► 





guristu — ► also kurartu 

gurnu(m), gunnu(m) "of average quality" O/jB 

of copper, wool, dates etc. 
gurpi(s)su — ► qurpissu 

gu(r)rutu, NA agurrutu "ewe" M/NA [UDU.Us] 
gurru(m), gurru (a metal object) O/jB, MA 
gurru — > gurru 
gurrubu mng. unci. NB in ZA.GIN.KUR.RA 

("blue dye") gurrubtum; < gardbu ? 
gurrudu(m), qurrudu "mangy" O/jB lex.; of 

fish; as PN; desig. of clay lump'; < garddu 
gurruru — > qurruru 

gurrusu "scabrous"? NB of skull; < gardsum 
gursd/enum — > gusdnu 
gursi(p)pu — » qurpissu 
gursu I, qursu - "chapel" NA (or "(ritual) 

sexual congress" < gardsu ?); also bit g. (part 

of a house); or = hursu ? 
gursu II (or qursu) (a peg)? jB lex. 
guru ~ "foliage, leaves (of reed-plants)" jB 

[GI.GIL ?] g. (sa) qani "g. of reed" 
gurummaru(m) (a kind of tree) Bab. 

[GIS.GISIMMAR.KUR.RA (liter, "foreign date 

palm")]; MB terinndt g. "cones of g." as drug; 

gurummu, gurunnu (a reed object) jB 
gurunnis — ► qurunnis 
gurunnu — ► garunnu; qurunnu 
gurunnu — > gurummu 
gurusgaras, garasgaras, gurusu-gurulasu etc. 

"vulva" jB lex., comm., of pig; med. as drug; 

< gardsu or Sum.?; — > guristu 
gurussu — » kurustu 

gusanu(m), kusdnu(m), OA k/gursd/enum, 
kursinnum, Nuzi kusannu; MA pi. f. (a leather 
sack) O/MA, O/jB often containing wool; 

< Hitt.? 
gusigu — > husigu 

gusu mng. uncert. jB as destination of boat ? 
gussu mng. unkn. jB (desig. of snake) 
gustappu, kustappu mng. unkn. Am. in pairs, 
part of harness ? 

gustu(m) ~ "whirling dance"? jB with gdsu, of 
Gusea; < gdsu I 

gusu (a god's garment) jB lex. 

gusu — > also guhsu 

gusum (a sheep-offering) OB(Elam) 

gusubbu — > kisubbu 

gusuru(m), NA gasuru "tree-trunk, beam" 
[GlS.UR; OB also GIS.UR.RA, GIS.SU.UR] "tree- 
trunk, felled log" of cedar etc.; "beams" often 
for roof; NA transf. g. mes sa libbi "beams of 
heart"; < Sum. 

gutaku (a high official) MB of PIN (or error for 
guennakku ?) 

gutappu(m) (part of donkey harness) O/jB 
[GU.TAB- ]; < Sum. 

gutarru "back" jB lex.; < Sum. 

gutezzu Dt ~ "to take refuge"? jB lex.; — ► guzu 

gutu — » qutu 

guzalitu — » guzalutu 

guzallu "ruffian, scoundrel" M/jB lex., also as 

PN; < Sum. 
guzalu(m), kuzzalum; OB pi. f. "chair-carrier, 

throne-bearer" O/jB [GU.ZA.LA] OB (an 

official); later as epith. of deities and demons; 

guzdlum — > kuzallu 
guzalutu, guzalilitu "female throne-bearer" jB 

[(MUNUS.)GU.ZA.LA] of humans, goddesses; 

< guzalu 
guzazu (a kind of lettuce)? jB lex. 
guzguzu (a garment) NB 
guzi "stable-lad" Am. as self-debasing desig.; 

guzilitu — ► guzalutu 
guzippu —» kusippum; kuzippu 
guzlru mng. unkn. NA 
guziu "drinking cup" jB lex.; < Sum. 
guzu (a medicinal plant) MB 
guzu "refuge" NB in PNs; < OPers.?: -+ gutezzu 
guzullu — ► kuzullu 


hababu(m) "to murmur, chirp, twitter" Bab. 
G (ulu) of water; flies "buzz"; birds; lovers; 
lightning "hiss" D of snake "hiss at" s.o. 
(= ace); of lover ~ "croon at"; absol., of flies 
S "make" water "gurgle", cow "low"; > hubbu; 
habibu, hdbibum; hibabitu; habubitu; habbubu 1 

habad? (part of a chariot) M/jB; < Kass.? 

habdldtu — ► habdlu I 

habalginnu, habalkinnu (a kind of iron) MA, 
Am., jB; < proto-Hattic ? 

habalum "strap" Mari; <W.Sem.; -» eblu; 

habalu I; pi. often f. "act of violence, wrong- 
doing" M/jB, NA; NA pi. f. also "wrongs, 
injustices"; < habdlu II infin. 

habalu(m) II "to do wrong, violence to" s.o. 
G {Hi, OB mostly alu) "do wrong to, oppress" 
the weak, the poor; "take from s.o. (= 2 
ace.) by force, wrongly" D ~ G "do wrong to" 
s.o.; hibiltam h. "do an injustice" (to s.o.) 
Dt NB "be wrongly taken" N "be treated 
unjustly"; of fields "be ruined"; >hablu, 
habiltu; hibiltu; habdlu I; hdbilu I; muhabbiltu 

habalu(m) III "to be in debt; borrow" Ass., 
O/MB G {alu) OA "borrow" (silver etc.) from 
(=arca/dat.) s.o.; NA "owe" "to" s.o. 
D "lend"; stat. "is in debt" to (= dat./ana) s.o. 
Dt "be indebted" to s.o. for (= ace.) N O A 
"be in debt" to s.o. for (= ace.); < hubullu 
denom.; > hubbulu, hubbultu 

habalu(m) IV "to bind, harness" O/jB G {a/a) 
waggons; > hdbilu II ? ; nahbalu, nahbaltu; — ► 

habalum — ► also habanum 

habannanu "water-tub"? jB 

habannatu(m), NA habnutu (a container) O/jB, 

Mari, NA of silver, bronze; Am., Bogh. of 

stone, for oil; jB, NA of clay; < Eg. 
habanum (or habalum) (a wooden object) 

OAkk(Ur III); "-> habalum 
habaquku — » habbaququ 
habarahhu (a box) NA containing vegetables; 

— » abarahhum 
habaranu, habrdnu (a plant) jB, oil of h. 
habarattu(m) "noise, clamour" OB "clamour" of 

mankind; jB "noise, rattling" in chest?; 

< habdru I 
habaru(m) I "to make noise, clamour" O/jB, N A 

G {ulu) "be noisy; be busy" of people; stat. 

habur "is noisy"; jB of house "creak" D lex. 

only Dt jB "(merrily) create a noise"? S jB 

"cause to make (joyful) clamour"; "instigate 

disruption"; > habrum; habbiru; habarattu; II; habburtu 1 - 
habaru(m) II "to be thick, solid" O/jB G (f. stat. 

also abrat) of part of body; stat. of sky, earth; 

transf. of command "is weighty, authoritative" 

D "make" (silver X cubits) "thick"; stat. of 

parts of body; > habbartu*; — » kabdru D 
habdru — ► also hamdru D 
habarzinanum (a bird) OB 
habasillatu ~ "reed shoot" jB lex. 1. (part of 

reed) 2. " r udu/, (desig. of a drum); — ► basillatu 
habasiranu (a constellation) jB [mul.EN.TE.NA. 

BAR.LUM/SIG4]; < habasiru 
habasirtu — » humsirtu 
habasiru — ► humsiru 
habasu(m) I ~ "to be distended" O/jB G {ulu) 

stat. "is distended" through drinking; "be 

habasu(m) II 



enlarged" with prosperity Gtn iter, of G, of 
body D lex. only Dt "be dilated (with joy)" 
S "make rejoice"; "make pleasing" to s.o.; 

> habsu, babsutu; hibsu; hubdsu; humbisiitu; 
hubbusu; hitbdsu; tahbasu 1 - 

habasu(m) II "to smite down"? O/jB G {ulu) of 
god; "pulverize" with (upper) grindstone; 

> hdbisu; nahbasu*; tahbdsu* 
habastum (an object) OA 
habasu — » habsu I 

habasu(m) I "to become hard, swollen" O/jB 
G {ulu) stat. of part of body, liver D stat. "is 
swollen" of head; > habsu II ? ; hibsu; hubbusu; 
habsdnu; hubsasif- 

habasu(m) II "to crush, comminute" Bab. 
G {alu) straw, pot, malt etc. D, Dt jB lex. only 
N transf. of breast "be shattered"; > habsu I; 
hibistu; hubsu I ? ; habbdsu; nahbasu, 

habatu(m) I "to rob, plunder" OAkk, Bab., 
M/NA G {alu, OB pret. occas. ihbit) [NB SAR] 
"rob (on road, in countryside)" (ace. = thing, 
person taken); "rustle, steal" cattle etc.; hubta h. 
"carry out a robbery" but also "take (as) 
plunder"; "raid, plunder" a land etc., caravan; 
OB math, "dig" clay for bricks; OB also 
"thresh" Gtn iter, of G Dt ~ N "be taken as 
plunder" S MB mng. unci. N pass, of G, of 
people "be carried off, plundered"; of a robbery 
"be perpetrated"; > habtu, hdbitu; hibtu; hubtu; 
habbdtu I; nahbutu II 

habatu(m) II "to loan (interest-free)" OAkk, 
O/jB G {alu) OB grain, bricks D OAkk stat., 
of recipient "is loaned, owes"; < hubuttu 

habatu(m) III ~ "to wander, roam through" O/jB 
G {alu) with ana; with ace. "roam through" 
mountain, darkness, trouble S "make s.o. 
wander through" N ~ G with ana; absol. 
"wander"; > habbdtu II; nahbutum I 

habatu IV, qabdtu MB(Ass.) G {alu) "to clear 
away" building Gt {Hi) - "decay", of building 

habatu — » also abdtu I; hapdtu 

habazum in sa h. (an agricultural worker) OB 
lex.; < Sum. 

habazz(at)u (a vessel) NB; < Aram.? 

habbaququ, hamba/uququ, NA habaquku (a 
garden herb) j/NB, NA 

habbartu (a kind of garment) jB lex.; liter, 
"thick (garment)"?; < habdru U 1 

habbasu "crusher, chopper" NB (a worker); as 
PN (also Hambdsu); < habasu II 

habbatu(m) I "plunderer, bandit" Bab. 

[lO.SA.GAZ (-► h. II)]; astr. also desig. of 

planet Mars; < habatu I 
habbatu(m) II "migrant worker" O/jB, NA 

[Lrj.SA.GAZ (-► h. I)]; < habatu III 
habbilu — » hdbilu I 

habbiru (part of a loom) jB lex.; < habdru I 
habbistu — * kdpisum 
habbitu — » hdmitu 
habbubu ~ "lover"? jB; < habdbu ? 
habbulu — » hubbulu 
habburru — * habburu 
ha(b)burtu ~ "roaring"? NA (epith. of Istar); 

< habdru I ? 

habburu (a kind of wine) NA in kardn h. 
habburu(m), habburru, OB lex. hebburum 

"sprout, shoot" Bab. [yENBUR] used in beer, 

growing out of wall; of various plants, reed; 

transf. of person "scion", as PN; < Sum.? 
habhayu "from gablju" MA, desig. of sheep 
hablbu(m) "happy hubbub" O/jB of people, 

lands; < habdbu 
habibu(m) "murmurer" OB, as PN; NB f. (a 

clay vessel); < habdbu 
habigalzu (a medicinal plant) jB; < Kass. 
habiltu — ► hablu; hibiltu 
habilu(m) I, jB habbilu "criminal, wrongdoer" 

O/jB; OB sab h. "criminal band"; desig. of 

demons; < habdlu II 
habilu II ~ "trapper" jB; desig. of hunter, h. 

amelu; < habdlu IV ? 
habinnis ~ "secretly"? jB 
hdbiru — » hdpiru; hdwirum 
habisu "pulverizing" jB, of grindstone; 

< habasu II 
habitu — » haM I 

habitu "plunderer" NB; < habatu I 

habitu m "(female) drawer of water" Mari in h. 
me; < habu III 

hablu(m) adj. and subst. "wronged (person)" [f. 
habiltum MUNUS.SAGA.RA], esp. hablu(m) u 
habiltu(m); utuk/ddm h. "ghost/blood of 
wronged person"; NA denu sa hablute 
"judgement for the wronged"; h. sutesurufm) 
"to restore rights to the wronged"; < habdlu U 

habnutu — * habannatu 

habrdnu —* habaranu 

habrdtu —* babrum 

habrum "clamorous, busy" OB of people; 

< habdru I 
habsukku —* kilsukku 

habsurukku (kind of offering meat) NB 




habsirtu — » humsirtu 

habsiru — » humsiru 

habsu "plentiful" M/jB of gifts; "fertile" of 

fields; < habdsu I; > habsutu 
habsutu "luxuriance" O/jB lex.; < /lafosu 
habsallurhu, hapsallurhu, hapsilurgu, 

hup(pa)silurg/hu (an oil plant) jB lex., med; 

< Elam. 

habsanu (a desig. of wool) jB lex., in f. pi.; 

< habdsu I 

habsarru (or hablpserru) mng. unkn. jB lex. 
habsitri (or hapsitri) (a vessel)? Mari, for ice 
habsu I, NA habasu "chopped, crushed" M/jB, 
NA esp. of straw; as subst. "chopped (straw)"; 

< habdsu II 

habsu(m) II (or hapsu(m)) (a vessel) 

MB(Alal.), jB lex.; OB also as emblem tyabis; 

< habdsu I ? 
habtu(m) "robbed" O/jB of man; "taken as 

plunder"; "having suffered robbery"; < habdtu I 
ha bum — » ha'u 
habu I; f. habitu(m) "soft" j/NB of garment; 

(desig. of pottery vessel); NB in hab(i) uhini/u 

"over-ripe dates"; < habu U 
habu II "to be soft" O/jB, of season "be mild"; 

jB of gall; > habu I 
habu(m) III "to draw (water)" O/jB, NA 

G (ulu) obj. usu. me; jB wine; > frebu; 

habit um; nahbu 
habu IV "to give refuge" NA G or D; > hibutu; 

habu; nahbdtu; tahbdtu 
habum (or hdpum) (a kind of gazelle)? 

OAkk(Ur III); also as PN 
habu — » also hapu 
habu, hapu (a storage jar) M/NB, NA of 

brewer; < habu IV 
habu "to love" jB lex.; > hlbum 
habu — » also hidpum 
habubitu "bee" NB pi. habubeti, liter, "buzzer"; 

< habdbu 

habulillu (a stone) Nuzi; -* hublillu ? 

habullu — » hubullu 

habunu "fold, flounce" of garment jB, NA esp. 

transf. as protection 
haburathu (a tree) jB lex. 
habutum — » Ijaputum 
hadadu I "to rustle, roar" jB G (ulu) of storm, 

flood; of camp, gecko 
hadadu II "to incise deeply" Bab. G stat., of 

weight "is incised" D ~ G stat., of gully in 

mountain "is cut in"; of part of body "is 

fissured"; > huddudu 
hadadu — » also kadddu 

hadalu I ~ "to tie up, knot" M/jB G (a/u) 

"attach" oxen ?; of spider "tie up" fly Gt stat. 

"are tied together" St "knot (i.e. plot) together" 

iniquity; > hddilu; mahdalu 
hadalu(m) II - "to retreat, go back"? O/jB G (;'/;') 

math, of projection on bank D "hold back"? 

water S caus. lex. only 
hadanu (a wooden appliance) jB lex. 
haddnum — » also addnum 
hadaqu "to press together" jB G coram., stat. of 

part of body; < Aram. 
haddru — » addru I; hatdru 
hadassatu "bride" jB lex.; < haddsu 
hadassu "bridegroom" jB lex.; < haddsu 
hadassutu "marriage (ceremony)" M/jB; 

< haddsu 

hadasu D, Dtn "to rejoice (repeatedly)" jB lex.; 

> hadassu, hadassatu, hadassutu; hudussum; 

— » kaddsu 
haddanu, hadidnu "(malevolent) rejoicer, 

gloater" NA pi. hadddnu, hdd(i)dnute; 

< hadA III 
haddilu — » hddilu 

haddu "very joyful" NA; < hadu III 

hadidnu — » hadddnu 

hadilu, haddilu "knotter" jB desig. of spider; h. 

appi desig. of fisherman; < hadalu I 
hadis "happily, joyfully" Bab., NA; < hadu I 
hadi-u'a-amelu "joy-woe-man" jB i.e. of fickle 

hadqum (topog. desig., phps.) "steppe" OB 
hadu I "joyful" j/NB of news; of face, person; 

< hadu III 

hadu(m) II "joy" Bab., esp. bussuratlawdtl 
temam (sa) hadem ref. to good news; NB ina 

' h. libbisu "voluntarily"; < hadu III infin. 

hadu(m) III "to be joyful, rejoice" G {ulu, jB 
also ;'/;') [HUL] about = ana/dat; of person; of 
heart, face etc.; "be willing, wish", "be content 
with" an action Gtn iter, of G D "make happy" 
person, heart etc. Dt(n) lex. only S jB "make 
s.o. rejoice" N NB "reach an agreement 
together'?; > hadu I.II, hadis, hadutu; hadi- 
u'a-amelu; hadu, haddu, hadddnu; hidAtu, 
hididtum; hudu; muhaddum; tahditu 

hadu IV "to cut off' NB D transf. "cut off' 
crossing-place (neberu); < Aram. 

hadu; f. hdditu "(malevolent) rejoicing, gloating" 
jB, NA, e~:g. hadu! a "those who gloat over me"; 

< hadu III 

hddu — » hiddu; hidtu 

hadutu, NA also hudAtu "joy, rejoicing" M/NB, 




haerushu (a wild beast) NA 

hahhalum; pi. f. mng. unkn. OA; < Hitt.? 

hahharum — » harharru 

hahhasum "hot, burning (with fever)" O/jB of 

part of body 
hahhitu(m) "(garment of) yahhum" OA, Bogh.; 

< IJahhum (in Anatolia) 

hahhu I "phlegm, mucus" M/jB of human; 

" Bogh. of bull ?; > hahu U ? 

hahhu(m) II (a fruit (tree), phps.) "plum" or 

"peach" O/jB, NA 
hahhu III mng. unci. jB after iron (parzillu); 

< Aram.? 

hahhuratta "like a raven" jB, i.e. stiff-legged, of 

gait ?; < hahhuru 
hahhuru(m); f. hahhurtu "raven" Bab. also as 

PN; OB transf. "spy"; > hahhuratta 
hahinnu, /ia/»"n«, NA hihinnu (a thorny plant) 

jB, NA lex., med.; NA also as descr. of god's 

hahu I, huhu(m) "slag, clinker" O/jB, of potter; 

from oven 
hahu II, ahu, a'u "to spew, spit out" M/jB 

G (pres. ihahhu, i-'a-ha, i-a-u) blood, bile etc. 

Gtn iter.; < hahhu I denom.?; > huhhitu 
hd'idu — » hd'itu 
haigallathe — » ayyigalluhu 
hd'iru — » hdwiru 

ha'irutu "status of consort" jB; < hdwiru 
ha'itanu "the one who weighed out" (silver) 

NB; < hidtu 
ha'itu(m), hayyitu, hd'idu "watcher" O/jB 

1. "night-watchman" [(LU.)GE6.(A.)LAy5], also 

epith. of gods, demons; h. sa musldli "w. of 

siesta-time" 2. jB (an official who weighs out); 

< hidtu 

ha'itutu "function of night-watchman" jB [GEg. 

LAH5- ]; < hd'itu 
hakammum "expert" Mari, of doctor; < W.Sem. 
hakamu(m) "to understand, apprehend" O/jB, 

NA G (//;') of person D ~ G S NA "let s.o. 

know, inform" St NA "be informed, 

acquainted" N pass, "be understood"; of star 

"be recognized"; — » hakammum 
hakaru(m) ~ "to comminute" O/jB G (///) 
hake adv. ~ "crooked, askew"? jB comm., ref. to 

hakum ~ "to take thought"? Mari; < W.Sem. 
hakurratu (a cut of meat) Bogh. in Hitt. rit. 
halabu "to milk" NA G milk, breast; < Sem. 
halahlu — » halhallu I 
halahwu — » hawalhu 

halalum I "to confine, shut away" OA, OB 
G (a/u) person; silver Gtn infin. "continued 
confinement" D OA stat. "is confined" Stn OA 
"have s.o. continuously confined"; > hillu 1 

halalu II ~ "to pipe; murmur" j/NB, NA G {ulu) 
of flute, birds, human lungs; of spring water 
D "make emit sound, sound" bell Dtn iter, of 
D; > halilu I ? 

halalu(m) III "to creep, slink" O/jB, NA G (a/u) 
of person, animal; transf. of death Gtn "crawl 
through, continually" N (nahallulu) ~ G lex. 
only Ntn "creep round, continually"; 

> hdlilum II; hillatu; muttahallilu; — » halluldya 
halalum — » also aldlu II 

haldnu — » huldlu 

halapu(m) I "to slip into, through" Bab., NA 
G (ulu) "slip into, through" (= ace./ 
inal-is); stat. "is 'slipped into'", i.e. "clad in" 
garment, transf. radiance, battle etc. Gtn "creep, 
slip repeatedly into" Gt stat. "is clad in, mantled 
with" radiance etc.; "are tangled" of trees, 
intestines D "clothe s.o. with" (= 2 ace.) [GIR6] 
garments; leprosy; "overlay" with metal S lex. 
only N "clothe o.s. with" (= ace.) armour etc.; 

> hdliptu 1 ; huldpu, huluptu; hallupu, halluptu; 
hitldpu, hitlupdtu; nahlaptu; tahlappdnu; 
tahluptu, tahlipu 

halapu II "to accuse"? OB G not attested 
S "indict" s.o.; > halpu I, haliptum, halputum; 

halaqis "into flight" OB; < haldqu 

halaqu(m), NB helequ "to be lost; be(come) 
fugitive" G (//;') [ZAH; ZAy] 1. "disappear, get 
lost" of goods, animals; of road "be lost" by 
s.o. (=acc); math, "be unknown" of number 
2. "be destroyed" of ship, walls, goods; 
animals, people 3. stat. of part of body "is 
absent" 4. "escape, flee" of slaves etc. Gtn jB 
of s.o.'s mouth (i.e. words) "repeatedly get 
lost" D fact, of G [ZAH] "lose"; OA "owe a 
loss"; "allow" slave "to escape"; "banish, 
abolish" irrigation buckets; "destroy" enemy, 
land etc.; "ruin" s.o. Dtn iter, of D Dt pass, of 
D S "help, allow s.o. to escape" St pass, of S; 
of property "become lost" SD jB "destroy" 
N NA, NB "escape" of workers etc. Ntn NA 
"continually disappear, be lost", of commodity; 

> halqu, haliqtu, halqutum, helgenP; hulqu; 
huldqu; huluqqd'um; halaqis, hulluqis; 
sahluqtu; mustahalqu 

halasu(m) "to comb out, filter" O/jB G (a/u) 
wool, goat hair; "strain, filter" sesame (oil); 




stat. "seeps out"? of bile Gtn lex. only Gt OB; 

> halsu I; hilsu I; hdlistu; huldsum 
haldsu -* also hardsu N; kaldsu Gtn 
halasu(m) "to scrape off, grub up" O/jB G (alu) 

fungus, wall-plaster, door-jamb D ~ G ?; 

> hilsu, hilistu; mahlasu 
halatum mng. unkn. OA = aldtu ? 
hald'um -* halu I; helu II 
Halbatum (a month) OB(EIam) 
halbum "forest" O/jB 

halbukkatu (or halpukkatu) (a plant) jB lex. 
haldimmanu (or haltimmdnu) "master"? jB lex. 
halhallatu(m) "(a kind of) drum" Bab. [MEN; 

MEN4] of copper; accompanying song; thunder 

like h. 
halhallu(m) I, NA, NB halahlu adj. and subst. 

(a comestible) M/NA, NB; in basket; NB 

desig. of flour 
halhallu(m) II (a basket) OAkk, jB 
haliltu mng. unkn. jB in h. sa ndri "h. of river" 
halilu(m) I (or halilu(m)) mng. unci. Bab. in 

desig. of canal, of beer; OB as PN; < haldlu II ? 
halilum II ~ "spy" Mari; < haldlu III 
halilu III, hallilu (an iron tool) NB for digging; 

< Aram.? 

Iialiptum "accusation" OA, also awdtum h. 

"accusing word(s)"; < halpu I 
haliptu (an object) NA, NB; < haldpu I ? 
halipu "prosecutor" Bogh. in Hitt. laws; 

< haldpu II 

haliqtu(m) "lost" O/jB 1. "lost (item), lost" 
2. "loss, item/amount lost" 3. (desig. of part of 
liver); < halqu 

halistu, hdlistu "(female) wool-comber" jB lex.; 

< haldsu 

halisu; pi. halisidnu "flayed (animal) skin" j/NB 

halisiknum (a fabric) OB, for bed 

hdlistu —* hdlistu 

halla "(dung) pellet" NB of bird; h. issur(i) (a 

plant name); < Aram. 
halla -* also hallu IV 
hallalanis, halldlatti "like a centipede"? O/jB; 

< halluldya 

hallalitu; pi. halldlidtu (an object, phps.) "link 

(of a chain)" MA 
hallalu' a — » halluldya 
hallainastu (a kind of legume) jB lex. 
hallamislsu — » hulamisu 
hallam(u?) (desig. of meat) NA 
ha I lam —* halluru 
hallatu I "garden yield tax" NB esp. kiri h. 

(privately owned orchard); < Aram.? 

hallatu II (a kind of basket) NB for dates, silver; 

on ship; < Aram. 
hallatu — » also hallu I 
hallatussu(m) "apprentice" O/jB [HAL.LA. 

TUS.A]; < Sum. 
hallilu — » halilu III 
hallimu; pi. hallimdnu "raft" NB 
hallu(m) I, lex also hallatu 1 "(upper) thigh" 

O/jB, NA [HAL] in du.; of men, women; subdt 

h. "loincloth"; h. petit "to open thighs", i.e. sit 

astride horse, ride; of animals; NA uzu halldnu 

(a cut of meat); Mari on chariot, mng. unci.; 

</> Sum.; > hallutdnu; pethallu 
hallu II (a clay vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 
hallu(m) III "(the cuneiform sign) HAL" O/jB 

[HAL] as mark on liver etc. 
hallu IV, halla "vinegar" NA, NB; < Aram. 
halluhum mng. unkn. OA D action towards girl 
hallulaya, hallalu a etc. "centipede"? jB med., 

lex.; also as name of demon; > hallalanis; — » 

haldlu III 
halluptu "armour" NA of soldiers, horses; sa 

halluptisunu "armour suppliers"; < hallupu 
hallupu "armoured" NA in supdlitu h. 

"armoured tunic 7 "; < haldpu I D 
hallurtu(m) "a (single) pea" O/jB [GU.GAL] in 

similes; < halluru 
halluru(m), hulluru, hilluru, halldru "peas" 

OAkk, Bab. [GU.GAL; pi. OAkk GU.GU.GAL 

(.GAL)] phps. "chick-pea"; NB = '/'0 shekel 

weight; > hallurtu 
Hallut (a month) OAkk 
hallutanu (black patch on donkey's leg) jB lex., 

med.; < hallu I 
halmahhu (big Aa//«-container) jB lex.; < Sum. 
halmatru, Nuzi halwat(ar)ru (a kind of wood) 

Nuzi, NB used for chariot parts 
halpatanu mng. unkn. Bogh. med.; < halpu ? 
*halpatu, NA gen. halpete mng. unkn. NA, of 

halpium, halpu (a kind of cistern) O/jB lex.; 

halpu(m) I "accused, prosecuted" OA, OB; OB 

also "concealed, furtive"?; < haldpu II; 

> haliptum, halputum 
halpu II "substitute (person)" NB; < Aram. 
halpu(m) "frost, ice" Bab.; < Sum.; > halpatanu 1 - 
halpu -* also halpium 
halpukkatu — » halbukkatu 
halputum "state of being accused" OA; 

< halpu I 
halqu(m) "lost; fugitive" Bab., M/NA [ZAH; 

zAh; Mari also BA.tfA] "lost" property; math. 

halqu turn 


hamatu(m) II 

"unknown" value; "fled, fugitive", esp. as 

subst.; j/NB zer halqdti "nomads"; of field 

"ruined"; < haldqu; > haliqtu; halqutum; 

halqutum "loss" OB of grain; < halqu 
halsu(m) I, MB occas. harsu "combed, filtered" 

Bab., M/NA [bAra(.GA/GA); occas. BARA.AG, 

bAra.GE] of sesame, sesame oil "filtered"; of 

perfumes (riqqu), flax; < haldsu 
halsu(m) II m., j/NB also f. "fortress; district" 

Bab., M/NA "fort, fortification"; esp. Mari, 

Bogh., M/NA (wr. hal-zu/zi) "district, 

province"; rah h. "fortress commander"; [NA 

(URU.)HAL.SU = log. for birtull]; > halsutu; 

halsum -* also harsu 
halsutu "fortified state" NA; < halsu II 
haltappanu (a plant) M/jB, NA lex., med. 
haltappdtu — » katappdtu 
haltappii -* hultuppu 
haltib, hatih (a magical formula) jB 
haltikku, haltikkutu (a vessel) Bogh., jB lex. 
haltimmdnu — » haldimmanu 
haltu — » hastu I.II 

halu(m) I, OAkk hald'um (a woollen garment) 
" OAkk, O/MB 

halum II "to be(come) ill" Mari G stat., of lion; 
" < W.Sem. 
halu — » also halu II 
halu(m) I "maternal uncle" also ref. to 

(protective) deity, esp. in PNs 
halu(m) II, halu "(black) mole" on skin O/jB 
halu III in kardn h. "vinegar"? NA 
halu, OA hudlum "to melt (away)" OA, jB 

G usu. with zdbu, intrans. of figurines, enemies 

D "dissolve" jB med. 
halu -* also Malum 
halulu (a fruit) Nuzi 
haluppu(m), huluppu(m), NA also hiluppu* (a 

tree) OAkk, O/jB, NA [GIS.HA.LU.UB; occas. 

tJU.LU.UB]; wood for vessel, furniture; mag., 

med., seed, twig, bark etc. of h. 
haluqqd'u, haluqqu — » huluqqd'um 
halwat(ar)ru — » halmatru 
halwu, ha(l)wumma "boundary wall" Nuzi, esp. 

ha(l)wumma epesu "to build boundary wall 

round" field etc.; < Hurr. 
halziqqu (a container) jB, in reed or leather, 

halzu -* halsu II 
halzuhlu, MA hassihlu; Am. pi. halzuhluti 

"district governor" MA, MB(AIal.), Am., 

Nuzi, of PIN; < halsu II + Hurr. -uhlu 

hamadlru(m), hamaddrum "parched" OAkk, 
O/jB of grain; "withered" of tree; OAkk as PN 

hamadirutu in h. suluku "to make withered" 
M/jB; < hamadiru 

hamadu(m) "to hide away, hoard" OB, NB 
G {Hi) grain, stones N OA "excuse o.s."; 

> hamdum; himittum I 

hamalu "to plan, plot" MB G (///) wickedness; 

> himiltu 

hamamu(m) "to gather, collect" Bab. G {alu) 
grain, reeds; transf., "concentrate (in oneself)" 
ritual offices {parse), wisdom etc., battles D ~ 
G Dt "be assembled" of building stones; 

> hdmimu; himmatu, himmum'-; humdmdtu 
Hamannu (a month) Nuzi; also Alal., a copper 


hamarhu mng. unkn. Nuzi, grain ana h:, < Hurr. 

hamaru(m) "to become dry" O/jB G (stat. 
hamar) of field, eyes, vessel "dry out" 
(intrans.) D fact, "dry out" eyes; lex. infin. also 
hubburu, of penis Dt "be dried out"; 

> hamru II; humiru; hummuru'-; hammurtu'- 
hamasiru — » humsiru 

hamasu(m) "to tear off, away" Bab., O/MA G 
{alu) "tear" clothing "off s.o. (= 2 ace); Mari 
"plunder" (after infin. abs. hamusam); OB stat. 
of glance, mng. unci. D ~ G, clothing, metal 
sheeting; "strip" palm tree, "flay" hide; 
"plunder, ransack" land, temple, house, emblem 
S NB "(allow to) despoil" person; > hamsum; 
himsu I; hammusu, hummusum; nahmasu; — » 

hamasiu "fifth" MA; < hamis 

hamasu(m) I "to snap off O/jB G (///) reed, 
tooth, finger D ~ G ?; > hamsu II, himsu; 
himistu; hdmisum; hummusu II 

hamasu II "to be fifth; do as fifth action" O/jB 
G {ulu); also "become one-fifth" in size 
D "quintuple"; < hamis denom. 

hamasu -* also kamdsu II 

hamdti — » hammu II 

hamatu pi. tant. "help, assistance" M/NB ana h.- 
aldku "to go to aid" of s.o.; < W.Sem. 

hamatum I "haste, urgency" OB esp. Mari tern 
h. "pressing matter"; < hamatu II infin. 

hamatu(m) II "to hasten, be quick" Bab. G {ulu) 
[astr. TAB] "go/come in haste"; in hendiad. "(do hastily"; "be hasty" while doing; "be 
(too) early", also astr. of heavenly bodies Gtn 
Mari "be constantly in haste" Gt MB stat. "is 
very hasty" D Am. "hurry" troops etc. "up" 
S "send" "quickly"; "bring" offering 
etc. "in good time, early"; "hasten, bring 

hamatu(m) in 


hamsu(m) I 

forward time of St pass, of S "be brought 
early, in good time"; > hamtu, hamtis, hamtutu, 
hamuttu, hamutta; hamdtum I; humtum I; 
hitmutis; hummutu I, hummutis 

hamatu(m) III "to burn (up)" O/jB, MA 
G (a/u) [TAB] of fire, Gira, hot weather, transf. 
of anger "burn" heart; of fever "burn" parts of 
body; "etch" leather, "cauterize" like saltpetre 
Gt transf. of pain "burn right up" wicked 
D "burn up, make burn" enemy; of fever "burn 
up" sick person; of fire "burn up" frost; of gods 
"bum up" land; "fire" pottery; stat. "is roasted", 
of bird, fish Dt pass, "be burnt up" by demons 
S "» D "burn up" land, enemy Stn jB ptcp. 
mustahmitu "ever-ignited"? N of heart "be 
burned, seared"; > himtu, himittu II; humtu II; 
hummutu II; handutu^ 

hama'u "to see" jB lex. G; < Aram. 

hambanu "of Hamban" NB of leather items; 

< PIN Hamban 
hambaququ — ► habbaququ 
hambasusu (a garden herb) NB 
hambdsu — > habbdsu 
hambequ pi. (a child's game) MB 
hambuququ — » habbaququ 
hamdagar (a high official) OB(Susa) 
hamdum "hoarded, hidden away" OA transf. of 

words, matters; < hamddu 

hamdum (a kind of headdress) Mari 

hamiltu — ► hamis; hamistu 

hamiluhhu — » hawalhu 

hamimu (an aromatic plant) "Amomum" MA, jB 

hamimu(m) "(grain) gatherer" O/jB phps. 
"gleaner"; < hamdmu 

hdmiru — » hdwiru 

hamissdti — ► hamis 

hamis st. abs.; f. hamlnsalet, OA also hassat; 
nom. f. hamistu(m), hami/ultu "five"; OB 
hamis ubdndtim "five fingers", hamissdti "five 
siitu", hamset qani "five reeds"; hamistumi 
"five days"; NB hamis qdtdtu "five-sixths"; 
> hamdsu II; hamistu, hamustu; hamsu I, 
hamsis, hamsutu, hamdsiu, hamsisu; humsu; 
hamisseret; hummusu I, humusu, humusd, 
humusum; hamsd 

hamis — » also ahdmis 

hamisseret "fifteen" jB lex.; < hamis + -seret 

hamistu(m), hamiltu, OA also hamustum 
"group of five" OA, O/jB [NAM.5] OA (a body 
of five officials); OB wakil h. "overseer of a 
group of five (merchants)"; MB rab h.; 

< hamis 

hamisum "(stalk-)snapper"? OB agricultural 

worker; < hamdsu I 
hamittu — ► hamutta 
hamitu, NA habbitu "hummer; sand-wasp" jB, 

NA; < hawu 
hammdmu — » hammd'u 
hammardkdra — » ammarkarra 
hammaru (a tree)? jB/NA lex. in h. tidi 
hammatu — ► hammu I 
hamma'u(m), hammu(m), hammdmu "rebel; 

usurper" Bab. [IM.GI] 1. sar h. "usurper" 2. of 

king, "rebel" 
hammis — ► ahdmis 
hammu(m) I; f. hammatu "family head" Bab., 

NA epith. of deities, usu. in PNs; > hammutu 
hammu II, OB ammum, amum O/jB, NA 

l."pond, puddle"?, Nuzi, NA pi. hamdti 2.jB 

med. (algae on water)? 3. jB lex. (an aquatic 

animal, phps.) "jellyfish" 
hammu — » also ammu I 
hammu (a garment) jB 
hammu — ► also hammd'u 
hammurtu (a kind of beer) NA; < hummuru ? 
hammuru — » hummuru 
hammusu (desig. of low grade of copper) Nuzi; 

< hamdsu D Ass. form 

hammutu, NA ha'utu "function of family head" 
j/NB, NA esp. bit h. "family head's room" [NB 
E.UR4.UR4]; < hammu I 

hampatalli (an object) MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

hamqum "valley" Mari; < W.Sem. 

hamru(m) I "holy place (of Adad, Assur)" 
occas. d #.; M/NB tdmirti h. (a type of irrigated 
field); bit h.\ also in PNs 

hamru II "dry, dried out"? O/jB; < hamdru 

hamrushum (a metal vessel) Mari; < Hurr. 

hamsu ~ "maltreated" MA; f. pi. "mistreat- 
ments"; — » hummusum 

hamsum "bald( -headed)" OB lex.; also as PN; 

< hamdsu 

hamsa, hansd, hassd "fifty" st. abs.; before suff. 
hamsdtsunu/sina etc.; NB (bit) 50-e "plot of 
land held by (group of) fifty"; NA, NB rab 50 
"captain of fifty"; jB 50-a-a "fifty each"; 

< hamis 
hamsat — » hamis 
hamsdtu — » hamsd; hamsu I 
hamset — ► hamil 

hamsis, hassis "fifthly" jB; < hamsu I 

hamsisu "five times" OA, O/MB; OA adi h.\ 

OB [A.RA 5-su]; < hamis 
hamsu(m) I, hansu, hassu, NB hanzu; f. 

hamus/ltu(m) "fifth"; f. "one-fifth" [IGI.5.GAL]; 




pi. "fifth part(s)" [ZAG.5]; NB hansu zittu "fifth 

part"; NB hamul " [ /5mina"; m. "fifth" string of 

lyre; < hamis 
hamsu II, hansu "snapped off' jB of stalks etc.; 

of deformed foot; < hamdsu I 
hamsutu, hansutu in 5-te-su "for the fifth time" 

NA; < hamsu I 
hamtis, hantis, hamta "quickly, immediately" 

Bab.; < hamtu 
hamtu, hantu "quick, sudden" M/NB of 

messenger, death, weapon; "fast-acting" of 

drug; "quickly cooked"; jB gramm., of Sum. 

vb. forms (opp. — » maru I); < hamdtu II; 

> hamtis, hamtutu, hamutta, hamuttu 
hamtutu, hantutu in hantussu "hastily, at once" 

jB; < hamtu 
hamtutu — > also handutu 
hamu I "» "to paralyse" jB G (Hi) humans, flesh 

(siru); transf. of army Gt "thoroughly 

paralyse" D ~ G "render" s.o. "paralysed" S of 

disease "make" flesh "paralysed" N "be 

paralysed" of flesh 
hamu II "to trust" j/NB G (///, occas. ulu) esp. 

prec. and stat. "is secure" D "make confident, 

hamu — » also hawu 

hamu(m) "raft" O/jB lex. (var. of amu) 
hamu pi. tant. "chaff, rubbish" O/jB of corn; of 

wood; esp. h. u husdbu "scpurings and 

shavings", i.e. valueless property 
hamuhhum mng. unkn. Mari, in desig. of 

hamuk (a garden herb) NB 
hamul(tu) —* hamsu 
hamuritu "throat" jB lex. 
hamussu — » hamustu 
hamusu — » hamdsu G 
hamustu(m), NA hamussu subst. "a fifth" 

1. OB (desig. of a container) 2. OA (a time 

period, phps.) "one-fifth" of a month, "week"; 

sa PN, as dating mechanism 3. NA "(payment 

for) one-fifth period"; < hamsu I 
hamustum — » also hamistu 
hamutta(m), Am. also hamittu, hamuttis "at 

once, soon" O/MB; < hamtu 
hamuttu(m) "haste" O/jB of chariot sa h. 

"express"; Am., jB ana/ina h. "hastily, 

quickly"; < hamtu 
hamutu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
hanabu(m) "to sprout, flourish" O/jB G (ulu) of 

trees, grain etc.; transf. of divine splendour Gtn 

iter, of G of plants, trees D "make flourish" 

Dt of hair "grow luxuriantly" S "make grow 

luxuriantly"; > hanbu; hdnibu; hundbu, 
hunibum; hannabu; hunnubu; muhtanbu 

hanamum "to thrive, be luxuriant" OAkk, OB 
G (Hi) of sheep; transf. of laughter "flourish" 
Dt "be (made) luxuriant" of clouds, plenty; 
> hanndmu 

hananabum (a sweet fruit)? OB 

hananu mng. unkn. G lex. only D stat. in desig. 
of part of body; > hunnunu'- 

hananu — » also enenu I 

hanapu I "to act basely, impiously"? Am. 
G (pret. u) in hanpa h.; < W.Sem.; > hanpu; 

hanapu II - "to flatter, fawn" NA G (Hi) of fDN 

hanaqu(m) "to press, throttle" Bab., NA G (a/u) 
stat. of part of body "is constricted"; "wind" "round tightly"; "throttle, kill by thrott- 
ling"; NB stat. "is angry" Gtn lex. only 
Gt "suffocate" D ~ G "throttle, suffocate"; stat. 
"is constricted" Dt pass, of D S caus. of G 
N pass, of G; NB "be(come) angry" Ntn iter, 
of N; > hanqu; hinqu; hiniqtu; hanndqu, 
hanniqu; mahnaqu 

hanasu "mourning"? jB comm. 

hanasu "to lift lips, bare teeth" M/jB G (1V1) of 
ox Gt lex. only D ~ G "contort" part of face 
(nose, lip etc.); "scowl"; "grimace"; of animal 
"bare teeth" Dt ~ D of demon "bare teeth"; -» 

hanasu — » kandsu I 

handtu — » hand I 

hanbara "granary" NB; < OPers. 

hanbu(m) "luxuriant" Bab. in PNs; mar d h. 
desig. of Pazuzu; < handbu 

handabillu (a kind of shell) jB lex. 

handabtu (a plant) jB lex. 

handaspiru, handaspuru, Emar hannaspiru (a 
thorny plant) Emar, jB lex. 

handu, hanzlsu "reed pith" jB [GI.SA.Gl] 

handuhu, hin/dduhhu f. (part of a lock)? M/NB 
in metal; transf., astr. h. same 

handuru, hinduru, hi(d)ddru "spur"? Bab., of 
birds; transf. "projection" on wall 

handuttu "vulva" jB lex. 

handutu "roasting"? OB(Alal.) in se'i sa h. 
(= *hamtutu < hamdtu III ?) 

hangaru ~ "dagger"? NA; < Aram. 

haniahhu — » hanu I 

hanibu "luxuriant" jB lex. of fruit tree; < handbu 

hanigalbatu "(Hanigalbataean =) charioteer" jB 
lex.; < PIN 

hanigalbatutu "status of a Hanigalbataean" 




hdniqu -* hanniqu 1 

hanizarrum (a functionary) OB(Shemshara); 

" < Hurr.? 

hannabu "with luxuriant (hair)" MB in PNs; 

< handbu 
hannahuru (a stone) jB lex. 
hannak(a) -* annaka 
hannamu(m) "very luxuriant" O/jB of women; 

clouds ?; < handmu 
hannaqu 1. jB lex. "strangler" 2.jB lex. (a kind 

of clasp) of reed or wood 3. NB adj. "very 

angry"; < handqu 
hannasru mng. unkn. jB lex. 
hannaspiru -* handaspiru 
hannatu mng. unkn. jB 

hannipu "baseness, impiety"? Am.; < hanapu I 
hanniqu l.jB "strangler" (or hdniqul); 2.jB 
" lex. (part of funnel on seed-plough); < handqu 
hannisa — ► annisa 
hanniu — ► annu I 

hanpu "baseness" Am.; < hanapu I 
hanqu "strangled" M/NB 1. Bogh. lex. 

"strangled" 2. NB "tightly attached" of neck 

bands ?; < handqu 
hanqullatu (a kind of oil) jB lex. 
hansu — ► handu 
hansupu (an implement) MA 
hansatu "hips" jB lex.; < Aram. 
hansd — » hamsd 
hansa/et — ► hamis 
hansu -* hamsu I.II; kansu I 
hansutu — ► hamsutu 
hands -* hamtis 
hantu — ► hamtu 
hantutu — ► hamtutu 
hanu(m) I, Alal. haniahhu "from Hana" Bab. 

[HA.NA] of tribe; MB(Alal.) of social class; 

Nuzi (pi. handti ); NB of type of soldier, lex. of 

sheep, wool 
hanu(m) II "to pressurize, browbeat" O/jB G 

" m 

hanunu (a box) Am.; < Eg. 

hanutu "a shop" NB in bit h.; < Aram. 

hanzabu (potter's waste product) jB, NA 

hanzartum -* hasartu 

hanzetu — ► hanzizitu 

hanzibatu -* hazzabatu 

hanzizitu, hanzetu (a flying insect) jB 

hanzu "goat" jB lex.; < W.Sem.; -♦ enzu 

hanzu — ► also hamsu I 

hanzu — ► handu 

hapddu — ► kapddu Dtn 

hapalu (or hapallu); pi. f. (a container) NA 

hapalu — ► also apdlu I G 

hapapu I ~ "to break up, smash" jB G (a/u) 

"pound" paste D ~ G stat. of door "is 

smashed"; transf. of witch "shatter" s.o. 
hapapu II "to wash, clean" NB; < Aram. 
haparu(m) I "to surround, encircle" OB, Bogh. 

G stat. of oil round water D of army "encircle" 

enemy etc.; > haprdtu; nahparum 1 - 
haparum II "to decamp, become vagrant" Mari 

G (pret. ihpur) D "get" troops "underway"?; 

> hdpiru 
hapdru — ► also heperu 
hapatum "to triumph, prevail" OB G (Hi, also 

ulu) esp. in PNs Gtn iter (ulu) OB; > huptu I 
hapd'u — ► hepu II 

haphappu(m) (base of door post) O/jB lex. 
hapiru(m) "(class of) vagrant" OA, O/MB 
" [LU.SA.GAZ; Am., Ug. also SAG.GAZ]; 

< haparum II 
happarru -* apparru 

happu ~ "stinking, foetid" jB, NA of plants; of 

man; < Sum.? 
happu -* huppu I 
hapratu "visible surface" of moon, sun j/NB 

astr. in h. Sin/Samas; NB often abbr. hap; 

< hapdru I, orig. pi. tant. 
haptara(ma)nnu (desig. of horses) Nuzi; 

< Indo-Iran.? 

hapte (desig. of animal's foot) Nuzi "front" or 

"rear" side ?; < Hurr.? 
hapum "to wrap up"? G unattested D Mari, 

hapu — ► also hepu U 
hapu, hdbu (a dark earth) M/jB for dyeing; also 

OAkk im ha-um ? 
hapum -* also hdbum 
hapu -* hdbu 
hapu "to fear" O/jB G stat. (hip) "is afraid" 

D "terrify"; also in DN Hip-raggu "Terrify the 

wicked"; > hupu II 
hapu -* also hidpum 
hapum -* hepu I 
haputum, habutum (an agricultural tool) OAkk, 


haqaru "to investigate"? jB; < Aram.? 

haqu, hudqu mng. unkn. jB lex. G, vb. of 

hdqu -* also hidqum 

harabu "to be(come) deserted" M/NB G (ulu, 
NB ill) [A.RI.A] of land, settlements, palace, 
temple S "devastate, lay waste" land, mountain 

haradum I 



St pass, of S; > harbu I, harbis, harbdnu, 

harbdndti, harbutu; haribum, haribatu; 

huribtu; hitrubu; sahrabbutu; suhrubtu 
harabu -* also hardpu I 
haradum I "desert place"? OA 
haradu(m) II "onager, wild ass" O/jB; 

< W.Sem. 
haradu(m) III ~ "to fit together, fabricate"? O/jB, 

NA G mat, battering ram D mng. unci.; 

> hurdu I 

haradu IV "to be awake, on guard" NA G (Hi) 
also trans, "guard" s.o. D "place on guard, 
alert" N "be (put) on o.'s guard"; >hardu\, 
harduttu; hurddu V 

haragabas (a container) Am. in stone, metal 

haragu f. (container used in glass-making) NA 

hard' is -* heru II 

haraku "to post" troops NB G stat. only D lex. 
only; < Aram. 

harali "door" jB lex.; < 'Subartu' 

harambi (a plant) jB lex. 

haramma, haramme, occas. haremma "later, 
thereafter" M/NA often h.-ma; also inalih-h., 
issu h:, < *ahar + amma; -* ahdru 

haramum I "to cover, envelop" OA, OB G (///) 
with 2 ace.; parts of liver, tablet, with clay 
envelope; OA also "write on envelope" D OB 
"cover up, conceal"; OA ~ G "write on 
envelopes" N "be enveloped" OA; > harmum I; 
hermum; harrumum; nahramum; jB etc. —► 

haramu II "to separate, cut off jB lex. G and D; 

> harmu II, harimtu, harimtutu 
hardnu -* hard I 

haraptum "autumn" Mari; < hardpu I 

harapu(m) I, NA harabu "to be early" Bab., NA 
G (ulu) [NIM] of meteor, phenomena; of hair, 
of lactation ? (sa tule); esp. in hendiad. "(do early" D ~ G NA "(do early" 
S "make" s.o./ "do" "early", e.g. palm 
tree ripen; > harpu, harpis, harputu; harpu; 
haraptum; hdripdnu; haripum II; hurpu; 
hurdpu; hurrupu; musahripu 

harapu II "to cut away" jB G (/'//) door, with 
weapon; > haripu I, hariptu, hurpu 

harara, harrara, harharra "objection, protest" 
NB leg.; < Aram. 

hararnu (surface measure) Nuzi = '/2 awiharu; 
< Hurr. 

hararu(m) "to dig, hollow out" O/jB G (a/u) 
"dig over" field; ext., stat. of part of body "is 
hollow" D of part of body, stat. "is hollowed 

out"; "make incisions in"; > harru I; 
herru; harriru; hurruru; -* hurru 

hardru -* also ardru III; na'arrurum; 
suharruru II 

harasapanu -* harsapnu 

harasu "to itch, scratch" G infin. "an itch, 
scabies" D lex. only; > harsu'- 

harasu(m) "to break off, deduct; incise; make 
clear" G (a/u) 1. math, "subtract" measured 
length; in commerce, accounting "deduct"; of 
furrow "reduce" yield 2. "snap off plant 3. "cut 
in, excavate" ditch, furrow ?; stat., of part of 
liver "is incised" 4. "define precisely, 
make/become clear"; "fix, define" value; of 
illness, stat. "is diagnosed"; j/NB, NA "give, 
issue clear" command, instructions etc., also in 
hendiad., e.g. with sapdru D OA, OB "reduce; 
(wrongly) diminish" amount, size of field etc. 
St "calculate deduction", "deduct"; jB om. 
"balance" interpretations against one another 
N "be deducted" (Mari pret. once ihhalis); 

> harsu; haristum II; hersu, hersetum, hiristu; 
harisu; hurrusu; mahrasu 

harasu -* also kardsu 

harasu I "to be in labour" jB, NA G (///) mother 

harsassu "is in confinement with him" 

D "bring to birth, deliver" child N ~ G "be in 

labour"; > haristu I; muharrisu 1 - 
harasu II "to bind (on)" O/jB G transf. of part of 

body "cripple" D ~ G lex., ship, forearm 7 ; 

"bring together, collect'? trees in park; 

> harsu I; hersu; hurrusu; mahrasu; 
muharrisu 1 -; tahrisu 1 

harasum III "to be silent" Mari G stat. haris; 

< W.Sem. 

harasutum? mng. unkn. OAkk 
haratum "to feed on"? OB, NA G (pret. OB 
ihrut, NA ihrit) grass etc., of sheep, locusts; 

> hertu 

hara'u (part of an ornament) Qatna 

hard'um -* also herd II 

harauzzuhlu (an agricultural worker) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

harazias, haraziun/s (a plant) jB lex.; < Hitt. 
harbakkannu, harba(q)qannu (or hurb...) 


bird) also as ornament, of gold 2. NA (desig. 

of a kind of horse) 
harbanati pi. "ruins" of house NA; < harbu I 
harbanu "desert dweller" NA in PN; < harbu I 

+ -an 
harba(q)qannu -* harbakkannu 
harbis "like a wasteland" jB; < harbu I 

harbu(m) I 



harbiwu —* harwiu 

harbu(m) I; f. harubiu(m) "deserted" Bab., NA 
of land, city etc.; as subst. "desert, abandoned 
land" (pi. harbi, harbanu; f. harbdti); 

< hardbu; > harbanu, harbutu, harbis; 
harbdndti; -* arbu 1 

harbu(m)II "plough" O/jB [(GIS.)APIN.TUG. 

KIN] for breaking soil; also as name of bird 
harbu HI (or harpu) (a tree) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
harbutu(m) "desolation" O/jB esp. h. aldku(m) 

"to become a wasteland"; < harbu I 
hardu I "watchful, alert" NA; < harddu IV 
hardum II mng. unkn. OB lex. as desig. of day 
hardu(t)tu "vigilance, surveillance" NA; 

< hardu I 
haremma —> haramma 

hargallu(m), M/NB hargullu "locking ring" 

Bab. for door; of copper, silver, h. nadu "to 

apply lock"; < Sum. 
hargdnum -♦ argdnum 
hargullu — ► hargallu 
harhadu (or hurhadu) (a lyre) jB lex. 
harharra -* hardra 
harha(r)ru(m), hahharum "chain" Bab., NA for 

ox, bucket; NB ornamental, of gold; jB also (a 

musical instrument); < Sum. 
harharu(m) "villain, rogue" O/jB 
harhasannum, harhazinnu "(outer) ear" O/jB; 

also "pelvis, pelvic girdle"? 
harhasakku (a stone bead) jB lex.; < Sum. 
harhazinnu -♦ harhasannum 
harhubbdnu, harhubbdsir -♦ harmunu 
haribanum mng. unkn. OB in kima h. in descr. 

of liver 
haribatu(m), haribtu "desolate region" O/jB, 
" MA; lex. haribtum, desig. of sheep, mng. unci.; 

< hardbu 
haribum "ruination"? OA in bit h.; demon sa h.; 

< hardbu 
harimtu(m), harintu, harmatu "(temple) 
" prostitute" [(MUNUS.)KAR.KID]; harimdku 

(pred.) "I (f.) am a t. p."; mar h. "son of a t. 

p."; < hardmu II; > harimtutu 
harim(t)utu(m), NB hari'utu "status of temple 

prostitute"; ana h. aldku(m) "to become a t. p."; 

OB also as prebend 
harinnu, hirinnu "(water- )bag, skin" M/NB; 
" Alal.,pl.f. of gold 
harintu -♦ harimtu; harinnu 
haripanu ~ "early riser"? NA; < hardpu I 
hariptu "shed blood" MA, M/jB; < hardpu II 
haripu I "congealed blood patches" NA, pi. 

haripdni; < hardpu II 

haripum II "lamb" Mari; < hardpu I 
hariru(m), Mari also harurum, hururum; NA pi. 

f. ~ "bedspread" Mari, NA (= arrurum ?) 
haris, haristu — ♦ harsu 

harisu, Ass. hirisu "(city) ditch, moat" M/NA, 
" M/NB esp. "h. herd, h. hardsu "to dig ditch"; 

lex. sum h. "ditch plant"; NB id h. "moat"; 

< hardsu 

haristu(m) I "woman in confinement" OAkk, jB 

dam h. "blood of h"; < hardsu I 
haristumll "shortfall (in harvest)"? OB; 

< hardsu 
hariu — ♦ haru I 
hari'utu — ♦ harimtutu 
harmaku (a profession)? NA 
harmatu -> harimtu 

harmil ~ "gristle" NB in division of meat 

offerings; < Aram. 
harmistu; pi. harmisdtu (a bronze object) Ug. 
harmum I "enclosed in envelope" OA of tablet; 

< hardmum I 

harmu II "(male) lover, consort" jB of Dumuzi; 

Apsu; < hardmu II 
harmu — ♦ also hurmu 
harmunu, harhubbdnu (or harhubbdsir) (a 

plant) jB [HAR.HUM.BA.SIR ?]; also (a mineral) 

harpis "early, in good time" O/jB; < harpu 
harpu(m); f. haruptu(m) "early" Bab., MA 

[NIM] of rains, harvest etc.; "early" in morning; 

of sheep, bird; journey; < hardpu I 
harpu -♦ also harbu III 
harpu pi. tant. "(early) autumn" Ass.; 

< hardpu I 

harputu "earliness" NA in i(h)-harpute "early"; 

< harpu 

harranu(m) f., later also m. "way, road; journey, 
" caravan" [KASKAL; OAkk KASKAL.KI; NA, NB 
also KASKAL.2] 1. "road", built, open(ed), 
blocked, kept in order; astr. "path" of heavenly 
body 2. transf. ref. to behaviour, h. isartu(m) 
"right way"; also deified 3. "(business) jour- 
ney"; "caravan", OA sa harrdndtim "caravan 
leader", MB h. sa hurdsi "gold(-trading) 
venture"; OA, OB "joumey(-money)"; NB 
"trading capital" 4. "(military) campaign", 
"(army on) campaign, expedition"; OB h. 
aldkum "to perform military service"; Hitt., 
NB(Achaem.) "time, go", e.g. ina saniti h. "for 
second time"; Ug. ina h. sakdnu "to subject to 
legal proceedings" (Hitt. usage) 

harrara ■ 
harratu - 

■ hardra 
• murratum 




harriru ~ "vole" O/jB, NA [PES.A.sA.GA] as 

food; lisdn h. "tongue of vole" as drug; also as 

PN; i H. (a star); < hardru 
harru(m) I; NB pi. f. "water channel" Bab., NA 

[SUR] as city moat; as canal; < hardru 
harru(m) II (desig. of kind of lyre) jB lex. 
harruhaya "vulture" jB lex. 
harrumum "enclosed in envelope" OA = 

harmum I of tablets in pi.; < hardmum I D 
harrupu — ♦ hurrupu 
harsapnu, harasapanu, Bogh. hursennu "larva, 

maggot" jB 
harsu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < hardsu ? 
harsu(m), once halsum; OB f. — ♦ haristum II 

1. mng. unci. Ug. of field; jB, NA of beer, alum 

2. Mari "deducted" 3. NA, NB "precisely 
defined", sim haris (st. abs.) "at fixed price", 
NA haristu "precise (report)", as adv. 
"precisely", temu harsu "precise instruction"; 
NB haris (st. abs.) "precisely"; < hardsu 

harsu — ♦ also halsu I 

harsananum (a valuable stone) OB 

harsayu "Harsu( -horse)" NA 

harsitum "Harsi(-sheep)" OAkk 

harsu(m) I; f. haristu(m) "bound (on, together)" 

O/jB of ship, basket; grain; man; part of body; 

< hardsu II 
harsu II (a foodstuff) M/NA 
harsu "(field) roller"? M/NB 
harsultannu (an agricultural worker) Nuzi 
hartitum, artitu (a red flower) OB, jB lex. 
hartu (or hurtu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 
hartibi "(Egyptian) diviner" NA; < Eg. 
harum — ♦ aru I 
haru I, Ass. hariu(m) f. (a large container) Ass., 

M/NB of pottery, copper; for grain, liquids; 

NA, NB (desig. of an offering ceremony) (NB 

pi. harane); jB lex. (container on cart)? (-» 

namharu), (an ornament); < Sum.? 
haru II (a sanctuary) also bit hare j/NB, NA; 

officials of b. h.\ Nabu sa h.; jB h. sa Ninlil 
haru III "palm shoot" O/jB 
haru IV ~ "to overcome"? Ug. ? , jB G (Hi) mng. 

unci., phps. of hand "interfere" 
haru — ♦ heru 
harum, a(y)yarum "donkey stallion" Mari in h. 

qatalum for treaty solemnization; < W.Sem. 
haru — ♦ also hidru 
harubu(m), harupu(m) "carob (tree)" OAkk, 

Bab. as (emergency) foodstuff 
harurakku mng. unkn. MA 
harurtu "throat" NA 
harum (part of grindstone) jB 

harurum — » also hariru 

harushu, haurusihu (an animal) MB(Alal), 

Am., NA; caught in trap; as ornament; < Hurr. 
haruttu "date palm frond" NB; < Aram. 
harwarahhu; pi. f. "hay-fork"; < Hurr. 
harwar(ahh)uzzu; pi. m. & f. "small hay-fork" 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 

harwiu, ha/urbiwu (a piece of clothing) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

harziqqu (a ring with inset stone) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

harzuharza — ♦ murzumurza 

hasappum (or hazappum) (a bronze object) 
OAkk, OB(Susa) 

hasapu(m) "to tear away, off' Ass., M/NB 
G (('/(') thorns; hair, garment-hem; courses of 
bricks D ~ G; MA sa hassupi "tweezers (for 

hasarratu, hasirratu (a kind of grass) jB lex. 

hasaru(m), heseru "to flake away, chip off' 
O/jB G (('/(') usu. stat., "is chipped" of horn, 
tooth, comer of tablet D ~ G grindstone; stat., 
ext. of features on liver, e.g. kaskasu N pass, of 
G, of throne, part of liver; > hasrum; hesiru 1 ; 
hisrum; husirtum; hussuru 

hasasis "for understanding" jB; < hasdsu 

hasasu(m) "to be conscious; remember" G (a/u) 

1. "be aware of (=ana/acc.), "think 
about", "think of s.o. 2. "remember"; in 
speech, prayer "mention" (s.o.'s) name etc. 

3. "understand", "conceive, think of 

4. "plan, intend" Gtn iter, of G, esp. "repeatedly 
remember", "repeatedly plan, plot" Gt "think 
deeply about" D 1. "remind" (+2nd ace.) 

2. "ponder, reflect" S caus. 1. "make" s.o. 
"remember" 2. "remind" s.o. 3. NB "notify, 
make" s.o. "aware of St Mari "be made to 
reflect" N 1. "be taken into account, remem- 
bered" 2. "be perceived, noticed" 3. "be under- 
stood"; > hasasis; hassu, hassutu; hissatu; 
hasisu; hasisitu; tahsistu; sahsasuttu 

hasd'u — ♦ hesu 

hashaltu, hashaltu, Bogh. haskaltu ! ; pi. 

hashalldtu "leaf, foliage"? M/NB, NA of fig 

tree; timber trees; reed; in manufactured 

hashastu (a tree)? jB 
hasikku — ♦ hasikku 
hasirratu — ♦ hasarratu 

hasisitu (ear-shaped loaf) Bogh., jB; < hasisu 
hasisu(m) "ear; wisdom" Bab. 1. "ear" of 

human, often du.; transf. of part of liver, of lyre 




2. "hearing" 3. "comprehension, wisdom", e.g. 

atra(m) hasis "very wise", also as PN; pit h. 

"endowed with wisdom"; as DN A H. (or 

^Hdsisu); < hasdsu 
hdsisu — » hasisu 3; hassu 
haskaltu — » hashaltu 
haslu (a waterskin) jB lex. 
hasrum, hesru; f. hasirtu "chipped, broken off 

O/jB of tooth; < hasdru 
hassayu mng. unkn. OB (desig. of man); 

< hesu ? 
hassihlu — » halzuhlu 

hassu(m), hdsisu "clever, wise" Bab.; Id h. 

"fool"; < hasdsu 
hassu pi. tant. "lettuce" Bab. [U.yi.lS.SAR] 

cultivated; zer h. "1. seed" 
hassu(m) "oppressor" OB lex.; < hesu 
hassupu — » hasdpu D 
hassutu "wisdom" jB in h. aldku "to become 

wise"; < hassu 
hasu — ► hesu 
hasu ~ "to install" j/NB G (pret. ihis) Dtt lex. 

hasabattu — » hasbattu 
hasabtu "sherd (of pottery)" jB [SIKA]; 

< hasbu III nom. unit. 

hasabu(m) I "to break off Bab. G (a/u) reed, 
twig (from = ace); transf. seed, issue D ~ G 
N "be broken off; math.; > hashu I; hisbu II; 
hisihtu; hdsibu; tahsibu; nahsabum 1 ; — ► kasdbu 

hasabu II "to be green" jB S "make" orchard 
"verdant"; > hasbu II; hisbu I; husdbu 

hasanu(m) "to hug, take under o.'s protection" 
j/NB, NA G (Hi) of goddess "protect" man; of 
humans "look after, maintain" animals, people 
D ~ G NA; > hisnu 

hasartu(m), hasertu(m), OB hanzartum, NB 
hasastu, Bogh. hasartu 1 'greenness' Bab. 
1. lex. "(nasal) mucus" 2. "(yellow-)green 

hasaru(m), hasirum, hisdrum; pi. m. & f. 
"sheepfold" Bab. esp. Mari; DN d Belet-h.; NB 
(a place where dates were delivered); — ► 

hasasu(m) I "to snap off O/jB G (a/u) neck, 
reed; transf. of death hasis ameluti "snapping 
off mankind"; stat., of part of body "is broken 
away" D - G + pi. obj.: reeds, mountains, 
people Dt pass, of D, of reed-stems "be 
snapped off; > hissu I; hussusu 

hasasu II "to erect (reed hut)" NA, NB G (a/u) 
with hussu; < hussu denom. 

hasastu — ► hasartu 

hasbattis "like a pottery bowl" jB; < hasbattu 

hasbattu, NB also hasabattu (a pottery bowl) 
j/NB as vessel; NB sg. for pi.; also "(crab's) 
shell"; < hasbu III 

hasbu(m) I "broken off O/jB of branch, twig 
etc.; < hasabu I 

hasbu II "dark green" jB of forest shade; 
< hasabu II 

hasbu(m) III "pottery, terracotta; potsherd" Bab. 
[(DUG.)SlKA] as material of figurine, vessel; 
NA, NB (small pot), also of metal; "potsherd"; 
"sherd" of oven, of skull; "shell" of egg, turtle, 
pomegranate; > hasabtu, hasbattu, hasbattis 

hasertu — » hasartu 

hasibaru(m), hasiburu (a crested bird) jB 

hasibu(m) "(reed) cutter" Bab. (desig. of 
workman) OB h. kissi, also as PN; NB h. qane; 
< hasabu I 

hasiburu — » hasibaru 

hasirum — ► hasdru 

hassasu — ► hussusu 

hassinnu(m); Mari, NB pi. f. "axe" [OB 
URUDU.tJA.ZI.IN] of copper, silver, gold etc. 

hassu (a plant) jB 

hassusu — ► hussusu 

(ja(s)suttu (a garden herb) j/NB 

has&m — * hazum 

hasabu "to count, reckon" G NA (pret. ihsub) 

' D lex. only N ~ G ? NB 

hasadu, NB also hasdu "wedding" j/NB, NA of 
deities, humans; NB also in PN Has(a)daya 

hasahtu(m) "need, requirement" OA; NA in 
plant name h. eqli; < hasdhu 

hasahu(m), OA occas. kasdhum "to need, 
desire" G (Bab Hi, Ass. a/a, a/u) "need, 
require", "want"; "desire, wish for" esp. 
stat. in Am., Bogh., Ug., Nuzi; also of heart 
"yearn for" Gt jB, ellipt. "be in constant 
need" D "make needful of; stat. "is in great 
need" N pass, of G jB 1. "be required" of 
foodstuffs etc. 2. "fail, be found wanting"; 
> hashu; hisihtu, hasahtu; husahhu 

hasahusennu (an accounting payment) Nuzi, in 
silver; < Hurr. 

hasalu(m) "to crush" G (a/u) [KUM; GAZ] grain; 
medicaments; earth, animal droppings; "break 
up" tools; parts of body; transf. of army 
"destroy" PIN; stat. of person "is crushed" 
D ~ G "crush, pound up" Dt pass, of D med. of 
baby, mng. unci. S caus. of G "make" s.o. 
"crush"; > haslu; hasildtu; hisiltu; hussulu; 



hasum VI 

hasanu —* hasidnum 

hasartennu mng. unkn. Nuzi (desig. of slave 

woman); < Hurr. 
hasartu —* hasartu 
hasaru (a prof, desig.) Elam 
hasaru mng. unkn. G unattested D jB lex. only; 

> hisrurrO 

hasasu(m) I "to swell; be happy" O/jB G (ulu) 
of lungs Gtn iter, of G "rejoice repeatedly" 
D "make" s.o. "happy" Dt "be made to rejoice"; 

> hissatu; husdsum; hassasu 

hasasu(m) II 1. G (a/u) OB in hendiad. "to 

gather" people, logs, fields (or rather "hasten"?) 

2. jB Gt "apply" oil D "plaster" wall with 

(= ace.) clay; > hussu^; hasisurrC 
hasasu —* also asdsu IV 
hasdu —* hasadu 

hasduk "beloved"? Elam; < Elam. 
hasehtu — » hisihtu 

hasenni (a valuable stone) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
haseruhuli (a craftsman) MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 
hashalla mng. unkn. Nuzi, grain aim h.; < Hurr. 
hashaltu — » hashaltu 
hashastum mng. unkn. OB lex. 
hashasu(m) ~ "lame, hobbling" O/jB; OB as PN 
hashu(m) 1. OB "one who needs, needy" 

2. Nuzi ina h. "at (his) wish, discretion", also 

hashussu; < hasdhu 
hashurakku "'apple' bush" Bogh., jB lex., 

med.; < hashuru 
hashuru(m), Ass. sahsuru "apple (tree)" Bab., 

M/NA [GIS.gASBUR] as tree; as wood, for 

furniture; as fruit; also as ornament; sipdt h. 

"apple-coloured wool"; h. api [GIS.tJASHUR. 

GIS.GI] '"marsh'-apple", a drug; fruit, ornament; 

> hashuru, hashurakku; — » hathuretu ?; 

hashuru "apple-coloured" MB lex., of stone; 

NB, of wool; NB also "apple-shaped?", desig. 

of cut of meat; < hashuru 
hasi (a plant) jB med. 
hasianum, hasudnum, hasanu (a plant, phps.) 

"thyme" OAkk, Bab. esp. M/jB med.; 

< hasu III 
hasibbur — > hasimbar 

hasihapu mng. unkn. Nuzi, garments ana h.; 

< Hurr. 

hasikkis (or hasikkis) "like a deaf man" jB 

hasikku (or hasikku) "deafjB 

hasilatu pi. tant. (a preparation of dates) NB; 

< hasdlu 

hasimbar, hasimlnlbbur etc. (a plant) jB lex.; 

< Kass. 

hasimu "grain heap"? MA esp. in bit h. (pi. bit 

hasimdte) "granary" 
hasimur(u), hasmur, hasi'ur(u) "caraway" or 

"cumin" j/NB; eru h. "grindstone for c." 
hasinbar — » hasimbar 

hasisum mng. unci. OB, as PN; < hasdsu II ? 
hasitum (a bronze object) Mari 
hasi'ur(u) — * hasimuru 
haslu(m) "crushed" [KUM] Mari esp. of bread 

(aklum); reeds; M/NA, Nuzi, jB(Ass.) 

(s e )hasldtu(m) "bruised (grain)"; Susa of law 

suit (dinum) mng. unci.; < hasdlu 
hasmanu(m), Ug. also husmdnu (a colour) 

O/jB, MA 1. (a coloured stone) 2. (coloured 

hasmanuhhe(na) Nuzi pi. form of hasmdnu 
hasmar (a falcon) jB lex.; < Kass. 
hasmitu (a metal) NB, material of agricultural 

hasmur — > hasimuru 
hasru inng. unkn. jB lex. 
hasruqu (an aromatic tree) jB lex. 
hassa (an official) OB(Susa); < Elain. 
hassd — » hamsd 

hassasu "bridegroom" jB lex.; < hasdsu I 
hassat — » hamis 
hassa'um (a cripple) OB lex. 
hassis —* hamsis 
hassu (a sweet meat) jB lex. 
hassu — » also hamsu I; kansu I 
hassum "of Hassum" OB; < PIN 
hastaru, hastiwusru (part of feminine apparel) 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hastu I, haltu "hole, pit" M/NB "pit (in ground), 

trap"; "hole" in ship, barrel 
hastum II, haltu (a kind of stone) O/jB, NA 

hasu I "dark" jB lex., astr. [UD.Su.u5.RU]; 

< hasu V 

hasu(m) II "lung(s)" Bab. [MUR; du. 

MUR.2(.MES)] of human, animal; also "lung 

(-shaped ornament)" in metal; > hasutum I 
hasu(m) III, asu "thyme"? [(GIS/U.)HAR.BAR 

(.SAR)] as food; med. in recipes; akal h. "thyme 

bread"; > hasidnum; hasutu W 
hasu(m) IV "to crush, chop" O/jB G (ulu) 

foodstuffs; OB woman, as penalty (or "bind"?) 

D ~ G onion etc.; > husu; muhessu 
hasu V "to become dark" M/jB G (<'/<', ulu) of 

hair, eyes; of person "suffer darkness", i.e. be 

blinded ?; > hasu I 
hasum VI "to pass over in silence" Mari G ((/('); 

< W.Sem. 

hasu(m) I 


hatu(m) n 

hasu(m) I "to be anxious" O/jB, NA G (a); also 

of ox "ail" Gtn iter, of G D "worry, make 

hasu II "to give" jB lex. G (u ?) 
hasu — ► also hidsum 
hasudnum — > hasidnum 

hasurum, hasurru (a kind of cypress) Bab. 
" [GIS.yA.SUR] as tree, qisti h. "forest of cypress 

trees"; as oil, perfume, also saman h.; as name 

of mountain 
hasutum I "a lung" OB as cut of meat; < hasu II 

nom. unit. 
hasutu(m) II (a plant) O/jB; < hasu III ? 
hatakum "to decide" OB G {a/u) absol. 
hatanu(m), hatnu "in-law, relative by marriage" 

1. "father-in-law" 2. "son-in-law" 3. NA/jB pi. 

f. "in-laws"; > hatnutu 
hatanu "to protect, shelter" j/NB, NA G {Hi) of 

god, king; also in PNs; > hutnu 
hatanutum — » hatnutu 
hatapu(m) "to slaughter" Bab., M/NA G {Hi) 

animal D "make, bring a MpM-offering"; also 

transf. "sacrifice" enemy Dt pass, of D S lex. 

only; > hitpu; tahtiptu 
hatarilum (a bird) OB 

hatarru (an oil container) MB(Alal.); -» hatrum 
hatartu (desig. of wool) Nuzi 
hataru "to flutter, twitch" jB G (///) of bird, 

"wag" tail; > hattdru 
hatehi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
hathumma, hattumma in h. epesu "to kill"? 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hathuretu (a dye) NB of wool; -» hashuru ? 
hatib — » haltib 
hatitu, hatitdn "lousy, louse ridden" jB lex.; -» 

hati'u (a fruit) jB lex. 

hatlunum (an object) OA, attached to garment ? 
hatnu — » hatanu 
hatnutu, OB hatanutum in h. epesum "to 

establish marriage relationship" Mari, 

MB(Ta'annek); < hatanu 
hatrum (or hatrum) (an oil container) Mari; -» 

hattaru(m) "with twitching gait"? jB lex.; OAkk 

as PN ?; < hataru 
hattassu (a prof, desig.) NB 
hattu — » hdtu; hittu HI 
hattu "Hittite"jB,NA 
hattumma -» hathumma 
hatu I "decorated" jB of garment; < hatu III 
hatu(m) II "to strike down" Bab., NA G {Hi) 

enemy; of illness, "strike" person Gtn (or Dtn) 

iter. jB of ghost D ~ G of word; of illness; MB 

biira h. "dig a well" N pass, of G; > tahtu 
hatu(m) III mng. unci. Bab. G OB "to load" 

ship ?; NB "apply" rosettes ? St Mari "decant" 

wine ?; > hatu I; mahtutum 1 
hatu(m), hattu(m) "terror, panic" Bab., esp. 

falling on {maqdtu(m)) person, army etc.; 

> hayyattu 

hatum ~ "to seize prey"? Mari G 

hatamu "to stop up, block" jB G {Hi) springs; 

"muzzle" mouth D ~ G (pi. obj.) "block" canals 
hatapu(m) mng. unci. O/jB G lex. (process 

applied to grain) D "to wipe away"? tears; 

> muhattipum 
hataru — » hatiru; hatru 

hatatu(m) I "to dig out, excavate" Bab., NA 
G (pret. ihtut) canal, building trench; ext. part 
of liver S Mari "have" canal "excavated"; 

> hittatu 

hatatu(m) II ~ "to ferment" O/jB G {a/u) mash; 

fruit; > hattu I 
hatiru, hataru, hatru; pi. hatirdnu "animal pen" 

NB for sheep; < Aram.; — » hatru 
hatitu — » hatu I 
hatru, hataru "military, professional group" NB 

esp. at Nippur; < OPers. or Aram. (= hatiru ?) 
hatru — » also hatrum; hatiru 
hatta'u, hatti'u, hattu "sinner, criminal" M/NB; 

< hatu II 

hattu I ~ "fermented" jB lex., of mash; 

< hatdtu II 

hattu(m) II mostly f.; OB pi. hattdtum "stick, 

" sceptre" [OAkk GIDRU; GIS.GIDRU; GIS.NIG. 
GIDRU] "stick" of wood, for beating; OB in 
salrabf hattdtim [GIDRU.GIDRU] (a military 
officer); "(shepherd's) stick, staff, usu. transf. 
h. sarruti "royal sceptre"; h. isartu "just 
sceptre"; OA, OB rabi h. (a court official); h. 
of deity as illness, punishment; also h. re'i 
"shepherd's staff (a plant) 

hattu — » hatta'u; hatu I; patu 

hatu(m) I, hattu, OA hat' urn "defective; 
criminal" Bab., OA; OA of silver "faulty" (or 
"insufficient"?); of omen etc. "bad, malign"; as 
subst. "criminal"; f. subst. hatitu(m) "fault, 
crime"; < hatu II 

hatu(m) II "to do wrong, commit crime" G {Hi) 
[LAL] 1. absol. "do wrong" (towards s.o. = 
ana/dat, NA ana libbi, Bogh., NB itti); 
"commit" crime etc. (e.g. hita) 2. stat. "is faulty, 
unsatisfactory, bad", e.g. of dream 3. "be 
neglectful" absol.; "neglect" work, field etc.; 
"omit" line of text Gtn iter, of G D ~ G; also 




NB "spoil, destroy" Dt NB, of words "be 
misspoken" [LAL.MES] S 1. "cause s.o. to 
neglect" 2. "lead into wrongdoing" N "be 
neglected"; > hatu I; hitu I, hititu; hatta'u 

hatu "(instalment of) payment" NB; < hidtu 

hdtu — > also hidtu 

hafum — > hatu I 

ha'u(m), habum (a throne cover) OAkk, MA, 


ha'um — » also hdpu 

haurusihu — » harushu 

ha' ustarum — > hawustarum 

ha'utu — » hammutu 

hawalhu, halahwu, hamiluhhu (an enclosed plot 
of ground) MA, Nuzi; < Hurr. 

hawir "later" OB(Elam); < Elam. 

hawiru(m), hd'iru, hdmiru, hayyiru, NA hdbiru 
' "husband" Bab., NA; of men, also in PNs; of 
gods; NA d H. deified; < hidru G ptcp.; 
> ha' hut u 

hawu, hamu ~ "to howl, whine"? jB G {ulu) of 
dog, ghost, storm; > hdmitu 

hawumma — » halwu 

hawuratum — » huratu 

ha(w)ustarum, ha' ustarum (a pastry) Mari 

hdya — > heya 

haydlu — > hi'dlu 

hayani "child" jB lex.; < 'Subartu' 

hayyaltu "woman in labour" jB, NA; < hidlu 

hayyasu "hastener" jB in h. tuqmdte "h. to 
battles"; also as DN; < hidsum 

ha(y)yattu "(pathological) terror" jB [IGI.LA.SU]; 

< hdtu 

hayyatu, hayyattu "surveyor, inspector" M/jB, 
NA as epith. of deity; desig. of demon; NA 
"spy, look-out"; NA "inspection hole" in oven; 

< hidtu 
hayyiru — » hdwiru 
hayyitu — > hd'itu 

hazallunu (a plant) jB lex., med. 

hazamu ~ "to mutilate" jB G stat., of ear D ~ G 

stat., of ear S lex. only; > hazmu; hazimum; 

hazannum I, jB azannu (an alliaceous 

vegetable) OB, jB lex. 
hazannu(m) II, MA, Mari occas. frazidnufm), 

Nuzi also hazinnu; pi. Am. hazannute, jB 

hazanndti "mayor, village headman" not OA; 

also as PN; > hazannutu 
haza(n)nutu(m), MA, Mari occas. hazidnu(t)tu 

"office of mayor" Mari, M/NA, M/NB; 

< hazannu II 
hazappum — > frasappum 

hazaqu mng. unkn. G unattested D jB lex. only; 

> haziqatu 1 - 
hazdzu — > azdzu 
hazidnu — > hazannu II 
hazidnu(t)tu — » hazannutu 

hazimum "with mutilated ear" OB, as PN; 

< hazamu 
hazinnu — > hazannu II 

haziqatu, huziqatu (a headcloth) jB, NA; also a 

skin disease; < hazaqu ? 
hazirum "helper" OB, usu. in PNs; < W.Sem. 
hazmu "with mutilated ear" jB lex.; < hazamu 
hazru ~ "swamp" jB lex. 
hazum (or hasum) - "to raise objections"? OB 

D only 
hazu — > also azu I 
hazu "croaker" (a bird) jB [Su.LU.MUSEN]; 

< azu I 

hazuannum (a kind of onion) OA 

hazuru (a garment) M/jB 

hazzabatu, hanlzzalibatu (a plant) jB lex. 

hazzatum "a goat" OB(N.Mes.); < hazzum 

nom. unit.; — > azzatu 
hazzibatu — > hazzabatu 
hazzum "goat" Mari (= enzu); < W.Sem.; 

> hazzatum 
hebburum — > habburu 
Hebirtum — > Ebirtum 

hebu "drawn" jB of water; < habu III 

heddnum — > eddnu 

hedutu — > hidutu 

hegallu — > hengallu 

hehenu "(nasal) mucus" jB 

hela — » helumma 

helequ — > haldqu 

helgeni (or helqeni) "fugitive"? Nuzi; < halqu ? 

helta'u (a chair, stool) Alal. (= gistum 1) 

helu I "light( -coloured)" jB med., of urine; 

< helu II 

helu(m) II, OA hald'um "to be bright; cheerful" 
OA, O/jB G (stat. helu) of light; transf. of 
person( 's mood) Gt "shine brightly" D "make 
bright", stat. "are bright" of fingers, toes; "cheer 
up"; ptcp. as PN S "illuminate"; "make 
resplendent"; > helu I 

helumma in h. epesu "to reach agreement" Nuzi, 
also ana hela h. epesu; < Hurr. 

hemeru ~ "to shatter" jB G stat. "is cracked 
(up)"? of tongue D "shatter", part of body?; 

> hummuru^; hammurtu 1 - 

hengallu(m), hegallu(m) "plenty" [yE.GAL] of 
plants, animals; "(divine dispensation of) 




plenty", also as DN d H.; "plenty(-symbol)" in 
hand of figure; Mari (a vase); < Sum. 

henunu "plenty" jB lex.; < Sum. 

henzuru — » hinzuru 

heperu, hapdru(m) "to dig" Ass., j/NB G (///) of 
human, animal "dig" hole in ground; "dig up", from ground 

hepts "in broken state" OB; < hepu I 

hepu(m) I, OA hap'um "broken" Bab., OA 
[GAZ] of pot, beams, house; hepd lisallim "let 
him restore broken (text)"; astr. of haprdtu; 
< hepu II; > hepts 

hepu(m) II, hapu, Ass. hapd'u(m) "to break" 
G (Hi) [gaz] vessel, stele; tablet, line of text, 
sign; building; "ruin, destroy" city, land, people; 
"crack, crush, injure" part of body, transf. 
"break" heart (libbu -* hipu I 2); "split (open)" 
body etc., math, "divide, halve"; "break 
through" thicket; of moon, "break through" 
cloud; transf., "break" word, contract D ~ G 
"break (up)" rock, fetters etc.; inscribed tablets; 
lands; parts of body; MB "scatter" herd; NA 
"open up" wells; "make chips" (— ► hupul); 
"beat" s.o. "up"? Dtn iter. NB, houses Dt pass, 
of D [AL.GAZ] "be broken up, shattered" etc.; of 
assembly "be scattered" N pass, of G [GAZ], of 
libbu "be broken"; of kor-measure (kurrum) 
"be halved" Ntn iter., of libbu; > hepu I, hepis; 
hlpu I, hipitu; hepu; hupfi.; huppu I; nahpu 

hepu(m) "breaker" O/jB worker breaking clods, 
stones; < hepu II 

hepum — » hiapum 

herahanniwa mng. unkn. MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

herebum — » erebu II 

heridnu — ► heru 

herlnum "grass-seed" OB in simile, of sharp 
object; < Sum.; — » lardu 

herizzi (a valuable stone) Am.; < Hurr. 

hermum — > ermu 

herru(m); pi. f. (a kind of furrow) O/jB; also 
transf. jB ina herreti maqdtu "to get back 
home", of army; < hardru 

hersu (a vessel) MA, MB of stone 

hersetum pi. (a kind of field) OB; < hardsu; — » 

hersu(m), hirsu(m) "fragment, cutting" O/jB, 
NA [GIG] "cut piece" of tree, of measuring- 
vessel; (a cut of meat); "track, imprint", "rut" of 
wheel; < hardsu 

hersu (a furrow or ditch)? jB lex.; < hardsu II 

hertu "(insect) bore hole" jB in simile of holes in 
liver; < hardtum 

heru(m) I "excavated" O/jB of canal; < herd II 

heru(m) II, OAkk hard' urn "to dig; excavate" 
G (///) [BAL] canal, ditch etc., Early Mari 
hard' is "in order to dig"; well, cistern; "dig up" 
ground, field D * G pi. obj. "dig up" tree 
stumps ? ; "excavate" cisterns Dtn iter. S caus. of 
G N pass., of canal etc.; > heru I; hem; hiritu I, 
hirutu; mahrum II 

heru ~ "totality" jB lex. 

heru, hdru; NB pi. heridnu "digger" M/NB of 
wells etc.; < heru II 

herwu (an agricultural implement) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

heseru — » hasdru 

heslru "scrap (of cloth)"? jB lex., for headcloth; 

< hasdru ? 

heslu "weaned" NB of calf; < Aram. 
hesmu(mma) ~ "buckle, clasp"? Nuzi for 
garment; hesmumma epesu "to buckle up"?; 

< Hurr. 
hesru — » hasrum 

hesu(m), hasu(m), hasd'u "to cover up, shroud" 
Bab., NA G (Hi) 1. of bandage "cover over"; of 
foundations, covering underworld; face, with 
(= ace.) hair 2. "(cover with blows =) batter, 
beat s.o. up", of demons, persons; transf. 
"pressurize" s.o. 3. "break up" mountain with 
pickaxes 4. transf. "cover up, conceal" 
decisions, words D ~ G, transf. "conceal, keep 
secret", Nuzi ellipt. "keep silent"; "squeeze out" 
drugs, with cloth Dt pass, "be pressed, 
pressurized" St NB "be induced, forced" to ?; 

> hisum; hisitu, hisutu; hassu, hassdyvP-; 
husd II ? ; hussu 1 ; mehsu, mahsutu 1 

hestaruhlu "tailor"? MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 
hestiri ~ "garrison"? Nuzi, MB(Brak); < Hurr. 
hetennu, hutennu, hutnti (wooden part of 

chariot) Nuzi, NA/jB, in pairs or sets; < Hurr. 
hetnu "'/60 shekel"? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hewatumma in h. epesu "to make journey to" 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
heya, hlldya "watch-tower"? Ug. in bit h.; 

< W.Sem.? 

htadu "to say, pronounce" jB G lex. only 
Gt "express o.s."?; > hittu U 

hiallu mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

hialu(m), halu "to be in labour, exude" Bab., NA 
G [ZUM] 1. "be in labour" of woman, cow; "be 
in pain" of people, land etc. 2. of teeth, earth, 
field "exude" blood, honey, other liquids; 

> hilu, hilu; hiltum; hayyaltu 

hi'alu, hilaydlu; pi. hi'aldnu etc. (a kind of 
military force) j/NB; < Aram. 




hiapum, hepum, hdbu, hapu "to cleanse, purify" 
O/jB G temple, drum; stat. of person, face "is 
cleansed"; of star "be bright" D ~ G "purify 
(cultically)" place, object; person, invalid, leg; 
ox Dt pass, of D, of diviner; > hlpu II, hubu II 

hiaqu(m), hdqu "to mix (up)" Bab., M/NA 
G "mix, mingle" beer, waters; ellipt. of lands 
"be embroiled" in war St "be mixed together" 
of liquids; transf., of lands N "be mixed in" of 
wine; > hiqu; tahiqtum 

hiari (a festival; also as MN) OB(Alal.), Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

hiaru(m), hdru "to choose" G "seek in 
marriage"; of demons etc., "seek out" sufferer, 
in pi nisi h. "have people's interests at heart"; 
j/NB "look out, prepare" offering, provisions 
etc. Gtn iter, of G, of demons Gt "woo one 
another"; > hirtu; hdwiru, hd'irutu; tahirtum 1 ; 

hiaruhhe "gold" MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

hiasum, hdsu "to hurry, hasten" Bab. G of gods, 
persons; "speed" of arrow Gtn iter. D Mari 
mng. unci.; > hayydsu; mushistum 

hiatu(m), hdtldu "to supervise, check; weigh 
(out)" G [LAL] 1. "watch over, supervise, 
control" field, land, animals, people; "check, 
inspect, examine" legal case, foundation stone 
2. "seek out, investigate"; of demons "seek out" 
sufferer 3. "weigh out, pay" silver, wool etc.; 
medical dose Gtn iter. [LAL.MES] D "inspect" 
entrails N pass, "be checked"; "be weighed 
out"; > hdtu; hd'itu, ha' Hutu, hd'itdnu; hayydtu; 
hitu II; muha"idu; tahittu 

hibabitu "bride"? jB lex.; < habdbu 

hibaritu(m) (a marshy area) O/jB lex.; as PIN 

hibbum "thicket"? Mari; < W.Sem. (or -» 
hippum ?) 

hibiltu(m), OB(Susa) also habiltu "wrongdoing; 
damage(s)" Bab., M/NA 1. "wrongful action, 
crime"; h. turru, h. sullumu "to repay damages" 
2. OB hibilti ~PN "PN's losses" 3. NA 
"debt(s)" 4. NB "(payment in substitution for) 
debt, damages"; < habdlu II 

Hibirtum —* Ebirtum 

hibistu(m) "crushed pieces (of aromatic wood)" 
Bab. also h. riqqe "crushed pieces of 
aromatics"; OB qutrinni h. "incense from h."; 

< habdsu II 
hiblum (a garment) OB 

hibru(m) 1. Mari (part of tribe) 2. jB in plant 
name h. inbi "group of fruit"; < W.Sem. 

hibsu(m) 'swelling' 1. O/jB (a type of leavened 
bread/pastry) 2. NA "bump, lump"; < habdsu I 

hibsu l.jB lex. (a rough wool) 2.JB/NA archit. 

"recess, niche"; < habdsu I 
hibtu "robbery"? jB; < habdtu I 
hibum "beloved" OB f. in fPN Hibti-DN; jB 

lex.?; < hdbu 
Hibur — » Hubur 
hiburnu, huburnu (a grain-container) M/NA, in 

temple; bit h., esp. in sutu sa b. h. "sutu- 

measure of b. h"; < Hurr. 
hibussum mng. unkn. OB (an edible com- 
hibutu "secrecy" Bogh. in ki h. "secretly"; 

< habu IV 
hiddnum — » eddnu 

hidaru (desig. of wool) Alal., Ug.; < Hurr. 
hiddtu —* hididtum 
hi(d)ddru — » handuru 
hiddu(m), hindu(m); Am. pi. hintulena (a bead) 

OAkk, OA, Qatna, Am., in stone, gold, silver 

hidduhhu —* handuhu 
hidiatum, hiddtu pi. tant. "joy, rejoicings" Bab. 

[yUL.MES] ekal, subat, bit h. "palace, dwelling, 

house of celebrations"; < hadu III 
hidirtum —* idirtu 
hidlum; pi. f. (a vessel) OB 
hidu —* hitu 

hidumu, hudumu (part of a garment) Am., Nuzi 
hidutu(m), hedutu(m) "joy, rejoicing" OAkk, 

Bab. [HUL] OAkk in PNs; ina h. "joyfully"; 

"celebration"; < hadu III 
hihinnu —* hahinnu 
hilabanu, hilapdnu (a plant with milky sap) jB 

lex.; < hilpu 
hilahuli "doorkeeper"? Alal.; < Hurr. 
hilammu, hilimmu (a grasshopper) jB 
hilani, hilldni, hitldni, hileni in bit h. "portico(ed 

building)" (pi. b. hildndni, b. hildndte) jB, NA, 

of Syrian origin; < Hitt.; — > appdtu 
hilapdnu —* hilabanu 
hilasu —* hilsu 
hilddmu —* hiliddmu 
hileni —* hilani 
hilepu(m), hilpum 1 - "willow" Bab. [GIS.KIM] as 

tree; "willow-wood" 
hilibana (desig. of the underworld) jB; < hilibu 
hilibu "the underworld" M/jB, NA [yi.Ll.BA] as 

DN; as name of stone; < Sum.; -» girimmu, 

hilidamu, hilddmu (a kind of meat) NB; < hillu 

+ ddmu ? 
hilimltu (a vegetable)? MB(Alal.) 
hilimmu — » hilammu 




hilistu "scrapings, raked-out matter" jB, from 

oven; < haldsu 
hilldni — » hildni 
hillaru (part of an ornament) Qatna, Alal.; 

< Hurr. 
hilld/etu — » hillu 

hillu(m) "covering" OAkk, Bab., NA "(egg) 
shell"; "cortex, hollow stem" of reed, also as 
quiver; "layer" of cloud, "haze"; pi. f. OA ~ 
"custody"?, NB hilld/etu "woollen cover"?; 

< haldlum I ?; — » hiliddmu; hiltu II 
hilluru — » halluru 

hillutu "creeping" subst. NA in fig. etym. after 

haldlu III 
hilpu "milk" NA; < W.Sem.; > hilabdnu 
hilpum — » also hilepu 
hilsu(m) I, NB also hilasu; pi. f. "filtration; 

combed, filtered materials" Bab. 1. OB "filtered 

oil" 2. NB "filtration process" for sesame 

3. "combed out (wool)"; < haldsu 
hilsu II (a fortification)? jB lex.; M/NB in bit h., 

part of temple; NB rab b. h. "official in charge 

of b.h." 
hilsu "scraping(s), raking(s)" jB; < haldsu 
hiltu I ~ "sleep" jB; pi. in iamsat hildti (a kind of 

hiltu II (a kind of reed) jB lex., var. of hillu in 

appdr h. 
hiltum ~ "exudation" OA, of silver; < hidlu 
hiltu — » also histu II 
hilii — » hulu 
hilu(m) "exudation, resin" Bab., NA [ILLU] of 

trees, plants; h. eri "h. of copper", a drug; 

< hidlum 

hilu pi. tant. "labour pains, birth pangs" jB, NA; 

< hidlum 
hilukannum — ♦ hulukannum 
hiluppu -* haiuppu 

himaru "donkey" jB lex.; syn. of imeru; < Aram. 

himdtu — » himetu 

himddtum — » himittum I 

himetu(m). Ass. himdtu(m) "butter, ghee" 

[i.NUN(.NA)] as food; med., mag.; rit., in 

himiltu "plan" MB; < hamdlu 
himistu "snapped off piece, trimming" jB of 

palm tree; < hamdsu I 
himittum I; pi. himddtum "excuse(s)" OA; 

< hamddu 

himittu II "frostiness" jB med. "shivering"; 

< hamdtu III 

himmatu(m) "collected materials, collection" 
O/jB; OB pi. "accumulated possessions"; jB 

"collection" of laws, divine attributes; "matter 
blown together" by storm; "(accumulation of) 
rubbish"; OB mng. unci, of ship's load; 

< hamdmu 

himmum mng. unci. Mari in h. safer "h. is 

written"; < hamdmu ?; — ► himu 2 
himrum (a fermented drink) Mari; < W.Sem. 
himsatu, hinsdtu pi. tant. "wrongful 

possessions" M/NA; — » hummusum 
himsukkum mng. unkn. OB(Elam); < Elam.? 
himsu(m) I; usu. pi. f. 'torn away material' O/jB 

1. "(commercial) profit" 2. "plundered goods"; 

< hamdsu 

himsu(m) II, hinsu "fatty tissue" Bab. 

[UZU.ME.{JE] esp. ext. 
himsu "(act of) snapping off' jB in fig. etym. h. 

hamdsu "to break off" dates; < hamdsu I 
himtu, hintu, hindu; pi. NA himdte, NB hindeti 

"leather skin, pouch" Ass., j/NB for water, NB 

"purse" for money, stones etc. 
himtu(m), hintu(m) subst. "burning" O/jB 

"scorching" of field; "fever", h. seti "heat 

stroke"? [TAB(.BA)]; h- Hbbi; pi. f. himtetu(m) 

"heartburn"?; < hamdtu III 
himu 1. jB (a rush pad for wound) 2. Qatna (as 

ornament), with lapis lazuli inlay (or — » 

himmum ?) 
himudi mng. unkn. MB(Alal.) 
hina (a stone) Am., material of vessel; < Eg.? 
hindu(m) (a mythical being)? O/jB 
hindu — » also hiddu; himtu 
hinduhhu — » handuhu 
hinduru -* handuru 
hinhinu (a kind of spice)? M/NA; qem h. "flour 


hiniqtu "constriction" jB med., of urinary tract; 
also "(urine) retention"; < handqu 

hinisannum (a valuable commodity) OA 

hinnu "ship's cabin" jB lex. 

hinqu(m) "constriction" 1. NA "narrows" of 
river 2. jB h. immeri (a sheep disease) 3. O/jB 
of humans mut h. "death by strangulation 7 "; jB 
med. "constriction" of duct; < handqu 

hinsdtu -* himsatu 

hinsu — » himsu II 

hinsu (an implement)? j/NB 

hintena — » hiddu 

hintu -* himtu 

hintu — » himtu 

hinziribu, hizzaribu (blue-green colour) jB, NA 
lex.; < hinzuru + Hurr. -iwwe 

hinzu mng. unkn. MB desig. of images 




hinzuru, henzuru, inziiru "apple (tree)" M/jB 
esp. Nuzi as PN, MN (also Hizzurru); 
"apple(-coloured wool)"; > hinziribu; 

inzahuretu; — » hashuru 

hipindu (a stone)? jB lex. 

hipitu(m) "breach" O/MB in dyke; in house; 

< hepu II 

hippum "injury, damaged place" Mari, on face; 
in riverbank (or — » hibbum) 

hipu(m) I, NA also hippu "break(age)" Bab., 
M/NA [GAZ] 1. "break, broken place" on 
object, tablet; NB "fissure" in ground ?; jB/NA 
stones h. sadi "quarried in the mountains" 
2. "act of breaking" tablet; hip libbi "distress", 
also med. 3. math, "diameter"; < hepu II 

hipu II "purified" jB, of deity; < hidpum 

hiqu "mixed, diluted" O/jB, NA of oil; jB, NA of 
beer, usu. as subst. [KAS.A.SUD], pi. f. hiqdti 
"diluted beer", also h. sikari; < hidqu 

hirdpu — » hurdpu 

hiratu — » hirtu 

hir(i)galu (a kind of flour) M/NB, NA 

hirinnu — » harinnu; herinum 

hiristu "deduction" jB lex. in pi.; < hardsu; -* 

hirisu — » harlsu 

hirisnanum (a textile)? OA 

hiritu(m) I "ditch, channel" Bab., NA 1. "canal" 
2. "city ditch, (dry) moat"; < herd II 

hiritum II (an ornament) OAkk(Ur III) 

hirsu — » hersu 

hirtu(m), hiratu, NB histu "(equal ranking) 
wife" Bab. [MUNUS.NITA.DAM] of humans, 
deities; < hidru 

hiru(m) (a piece of clothing) Mari, NB ? 

hirutu(m) "(act of) excavation" Bab. of canals, 
fields etc.; < herd II 

hisannu, ihhisannu (a craftsman) NB mar h.\ 

< OPers.? " 

hisgalu (sufferer from illness) jB 

hisitu; pi. hisi'dti "maltreatment" NA; < hesd 

hisnanni (a shrub)? jB lex. 

hispu (a garden plant) NB 

hisrum "cutting(s)" OB of reeds; < hasdru 

hissatu(m), Bogh. hissetum "understanding; 

mention" Bab., NA "wisdom, intelligence", esp. 

h. uznellibbi; "mention" of s.o.('s name); 

"memory, remembrance, thought for s.o."; 

< hasdsu 

hisu(m), isd(m) (a fish) O/jB lex. 

hisum ~ "(sealed) envelope" OB on document; 

< hesd 

hisutu "pressure" NB in h. hesd "to put pressure 

on" s.o.; < hesd 
hisdrum — » hasdru 
hisbu(m) I "luxuriance, plenty" Bab. [MA.DAM] 

h. mdtimlsadiltdmti "(abundant) yield of land/ 

mountain/sea"; < hasdbu II 
hisbu II "chip(ping)s" jB of wood, stone, e.g. h. 

sdmti "carnelian chippings"; < hasdbu I 
hisibtu "chip" jB; < hisbu II nom. unit. 
hisnu(m), hisinu "protection" O/jB of deity, esp. 

in PNs; < hasdnu 
hispatum ~ "insolence" OB h. kabittum "serious 

hissasatu (or hizzazdtu ?) pi. (an offering 

food)? j/NB 
hissu I; pi. f. "reed bundle"? M/NB for irrigation 

banks; < hasdsu I 
hissu(m) II "gravel" NB; Mari, ext. (as feature 

on liver) 
hisehtu — » hisihtu 
hiselu- (a garment) OAkk, in Hurr. pi. 

hiseluhina; < Hurr. 
hisihtu(m), hisehtu(m), hasehtu; NB pi. also 

hisihheti "requirement" Bab. "thing needed"; 

"desire(d)" of god, as descr. of person; 

< hasdhu 
hisiltu(m) 'crushings' O/jB, desig. of grain, 

spices; < hasdlu 
hisrum mng. unkn. OB lex.; < hasdru ? 
hissamu — » hissd'um 
hissanu(m), hissamu "thorn; needle, pin" OA, 

hissatu "swelling" O/jB med.; < hasdsu I 
hissdtu — » hissd'um; kissdtum 
hissa'um, hissamu ~ "superb, fine" O/jB of god, 

person, horse; O/MB also as fPN Hissdtu(m) 
hissumaku "balancing payment" Nuzi; < Hurr.; 

— » isumaka 
histu I, hisutu "thorn bushes" j/NB 
histu(m) II, hiltu "sluice" Bab., diverted channel; 

bdb h. "sluice gate" 
histu — » also hirtu 
hisu(m), isum "debt-note" O/jB for deferred 

purchase price; < Sum. 
hisu(m) "band, strap" M/jB 1. as personal 

ornament on breast 2. "(carrying) strap" of 

gardener, fisherman 3. "(head)band" 4. "(reed) 

coil" for bird's nest 
hisutu — » histu I 

hitbasu "very joyful"? jB; < habdsu I 
hitldni — » hildni 

hitlapu, hitlupdtu (a garment) jB lex.; < haldpu I 
hitmutis "very quickly" jB; < hamdtu II 




hitpu (an animal sacrifice) NA, NB of sheep, 

oxen, birds etc.; < hatdpu 
hitrubu "very desolate" jB( Ass.); < hardhu 
hittu I; NB pi. hittdnu "lintel" M/NB [(GIS.) 

GAN.DU7] h. sa bdbi "lintel of doorway" 

hittu II (an utterance, phps.) "riddle" jB lex.; 

< hiddu 

hittu III, hattu (a beer jar) jB lex. 

hitu(m) (or hidu(m)) (a bathing place)? OB lex. 

hituhli (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

hititu(m) "shortfall, loss; crime" Bab. h. rasu(m) 
"to become faulty", "become guilty"; h. epesu, 
babdlu(m) "commit crime"; h. patdru(m), 
pussusu etc. "forgive, expunge sin(s)"; 

< hatu II 

hittatu "excavation" NB, esp. of building pit; 

< hatdtu I 

hitu(m) I, later hittu; MA pi. hitdni "error; lack; 
crime; penalty" Bab., M/NA [SE.BI.DA ?] 

1. "failing, defect" of commodity, person 

2. "crime, sin, error"; bel h., NB also sa h. 
"guilty person" 3. h. emedu/sadddu "to 
impose/bear penalty"; < hatu II 

hltu II "payment" NB; < hidtu 

hi'u(m) (a garment)? OAkk in Hurr. pi. hi'ina; 

jB mng. unci, 
hivvaru (a copper vessel) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hiya — » heya 
hiydlu — » hi'dlu 
hizzahbu — » hinziribu 
hizzazdtu — » hissasdtu 
Hizzuvru — » hinzuru 
hu'a, hu'u (an owl) jB 
hudlum — » hdlu 
hudqu — » hdqu 
hu'atum (a meal)? OB lex. 
huballu(m), hubullu, Nuzi hubblppallalu "pit, 

trench" O/jB lex., Nuzi 
hubasu(m) "exuberant one" Bab., as PN; 

< habdsu I 
hubballu — » huballu 

hubbu: NB pi. f. "buzz(ing), whining" j/NB of 
noise in head, lamentation; < habdbu 

hubbu — » kubbu I.II 

hubbultu "debt(s)" Nuzi; < habdlu III 

hubbulu, Ass. habbulu(m) "indebted" O/MA, 
jB; OA pi. as subst. "debtors" of s.o.; 

< habdlu III 

hubburu — » habdru I.II D; hamdru D 
hubbusu(m), humbusu "very swollen, exuber- 
ant" Bab., in PNs; < habdsu I 

hubbusu(m) "swollen up" O/jB of humans; 
transf. (pejorative) as PN; MB of horse; 

< habdsu I 

hubbuttu (or hupputtu) (a garment)? NB, wool 

for h. of deity 
hubbutum — » ebetu II D 
hubibitu — » humbabitu 
hubldu, hupiddnu (a plant) jB lex., med. 
hubisitu — » humbisutu 

hublillu (a kind of grain) jB lex.; -» habulillu ? 
hubrum — » huprum 
hubsasu(m) (a pottery vessel) OAkk, O/jB; 

< habdsu I ? 

hubsu I "dust, flotsam" jB on surface of water, 

< habdsu II ? 

hubsu II, hubusu (object used in cult) j/NB 

hubtdtu — » hubuttu 

hubtu(m) "robbery; plunder" Bab., M/NA [NB 

SAR] 1. "(act of) robbery" NB h. dli "urban 

robbery", - MA hubat seri "desert robbery" 

2. "robbed (goods, animals)" etc.; "(human) 

plunder, captives" in war, also l "h.; < habdtu I 
hubu mng. unkn. j/NB lex. 
hubu I (or hupu) (a prof, desig.)? NB 
hubu II "cleaning" jB; < hidpum 
hubullu(m), NA habullu "debt; interest-bearing 

loan; interest" [UR5.RA] 1. "(interest-bearing) 

debt"; ana h. "on loan"; bel h. "creditor"; jB bit 

h. "debtor's prison" 2. OB(Susa), M/NB 

"interest (on loan)"; > habdlu III 
hubullu — » also huballu 
hubunum, hubunnu(m); Am., Bogh. pi. f 

hubunnetu (a small vessel) O/jB of '/3-1 

qu(m)\ — » huburnu ? 
Hubur, Hihur 1. jB (underworld river) 2. O/MA 

(a month), OA Hubur, MA usu. Hihur 3.jB 

hubur (a plant name) 
huburnu(m); pi. f (small vessel) Mari, Nuzi for 

oil; — » hubunum 
huburnu — » also hihurnu 
huburru — » huburu II 
huburtanuru (a high royal official) Ug. 
huburtu(m) (a reed item) OB, NA ? 
huburu(m) I (a beer jar) Bab., OA [MUD ?] OA 

du. "(twin) jars", bit h.; NB suqi sa h. "street of 

huburu(m) II, huburru "bustle, clamour" O/jB 

of mankind; < habdru I 
hubusum (a weapon) Mari 
Hubusitu — » humbisutu 
hubusu — » hubsu II 




hubuttu(m); pi. huhuttdtu(m), lex. once hubtdtu 
"interest-free loan" OAkk, O/jB pi. tant, silver, 
grain etc.; NB also sg.; > habdtu II; hubuttutu 

hubuttutu(m) "interest-free loan" Bab. silver, 
grain; < hubuttu abstr.? 

hubutu ~ "thicket" Am.; < W.Sem. 

hudatu — » hudu 

huddudu "deeply incised" jB of wadis; 

< hadddu II 

hudhudum (an object) OB; -» huthutu 

hudhummu (or huthummu) (a plant) jB lex. 

hudu(m), hudu; OB pi. f. "happiness, pleasure" 
Bab., NA 1. "joy"; "satisfaction, contentment" 
(with, s.o.) 2. in hud(u) libbi "joy, 
contentment" [5A.HUL.LA]; leg. ina h. l.-su "of 
his own free will" 3. h. kabattilpdni "con- 
tentment, happiness"; < had& HI 

hudumu — » hidumu 

hudussu I (an age group)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

hudussu(m) II "frog (figure)" OB, jB lex., of 
lapis lazuli 

hudussum (or hudusum) ~ "marriage celeb- 
ration" Mari; < haddsu 

hudutu — » hadutu 

hugum (a loaf or cake) Mari; < W.Sem. 

huharis "as with a bird-snare" jB 

huharu(m) m. & f. "bird-snare" [HAR.MU§EN. 
NA]; as weapon of Samas; sa h. "bird-snarer" 

huhhardte — » hurhurdtu; huruhuru 

huhhitu(m) "expectoration, vomit" O/jB; 

< hahu II 
huhhurdte — » hurhurdtu 
huhhuru — » huruhuru 

huhi(n)nu mng. unkn. Emar, desig. of a stone 

feature in city 
huhpum (a bronze vessel) OB; < Elam. 
huhu — » hahu I 
huk "wood" jB lex.; < Elam. 
hukunna mng. unkn. MB(Alal.), desig. of table; 

hulalam, hulalu 1. MB (desig. of horse) 

2. Bogh. lex. (a bird); > hiilaluhlu 
hulalu(m), Qatna haldnu (a valuable stone) 

[NAt.NfR] for vases, ornaments; also as PN 

(also fPN Hulaltum); jB h. ini (part of eye) 

[NA4.NlR.IGl]; h. kappi issuri "bird's-wing h. 

Stone" [NA4.NfR.PA.MU§EN.NA] 
hulalu "like h. stone" NB in fPN Huldliti 
hulalu — » hulalam 
hiilaluhlu (an official) Nuzi; < hulalam + Hurr. 

hulametu -» alamittu 

hulamisu, hulamisu, hallamislsu l.jB lex. (a 

tree) 2. jB "chamaeleon"?; NB as PN 
hulamitu — » alamittu 
hulampashi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hulapu(m) (a wrapping)? OA, jB; < haldpu I 
hulaqu "worn-out garment" jB lex.; < haldqu 
hulasum (a flour) O/jB as food for pigs; 

< haldsu 

hulbaqqu -» huluppaqqu 

hulbatu adj. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

huliam, huliyam "helmet" Am., jB as armour; as 

type of vessel, in stone, metal; (name of a plant) 
hulllu mng. unkn. Mari, in um h. 
hulium — » hulu 
huliyam — » huliam 
hullanu; Nuzi pi. f. "(cloth) cover, wrap" 

M/NA, M/NB [TUG.GU.LA] garment, in pairs; 

h. ahi "wrap with sleeves"; woollen, linen; also 

"cover" for bed 
huUu(m), ullu; jB pi. ulldni "neck ring, tore" 

O/jB as ornament, of metal; for dog; "ring" on a 

door, "ring" of fortification walls; < Sum. 
hulluqis "in order to destroy" jB; < haldqu D 
hulluru — » halluru 

hulmahu (a kind of snake) jB lex.; < Sum. 
hulmittu ~ "dragon; kind of lizard" jB [MUS. 

HUL]; < Sum. 
hulmum; pt. f. mng. unkn. Mari 
huhnuna ~ "lamp"? MB(Susa); h. nuwwuru; 

hulpalu — » huppalu 
hulpaqqu -> huluppaqqu 
hulqu(m) "lost property" O/jB; < haldqu 
hulqu -» huluqqd' um 
hulsu (a garment) NA lex. 
hultuppu(m), hultuppu(m), occas. hustuppu 

liter, "evilly striking" jB (desig. of demon); also 

O/jB (a month in Elam); < Sum. 
hultuppu, haltappu "(exorcist's) rod" M/jB; 

< Sum.; -» mashulduppu 
hultuppu — » also hultuppu 
hultimmu — » huttimmu 

hulu, OAkk hulium, jB once hilu (a rodent, 

phps.) "shrew" OAkk PN; jB, NA mag. 

[peS.hul; peS.s1la.gaz] 
hulu; pi. huldni "way, road" M/NA, Nuzi 

[KASKAL(.2)] "(physical) road"; MA "course" 

for horses; "journey" of ship 
huluhhu(m) (light( -coloured) slag) O/jB, NA 

med.; NA from usmetu stone; < Sum. 
hulukannum, hilukannum (a kind of vehicle) 

hululum (a leather object) OB lex. 




hulumum (valuable type of earth)? OB, weighed 

huluppaqqu, hulp/baqqu (a vessel) M/jB 

[NfG.TAB.TUR.RA] of copper, pottery; usu. for 

huluppu (a bird) Bogh. lex. 
huluppu — ► also haluppu 
huluptu (a cloth cover) jB lex.; < haldpu I 
huluqqa'um, haluqqd' u(m), hulaluqqu, hulqu 

"(commercial) loss" [ZAH] "lost goods"; 

"(financial) loss(es)"; < haldqu 
hulutu (a mixed 7 drink) NA, in massitu 

containers for offerings; < Aram. 
humalitu "friendly, sympathetic"? jB of goddess; 

< humdlu 

humalu "sympathy"? Ug.; < gamdlu ? 
humamatu, hummetu pi. tant. "detritus, jetsam" 

jB mag., in fig. etym. with hamdmu 
humasirum — ► humsiru 
humdsum — » umdsu 
humatum (part of body) OB lex. 
humbabitu, humbubitu, hu(m)bibitu, NA 

humbabaritu 1 - jB, NA 1. (a kind of lizard)? 

2. (a figurine); NA also "Humbaba (figurine)" 
humbirra(t)tu (a stone) jB med. 
humbisutu, hu(m)bisitu; jB pi. humbisdte "lump 
" of dough"? M/NB, NA; as" NB fPN also 

Hu(m)busitu; < habdsu I 
humbubitu — ► humbabitu 
Humbusitu — ► humbisutu 
humbusu — > hubbusu 
humilatu pi. tant.? mng. unkn. NB, field with h:, 

h. of bit PN 
humiru ~ "lump"? jB lex., of lead; < hamdru 
hummanu (a prof, desig.)? NB 
hummdtu — ► gummdtu 
hummetu — » humamatu 
hu(m)mudayum (a siege instrument) Mari 
hummuru(m), Ass. hammuru "crippled" Bab., 

MA [KUD.KUD(.DU)] of foot; of human, also as 

PN; "lame" of horse; MA "stumbling"? of 

gazelles; < hamdru or hemeru; > hammurtu 1 - 
hummusum D "to pressurize, oppress" OB; — > 

hamsu; himsdtu 
hummusum mng. unci. OB as PN; < hamdsu D 
hummusu I "'/5 (shekel)" NB; < hamis 
hummusu II "snapped off' jB lex., of grain; 

< hamdsu I 

hummutis "very quickly" O/jB; < hummutu I 
hummutu I "quick" NB, "early-bearing" of palm 

tree; < hamdtu II 
hummutu II "very hot" j/NB of fate ?; 

"parched"? of field; < hamdtu III 

humsiru — > humsiru 

humsirtu, hab(a)sirtu "female mouse" j/NB 

[PES.MUNUS]; NB as PN; < humsiru 
humsiru, humsiru, humussiru(m), humunslsiru, 

halum(a)sl sirum, hah/m(a)siru(m), kamasirum 

"(large) mouse" OAkk, Bab. [PES]; often as 

PN; > humsirtu; hahasirdnu 
humsu(m), NB hunzu "one-fifth" NB wr. syll., 

else [5- ]; < hamis 
humtu — > hutmu 

humtum I "haste"? OB; < hamdtu II 
humtu(m) II, huntu "heat; fever" 1. OAkk, O/jB 

"hot season", also as feast and MN 2. jB, NA 

"fever"; < hamdtu III 
humunnaswe mng. unkn. Nuzi, lamp sa h:, 

< Hurr. 

humunslsiru etc. — » humsiru 

humusa "five each" OB; < hamis 

humusu, humusa' u, humusiu [5- ] 1. Nuzi, NB 

"five-year-old" 2. NB family "of five 

individuals"?; < hamis 
humusum "(the number) five" OB; < hamis 
humusum — ► also umdsu 
hunabu(m) "thriving" O/jB lex., of person; as 

(f)PN; < handbu 
hunibum "shoot, seedling" Mari; < handbu 
hunima (a vessel) Am.; < Eg. 
hunnum (a kind of table) OB lex. 
hunnu(m) "to give shelter, lodge"? Mari, sheep 

(also MB, mng. unci.); < W.Sem. 
hunnubu(m) "very thriving" O/MB in (f)PNs; 

< handbu 

hunnunu(m) (desig. of men, sheep) jB lex.; 

< handnu ? 

hunnutu "(state of) ripening" jB lex. of grain 

etc.; — ► huntu 
huntu (part of door) jB lex. 
huntu "ripeness, maturity" jB lex.; — ► hunnutu 
huntu — ► also humtu II 
hunzu — » humsu 
hunzu, hunzu' u, huzzu ~ "lame" M/NB usu. as 

PN, family name; — ► hutenzu 
hupd'u — ► hupu 

huphuppu (a container) jB lex.; < Sum. 
hupiddnu — ► hubidu 

hupirririsa (a prof, desig.) OB(Susa); < Elam. 
huppa, huppi (stance of mourner) jB; < Sum.?; 

— ► huppu II 
huppallalu — ► huballu 
huppalu(m), hut(a)palu, hurpalu, hulpdlu (a 

weapon) jB [GIS.TUKUL.SAG.NA4] "mace" or 

huppasilurgu — > habsallurhu 




huppat(a)ru (a vessel) Qatna, Nuzi, for 

washing; of gold; < Hurr. 
huppdtu — ► huppu I.II; huptu III 
huppi — ► huppa 
huppu(m) I; NB pi. f. (a kind of basket) Bab., 

MA [GI.GUR.HUB] as container; OB "guard"?, 

on lance; MA, of glass; NA sa hu(p)pdnisu 

"basket-dealer"?; < Sum. 
huppu(m) II, uppu(m); Ug. pi. f. "hole, pit"? 

O/jB in fields, of snake 7 ; — ► huptu III 
huppu — ► also huppu II; hurpu; uppu II 
huppu I, Ass. happu "broken (up)" MA, M/NB 

of head; tablets; MA of spices "crushed"; of 

population "scattered"; < hepA U D 
huppu(m) II, huppu [(LU.")tfUB.BI/BU] 1. (cultic 

dancer) O/jB 2. (a weaver) M/NB; < Sum.; 

> hupputu; — ► huppa 

huppudu(m) I "blind" O/jB of person, puppy; 

also as PN; < huppudum II 
huppudum II "to blind" OB; OAkk "delete" 

words on tablet ?; > huppudu I; — ► upputu 
hupputtu —* huhhuttu 

hupputu "skill of cultic dancer" NB; < huppu II 
hupri (a capacity measure)? Alal. 
huprum (or hubrum) mng. unkn. OB 
huprushu, hurpushu (a vessel) MB(AlaL), 

Nuzi of pottery 7 , metal; < Hurr. 
hupsena —* hupsu 
hupsilurglhu — ► habsallurhu 
hupsis "as a plebeian" jB; < hupsu 
hupsu(m) "(member of) lower class" esp. MA, 

Alal. (Hurr. pi. hupsena), Am., jB(Ass.); 

"rabble" usu. of soldiers; of mutinous gods; 

> hupsis 

huptu I "superiority" M/NB of gods; also in PN; 

< hapdtum 
huptum II; pi. hupdti (field subject to specific 
"form of duty) OB 
huptu(m) III; pi. huppdtu "hole, hollow" jB, NA 

in ground; in neck, head; h. ineli "eye-socket"; 

OB lex. (a metal bowl); — » huppu II 
hupu, MA hupd'u "fragment" MA, jB 1. pi. 

"sherds" of pot, tablet; "chips" of wood; lex. 

"flakes" of fish; "wisps" of cloud 2. jB lex. (a 

vessel holding '/2 qum); < hepu II 
hupu(m) I "(wheel) rim; ring" OAkk, O/jB 

"rim, tyre" of wheel; jB lex., transf. 

hupu II "fear" NA in h. libbdte "fear of s.o.'s 

anger"; < hdpu 
hupu — ► also huhu I 
hupurtum — ► upurtu 
huqqu mng. unkn. Bogh. lex. 

huqqumum vb. or adj.? mng. unkn. OB, action 

applied to flour 
huqu "step, rung (of ladder)" Bab., NA; also 

NA "landing stage"?; jB transf. "(critical) 

stage" of illness; (a kind of bird), also (a 

hur — ► hurri 
huradu I; MA/MB pi. f. "soldier; army" M/NA, 

MB, Urar.; MA rab(i) h. "military com- 
mander"; < harddu IV or Hurr.? 
huradu II mng. unkn. j/NB ((part of) a plant)? 
huralbu, hurallu "bed" jB lex. 
hurapu(m), Nuzi also hirdpu; f. hurdptu "spring 

lamb" O/jB, M/NA [SILA4.NIM, f. KIRn.NlM; 

Ass. (MUNUS.)UDU.NIM; NA also (MUNUS.) 

NIM] OB also PN; Nuzi in kalumu h:, Nuzi also 

"kid" of goat; < hardpu I 
hurasanum; f. hurdsdnitum 'goldie' 1. OA, OB 

as ('f)PN [OA KU.GI- ] 2. jB lex. (a bird, phps.) 

"goldfinch"; < hurdsu 
hurasu(m) "gold" [KU.GI; OA also KU.KI] 

nappdh h. "goldsmith", epis h. "gold-worker"; 

as valuable substance; as PN 
huratu(m) pi. tant. "ladder" O/MA 

huratu(m), Mari also hawuratum) "madder 

(Rubia tinctorum)" Bab., M/NA [GIS.JJAB] as 

shrub; as drug; esp. in dyeing wool, leather 
hura'u mng. unkn. Nuzi, desig. of grain; < Hurr. 
hurbabillu, urbabillu "chamaeleon"? jB 

[BAR.GUN.GUN.NU]; med. fat of h. 
hurbakkannu, hurba(q)qannu — ► harbakkannu 
hurbasu(m) "frost; terror" O/jB [MIR.SES] 

"hoar-frost" and sim.; med. "shivering, cold 

tremors"; "terror, panic"; "fearsomeness"; 

> naharhusu 
hurbiwu — ► haiwiu 
hurbu "desert" NB; < Aram. 
hurdatanu "like a hurdatu" NB of date palm; 

< hurdatu I 
hurdatu(m) I "cross-beam" jB of yoke-shaft, 

house; tamarisk; > hurdatanu 
hurdatu(m) II "female pudenda" Bab., NA; 

learned etym. hurri-dddu "hole of love" 
hurdu(m) I; OB pi. f. "door mat" O/jB i.e. door 

made from mat; < harddu III 
hurdu(m) II "posthumous child" Ass. 
hurhadu —* harhadu 
hurhudum —* ur'udu 
hurhummatu(m) "foam, scum" O/jB, NA on 

water, beer, oil etc. 
hurhuppu, urruppu, urrumbum (a vessel with 
" knobs)? O/jB lex. 




hurhuratu, NA huhhulardte pi. (a red dye) 

" M/jB, NA 

hurhututu "arrow" Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

hurianum — » hurium; uriydnu 

huribtu; pi. hurbdtu "desert" M/NB, NA often 

pi.; < hardbu 
hurinum mng. unkn. OB(Susa) 
hurium, hurianum (a spice) OAkk(Ur III) 
hurizu I; pi. hurlzdletu, hurlzena "villa, palace" 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hurlzu(m) II (a stone) OB, Ug.; = urlzu ? 
hurmu (or harmu) (a plant) jB lex. 
hurndm —* urnu 
hurpalu — » huppalu 
hurpatum, huruppatum ~ "tent" Man; — » 

hurpu(m), huppu; OB pi. f. ~ "blood clot" O/jB; 

< hardpu II 

hurpu pi. "early crop" OB; also sg.?; < hardpu I 

hurpushu — » huprushu 
hurratu "hole" NA of mongoose; < hurru nom. 

hurratu — » also murratum 
hurri, Jim/- "ever (after)" O/jB, NA; OB "for 

ever"; NA ana hur, mostly ah-hur 

"( thereafter", "else, furthermore" 
hurru(m); NA pi. f. "hole" OAkk, Bab., M/NA 

[HABRUD(.DA)] in wall, door etc.; "burrow" of 

animal; "ravine"; "cave, mine"; Ji. pi "mouth 

cavity"; > hurratu; — » hardru; hurdatu II; 

hurrupu, NA harrupu "(very) early"? NB; NA 

of kind of wine; < hardpu I 
hurruru(m) "deeply incised" O/jB of feature on 

liver; also PN; < hardru 
hurrusu(m) "furrowed, incised" Bab. as PN; 

< hardsu 

hurrusu "bound" M/jB lex.; also as PN; 

< hardsu II 
hurrutu — » murrutu 
hursdnis — » hursdnis 

hursanu(m), hursdnu "river ordeal" Bab., NA 
[NB pUR.SAG] "place of ordeal", ana h. 
aldkulsapdru; "ordeal procedure"; OB as DN; 
(name of plant) 

hursdnu — » also hursdnu 

hursennu — » harsapnu 

hursatu (a plant) jB lex. 

hursanis, hursdnis "like a mountain" j/NB; 

< hursdnu 

hursanu, hursdnu "mountain(s)" M/NB often 
pi. [pUR.SAG (earlier •= sadum I)]; Bogh. 
"siege mound"; < Sum.; > hurSdnis 

hursdnu — » also hursdnu 

hursianum m. & f. "package" OA 

hursu(m), ursu; OA pi. f. "(kitchen) storeroom, 

larder" Ass., OB lex., Mari; bit h. in temples 

"storehouse"; — » gursu I 
Hursub(i)um (a month) OB(Susa) 
hurtu — » /ia; - /« 

huru I "son" jB lex.; < Hurr. 
Huru II (a month) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
huru — » also «r« III 
hurugu (a goose)? jB lex. 
huruharu, huruhuru mng. unkn. MA, jB 
huruhuru, NA huhhuru; pi. huruhurdtu, NA 

huhhardte (a kind of bread) M/NA 
huruhuru — » also huruharu 
huruppatum — » hurpatum 
huruppu(m) 1. "(metal) dish" M/NA pi. f.; for 

betrothal feast 2. "pelvic basin" of ox; NB as 

cut of meat; part of constellation 
hururum — » hariru 
hurussu (a vegetable) jB lex. 
hur'zazatu (a kind of tube)? jB lex. 
hurzinum — » urzinu 
hurzuhurza — » murzumurza 
husarikku — » kusarikku 
husarum, husdrum "haematite"? OA, traded; 

material of seal; pi. m. "h. pieces"; also as PN 
husau — » A«5M 
husigu, Ass. kJgusigu, jB also agusigu (a stone) 


husinu (a commodity) NA, in sa h.-su "h. man" 
husirtum "broken piece" of reed OB math.; 

< hasdru 
husmdnu — » hasmdnu 
hussu (a vessel) NB; < hesu ? 
hussuru(m) "broken off' etc. O/jB; OB lex. of 

person, "with broken teeth"; OB (desig. of 

copper), "scrap pieces"?; jB lex. "dilapidated" 

oven; < hasdru 
husu I (a kind of owl) jB lex. 
husu II mng. unkn. jB astr.; < hesu ? 
husuhusu (a child's game) MB 
husuku — » husuku 
husabu(m) "twig, branch; stick, splinter" Bab., 

M/NA "twig" of tree, NB "rib" of palm-frond; 

(wooden) "peg", "stick" for plough, ship etc.; 

"off-cut", "chip, splinter" of worthless item; NB 

gener. "(fire) wood"; NB, as PN; < hasdbu II 
husannu; NB pi. also f. "sash, belt" j/NB 

[TTJG.NfG.fB.LA] worn around hips; also for 

divine statues; -^ huzunu II 
hussu; pi. f. (a kind of reed hut) M/NB, NA; 

M/NB also as PIN; > hasdsu II 




hussu —t also husu 

hussusu, Ass. hassusu, pi. hassasute "snapped 

off jB, NA of reeds; < hasdsu I 
husu, hussu ~ "pain" jB in h. hip(i) libbi ~ 

"stomach pains" 
husahhu(m), kusahhum "need, shortage; 

famine" [SU.GU7] "shortage" of grain, straw; 

OA "needs, requirement"; "neediness, famine"; 

sanat h. "famine year"; "starvation" as illness; 

< hasdhu 

husakasu "disposal, disposition" of s.o.? Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

husalum mng. unkn. OA 

husanum (part of ship) OB lex.; < Sum. 

husdrum — » husdrum 

husasum "rejoicer" OB, as PN; < hasdsu I 

husd'u —t husu 

husauru/u "prisoner" Nuzi; < Hurr.; 

> husaurutu 
husaurutu "captivity" Nuzi; < husauru 
husinu "strength" NB of men; < Aram. 
husranni "all humanity" jB lex. 
husria (a magical formula) jB 
hussu "salve" jB in hus samni "salve of oil"; 

< hasdsu II ? 

hussu(m) "red" [HUS.A; OA pu.SA ?] epith. of 
gold, copper; of garment; of pig, honey etc.; 

< Sum.; — » husu; russu 

hussulu(m) "crushed, bruised" O/jB of injured, 
damaged person; OB as PN; jB of newborn 
child; < hasdlu 

hussurannu mng. unkn. Nuzi (desig. of cart- 
yoke); < Hurr. 

hustuppu — » hultuppu 

husu(m), O/MA husd'u, husd'u pi. tant. ~ 
"(metal) scraps"; < hasu IV 

husu(m) "red (colour)" O/jB of garment; of 
glowing oven; — » hussu 

husuatu "strength" jB lex. 

husuhhu (a garment) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

husuku, husuku pi. (part of horse harness) MA, 

husumma in h. epesu "to tie up (to)" Nuzi, 
animal, hand, wheel; < Hurr. 

Hutalse (a month name) Nuzi; < Hurr.; — » 

hutapalu — > huppalu 

hutebdnu — » hutibdnu 

hutennu —* hetennu 

hutenzu vb. "to be(come) lame"? jB lex.; — » 

huthummu — » hudhummu 
huthutu (a commodity) MB(Alal.); -» 

hutibanu, hutebdnu (an official) NB; < OPers.? 
Hutizzi (a month) Alal.; — » Hutalse 
hutmu, humtu (a bird) jB lex., om. 
hutnu ~ "(legal) guardian" NA; also in PNs; 

< hatdnu 
hutnu — » hetennu 
hutpalu — » huppalA 

hutpu(m) "arrowhead" O/jB of bronze, for 

huttu (a storage vessel) M/NB for grain, liquid 
huttumumma in h. epesu "to enclose" Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

huttutu "louse ridden" jB lex.; -» hatitu; kuttutu 

hutugu (an implement) NA 

hutul (a magical formula) jB 

hutulu(m); OA pi. f. (an object) OA, jB lex. 

hutartu, NB also hutastu "stick, staff M/NB, 

NA in king's hand; for beating s.o.; NB 

"staff (-shaped mark)" on slave; < hutdru 
hutaru, NB also huturu "branch, stick; staff 

j/NB, NA [GlS.GIDRU] NA in sa h. (an 

official); NB (a type of soldier); NB also d H., 

deified in cult; > hutartu 
hutastu —t hutartu 

hutti(m)manu "snouty" MB, as PN; < huttimmu 
huttimmu, hultimmu "snout" j/NB of pig, dog, 

ape; NB as cut of meat; > huttimmdnu 
huturu — » hutdru 
hu'u —* hu'a 
huzalu(m), uzdlu; f. (h)uzdlatum, uzdltum 

"gazelle kid" [amar.MAS.DA]; also as PN 
huziqatu — » haziqatu 

huziranum "Piggy" OB, as PN; < huzlru 
huzirtu "sow, female pig" MA, as fPN; jB/NA 

lex. in h. eqli (a kind of cricket); < huzlru 
huziru(m) "pig" Ass.; as PN also OAkk; 

> huziranum, huzirtu 
huzunu I (an object) Am., in gold 
huzunu II; pi. f. (a garment) NA; — » husannu 
huzzi (a linen garment) Am. 
huzzu — » hunzu 
huzzumu(m) "mutilated" Bab., of person with 

imperfect physical/facial feature; < hazdmu 


i "let's; come on" O/jB cohort, ptel. before 1 pi. 

pret., i nillik "let's go"; also in question "should 

we ...?"; occas. before 3 f. pret. (i taltu-) 
i — > also ina 
-i"my" (I sg. pron. suff.) (-♦ GAG §42); -♦ -a; 

-a I; -ya 
ia'u —* yau 

ibahu, ebahu "womb" jB lex. 
ibaru (a mark on skin) jB; aban ibdri (a stone); 

< eberu II 
ibassi -* basu G 
ibbaru -* imbaru 
ibbiltu (or ippiltu) (a bird) jB lex. 
■bbu I, ebbum 'day of wrath', "19th day of 

month" O/jB; < Sum. 
ibbum II, imbu "loss" O/jB of grain, in 

commerce; < Sum. 
ibhu (or iphu) (a kind of bug) jB lex. 
ibihu -* eblhu 
ibilu "camel, dromedary" jB, NA [ANSE.A.AB. 

ibinna -* binna 
ibissau — ♦ ibissu 
ibissu -* ebissu 
ibissii(m); OA pi. ibissd'u "(financial) loss" 

OA, O/jB [I.BI.ZA] i. amdru(m), i. dagdlu(m) 

"to suffer a loss"; < Sum. 
ibitu "pus" jB lex., med.; < ebu II 
iblakku (a thin beer) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ibratu(m), NA gen. ibriti "(outdoor) cult niche" 

Bab., NA [UB.LIL.lA] 
ibretu pi. tant. "radius and ulna" jB lex, (liter. 

'friends'); < ibru 
ibru(m), Ass. ebru(m) "friend, colleague" 

[KU.LI]; > ibretu, ibriitu; -* abdru in 

ibrum "sealed document" OB [KISIB.IB.RA]; 

ibrutu, OA ebaruttwn "friendship"; OA "group 

of partners"; jB "friendship, partnership"; 

"alliance"; < ibru abstr. 
ibsu (or ipsu) "mat" jB of palm fronds, reeds; 

NB epis i. "mat- weaver" [LU.SU.TAG.GA], as 

family name; < epesu 
iburu -* eburu 
Id, Ittu 1 "River(-god)" O/jB, M/NA [ d lD; 

d ID.LU.RU.GU] ana I. aldkum "to go to the 

river-ordeal"; also term.-adv. Wis jB; sa Id 

"ferryman" jB lex.; < Sum. 
iddnu -* edanu 
idasus, ddsus, tdsus (a creepy-crawly, liter.) '60 

arms'? jB lex.; < idu + susi ? 
idatu —* ittu I 
idatutu mng. unci. NB 
idd'um -* edu II 
iddanna, inadanna "if necessary, at a pinch; in 

any case" OB; < ina + dannatu ? 
idddt etc. -♦ ddt 
iddum; pi. f. ~ "sharp end, point" OB of tool; 

< ededu 
iddd -* ittu 

idiltu "locking, lock-up" jB; < edelu 
idlnum -* edinu 
idinu —* edenu 
idiptu "wind, gust" M/jB; also illness of cattle; 

Am. d i as demon; < edepu 
idirtu(m), edirtu(m), Mari yi-... , NB idistu 

"misery, trouble; dismay" Bab.; < addru II 
idisam "side by side, in columns" OB of writing 

on tablet; < idu 
idissi- —* wedissi- 




idistu -* idinu 

iditu (a kind of mash) jB lex. 

idranu(m) (or itrdnu(m)); pi. f. "potash" Bab. 
[NIMUR(=KI.NE); MUN.NIMUR.RA] "salt" on 
saline fields; < idru I 

idru I (or itru) "saltpetre" M/jB "salt" on saline 
fields, walls; also med.; > idrdnu 

idru II (or itru) (a band, belt) Am., Bogh., jB 

idru -* also adru II 

idu(m); pi. m. & f. "arm; side; strength; wage" 
[A; DA] 1. "arm" of person; freq. du.; OB PN 
Issu-kabit "His arm is heavy", idin sakdnum "to 
exert pressure"; sipir idisu "his handiwork"; 
"handle" of tool; "wing" of bird 2. "side" of 
person, i. (ace.) aldku, izuzzu "to go, stand at" 
s.o.'s "side", "help"; -♦ naparku II, sahdru, 
tdru D; idi ana idi "on each side"; as prep, idile 
(ace.) "by, next to", analina i. "to/at" s.o.'s 
"side", + Ioc.-adv. e.g. idussu "at his side"; pi. 
f. iddt "round about, all around" (-♦ ddt) 
3. transf. "strength", ina idika "according to 
your ability" 4. "purpose, reason", iddt lemuttim 
"evil intentions"; ina Id idim "groundlessly"; 
OB /. rasum ~ "to be set aside", i. sursum "to 
put off, give low priority" S. "wage, rental" 
m. pi., NB; OB, NB occas. sg. "wages, 
pay" of craftsman, of hired worker; "rental, 

• payment for hire" of animal; boat, cart; house, 
store; > ittu I; idasus; idisam 

idu -* edu II 

idugallu "head doorkeeper" j/NB [(LU.)ni.gab. 
gal] of deity "doorkeeper" of the nether world; 
NB in cult; < Sum. 

id'umu (a lance) jB lex.; -♦ da'imu II 

idfitu -* edutu 

igaris "like a wall" jB; < igdru 

igartum, OB also ikartum "(a single) wall" OA, 
OB; for pi. -♦ igdru; < igdru nom. unit. 

igaru(m); pi. f. "wall" [E.GARs; IZ.ZI; OB rarely 
I.IZ.ZI, E.zi, SIG4.ZI] of house, garden; "side" of 
boat; < Sum.; > igaris, igartum 

igbu —* eqbu 

igerru —* egerru 

igertu —* egertu 

igiaru (a mathematical term) jB lex.; < Sum. 

igiballu ~ "orchard"? jB lex.; < Sum. 

igibru "storm" jB lex.; < Sum. 

igibu(m) "reciprocal of reciprocal" Bab. [IGI.Bl] 
math.; < Sum. 

igidalu, igidaru "with a single eye" as birth 
defect OB; < Sum.? 

igidum (a list) OB; < Sum. 

igigallu(m), kigallu "wisdom, wise man" Bab. 
[IGI.GAL] O/jB "wisdom"; j/NB "wise one", 
epith. of god, king; MB(AIaI.) (an official)?; 

igigallutu, gigalliitu "wisdom" j/NB [IGI.GAL- ]; 

< igigallu 

Igigu "the (ten) great gods" O/jB; "the gods of 

heaven" M/NB [ d NUN.GAL(.MES)] 
igigubbu(m) "coefficient" Bab. math. 

igimtu "anger, rage" jB; < agdmu 
iginutuku "blind" jB [IGI.NU.TUKU]?; < Sum.; or 

-♦ ndtilu ? 
igiru(m) "heron" O/jB [IGIRA.MUSEN; I5.GAR. 

igisu(m), gisu "contribution, gift" Bab. [IGI.SA] 

OB "(annual) dues" from priests, merchants; 

"gift, present" for god, king; < Sum. 
igisigallatu (a priestess) jB lex.; < Sum. 
igisitu, egisitu(m) (a priestess) O/jB; < Sum. 
igisgulu "finest olive-oil" jB lex.; < Sum. 
igistum "the very first" OB lex. [IGI.DU]; < Sum.; 

-♦ gestu 
igitennum "fraction; quotient" OB [IGI.TE(.EN)] 

math.; < Sum. 
igitu -* egitu 
igium '-* igu I 2 
igizaggu, igizangu -* egizaggu 
igru(m) "hire, wage" Ass., O/jB for worker; OA 

pi. tant; for rental of house, boat, store; 

< agdru 
igu -* egu 

igu(m) I 1. "eye" jB 2. OB also igium 

"reciprocal" Bab. [IGI] math.; < Sum. 
igu II "prince, leader" jB lex.; < Sum. 
igu -* iku 
igulu(m) "fine ointment, oil" Bab. [i.GU.LA]; 

ihenunnakku 'oil of plenty' = "precious oil" jB 

for door; < Sum. 
ihhisannu -* hisannu 
ihzetu(m) pi. tant. "decorative inlay, studding" 

O/jB [U.GUN] of garment, metal work, stone; 

< ihzu I 

ihzu(m) I 1. "learning, education" Bab. [N1G.ZU] 
for craftsmen, singers etc.; pi. "instructions, 
precepts" 2. freq. pi. "setting, mount" for 
precious stone; < ahdzu; > ihzetu 

ihzu II "whip" jB lex. 

i'iltu -* e'iltu 

ikartum -* igartum 

ikiltu -* iklu U 

ikimtu "atrophied part" jB ext. [KAR ?]; < ekemu 



ilku(m) I 

ikisu -* ikisu 

Tkis "like a ditch" jB; < iku 

Ikisitu "Kis canal" jB lex.; < Sum. 

ikisu, ikisu (a subordinate family-member) jB 
lex., NA ? 

ikkanu "your(s)" (pi.) NA; < ikku 

ikkaru(m), Nuzi also inkaru; pi. usu. f. "farmer, 
ploughman" [(LU.)ENGAR] M/NA, NB rab 
ikkardti "overseer of farmers"; as epith. of king; 
as desig. of king during occupation of throne by 
substitute; as PN; OB, Nuzi "farm-inspector, 
estate manager", also desig. of plough animal; 
Bab. also mar i. "member of the i. class"; 

ikkarutu(m) "farming; ploughing, cultivation" 
OB, Nuzi [ENGAR- ]; < ikkaru 

ikke —* ke 

ikkem — * kiam 

ikkibu(m) "taboo" Bab., NA [NIG.GIG] ref. to 
object, action; jB i. ililDN "anathema to 
gods/DN"; ;'. akdlu "to break a taboo"; 
"(consequence of breaking) taboo, misfortune"; 
ref. to preserved, protected by deity; 
offensive to, forbidden by deity, king; lu 
ikkibkunu "let it be taboo to you"; < Sum. 

ikkillu(m), killu(m) "lamentation; clamour, 
uproar" Bab., NA [AKKIL] of army, child, 
mourner; of thunder, earthquake; "cry" of 
animals, birds; < Sum.; -♦ angillu 

ikkiltu (an object of gold) Qatna 

ikku(m) I ~ "mood, temperament" Bab., NA i. 
karulardku "to be short-tempered/long-suffer- 
ing"; usu. "bad temper, malice"; bel(et) i. "ill- 
tempered (wo)man" 

ikku II "door" jB lex.; < Sum. 

ikku "your(s)" (sg.) NA; > ikkanu; —* ku 

Ikkukku — * ikuku 

ikkiim — * kum 

ikkurratu — * iskurratu 

iklallu (a kind of door) jB lex.; < Sum. 

iklatu f. pi. (an object) Alal. in list 

ikletu -* ekletu; eklu 

iklu I "darkness" jB in i. pdni "gloominess"?; 
< ekelu 

iklu II, ikiltu "victim" (of disease, predator) jB 
lex. of animals; < akdlu 

iknusum (an object) OA 

ikparum (an ornament) OAkk, OB 

ikribu(m) "prayer, dedication; blessing" [SUD; 
SISKUR] "prayer", i. qabulsemullequ "to 
say /hear/accept prayer", sa i. "supplicant", bit i. 
"house of prayer, temple"; esp. OA, OB pi. 

"votive gifts"; "blessing" by person on deity, 

king; for long life etc.; < kardbu U 
iksu (or ikzu) (a door) jB lex. 
iksum (or ikzum) mng. unkn. OAkk 
iku(m) "field"; (a measure of area) Bab., MA 

[IKU] 1. OB "cultivated field" 2. (an area, c. 

60x60 metres, = 100 miisar) [NB also AS.IKU]; 

OB math, (a vol. measure, 1 cubitxl iku); MA 

also (a linear measure) 3. the constellation 

"Pegasus" [MUL.AS.IKU]; < Sum. 
iku — ♦ also eku I 
Iku(m), eku, igu(m) "dyke, ditch" OAkk, O/jB 

[E] "bank of earth"; "ditch, small canal"; also 

"plot surrounded by a dyke or ditch"; < Sum.; 

> ikis 
ikuku ~ "rancid oil" M/jB [i.HAB] med., as 

ointment; also MB Ikkukku as PN ? 
ikzum -* iksum 
ikzu — ♦ iksu 
ildlutu — * uldlutu 
ilanu "favoured by god, lucky" jB [DINGIR- ]; 

< ilu + -an + -i 
ildtu -* elitu 
ilbuhhu -* ellabbufcfru 
ildakku ~ (a type of poplar) jB 

[(GIS.)ILDAG(=A.AM) (-♦ also addruUI)]; 

ildu -* isdu; istu; wildum 
ilhu (a garment)? jB lex. 
Hi -* eli 
ilianum, Hiyannum, i/eridnum, eldnum, jB erdnu 

(a tree) O/jB lex.; -♦ iriyannu; ridnum 
iliglkulla -* elkulla 
ililum — ♦ elilu 
ilimtumma in i. epesu "to oblige, bind"? s.o. 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
ilippum —* eleppu 
ilis, elis "to, on, like a god" OAkk, OA in PN + 

takdlum "to trust in god"; jB "to" or "like god"; 

ilittu "birth, offspring" M/NB [MB U.TU ?] 

"birth"; "origin" of god, person; i. TN/PlN/biti 

etc. "bom in, scion of TN/PlN/house", also of 

animals; < walddum 
ilitu -* elitu 
Hiyannum —* ilianum 
ilkakatu(m) 1. Mari = alkakdtu "ways, 

activities" 2. NA secondary pi. of ilku I 

"(separate) ilku payments"; < aldku 
ilku(m) I "(state) service" Bab., M/NA military 

or civilian service for state, NA, NB also for 

temple; i. aldkum "to perform iMwn-service", 

ilik sarri "royal service", kasap i. "silver (paid 

ilku II 



in lieu) of L"; OB, jB "iVfe(-land)", also OB bit 

i'.; ;'. afyum "alien i. (performer)"; NA, NB 

"(contribution, payment in lieu of) i", NA pi. 

— ♦ ilkakdtu 2; < aldku; — ♦ pilku U 
ilku II ~ "hip area" jB 
ilia "without" NB + gen., also illdnussu "without 

him"; < ina + Id (+ -an) 
illab(a)raya (a bird) jB 
illabbulfu -* ellabbufyhu 
illaggusu -* ellamkusu 
illakkunnu (part of a quiver) Nuzi, of silver 
illa-me —* ella-me 
illdmu — ► elldmu- 
illdnu — ► Hid 

illaru (a maltster's tool) jB lex. 
illatu(m) I, also illitu, allatu. Ass. ellutu(m), st. 

constr. ellalet "band, group" [ILLAT] "family 

group, clan", OAkk also "(god of) clan"; 

"band" of evildoers, of soldiers, i. suppuhu "to 

scatter a band"; "team" of draft-animals, "pack" 

of dogs, lions etc.; OA, OB "trading caravan"; 

jB lex. i. eqli (a weed) 
illatu II "rejoicing, celebration" jB; < aldlu in 
illatu pi. tant. "saliva" jB [Uy.MES] i.-su illakd 

"his saliva flows" 
Hlaya — ♦ elleya 
illihbufru —* ellabbuhtyu 
Hlidis -* lidis 
illigu — ♦ elligu 
Illil-* EM 
illilum -* elilu 
lllilutum —* Ellilutu 
illitu —* illatu I 
illu(m) I 1. "partner, comrade" O/jB 2. (desig. of 

quality) OB of cattle; NB of wool 
illu II "high water, flood" O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
illu -* also ilu I.II 
illukku, i/elluku 1. jB (a precious stone) also 

transf., as term of esteem 2. jB lex. (a 

ceremonial robe); < Sum. 
illumi -* allu II 
Illurdnu, Illuratum -* illuru 
illure, illuru, eluri (an exclamation) MA, jB; 

illurgisdilu ~ "throwing stick" jB; < Sum. 
illuris "like a (red) flower" jB; < illuru 
illurtu "handcuffs" jB 
illuru —* illure 
illuru(m), elluru (a flower) Bab. [U.NfNDA] usu. 

red; med. as drug; i. pdni "rouge" for facial 

make-up; as PN, also Illurdnu, f. Illuratum; 

> illuris 
ilmisi -* elmesu 

ilmu (or Hmu) (part of a quiver) Nuzi 

ilmusu -* elmesu 

ilpitu —* elpetu 

ilpum (a garment) Mari 

ilqu, ilqetu "leech" jB 

ilsu I "loins" jB lex. 

ilsu II "joy" NA in i. libbi; < elesu 

Ht. . . -* also ist. . . 

iltdnu —* isten 

iltappu, Htepitu, altaputu "loincloth" j/NB 

iltdt —* isten 

ilte(-) -* isti 

ilteltu —* ittiltu 

Htepitu —* iltappu 

iltetfu) -* isten 

ilti -* istu 

iltiltu —* ittiltu 

ilti(n)nu -* istenu 

iltin(u), iltit(u) -* isten 

iltu(m)I, eltum "goddess" OAkk, Bab., OA ? 
[DINGIR; jB also DINGIR.MUNUS] also ref. to 
demon; to statue; < ilu 

iltu II, Bogh. eltu "chaff' M/jB [IN.RI; IN.(NU.) 
Rl] of cereal; "spikelet; awn" of grain 

iltu —* also istu 

iltuhfyu, iltuhlu -* istulfhu 

ilu(m), elu(m); pi. ilu, ilanu "god, deity" [DINGIR; 
jB NI; jB occas. DINGIR.NrrA; OA also EL; pi. 
also DINGIR.DINGIR] "a" or "the god", also du.; 
personal "god", i. isu(m), i. rasu(m) "to be, get 
lucky"; OA bel Id ilim, jB Id bel Hi "luckless 
person"; ref. to divine statue, of metal, repaired, 
in ritual, plundered; OB divine symbols; 
demon, esp. ilu lemnu; mythical hero, deified 
king; mdrat i. (a priestess) jB; > iltu I, Hutu, 
ilis, Hand; —* mustanlu; rdsilutu; serki-ilutu 

ilu —* elu II 

flum I (or ilium); pi. m. & f. (a leather bag) OA, 
Mari; containing copper, sealed 

flu II, illu "reed bundle" M/jB 

i'lu(m) 1. OB "contract, bond" 2. O/jB, MA 
[TUG.SIG4.ZA; OB TUG.GUZ.ZA ?] "band, bind- 
ing"? for head, foot; of chair, bed; < e'elu 

ilulaya (a camel)? OB lex. 

ilutu(m), Huttu "godhead, divinity" Bab., NA 
[DINGIR- ]; in prayers i.-ka "your divinity", i.e. 
"you"; coll. = "the gods"; bitlbdb i. "divine 
house/gate"; < ilu 

Hutu —* elutu 

imampu (or imampadu) (a kind of list) jB lex.; 
< Sum. 

imdru -* imeru 

imatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 




imhd — » embd 

imbaris "like fog, cloud" jB; < imbaru 

imbaru(m), ibharu(m), occas. inharu "fog, mist" 

O/jB, NA [MURU9] also "fine drizzle"; 

> imbaris 
imbu — » inbu 
imbu, imbu u 1. Bab. lex. "fibre" (of the date 

palm) 2. ;'. tdmti [(NA4.)KA.A.AB.BA; occas. 

KA+GIR.A.AB.BA] ~ "algae, scum" on sea 
imbu — » also ibbum II 
imbu'u (a small stone bottle) jB lex. 
imbuu — » also imbu 
imdu(m), j/NB also indu "support; imposition" 

1. transf. divine "support", esp. in PNs; Am., 

j/NB "(archit.) support, buttress" 2. M/NA, 

j/NB "imposition, impost" 3.jB (a piece of 

jewellery)?; <emedu 
imduhallatu — » anduhallatu 
imdullu "(clay) lid"? jB lex.; < Sum. 
imertu — » amertu I 
imeru(m), imi/dru(m), Ass. emdru(m) "donkey" 

[ANSE; DCJR; Nuzi also ANSE.NITA] sa i., NA 

sa i.-su "donkey driver"; jB "donkey" figurine; 

Ass., N.Mes. 'donkey-load' (a measure of 

capacity; a measure of area); /'. same 'sky 

donkey' (a bird); ;'. hasi(m) 'lung donkey' (a 

part of the liver); ('. eleppilydsibi (a part of 

ship/ram); > imerutum; — » himdru 
imerutum "donkey stock" Mari [ANSE.HI.A- 

;■«- ]; < imeru 
imgarru (a kind of list) jB lex.; < Sum. 
imgiddu (a single-columned tablet) jB lex., 

comm.; < Sum.; — » gittu 
imgipu (or imgipadu) (a kind of list) jB lex. 
imgiriasu — » ingirasu 
imgum adj. mng. unkn. OB, also in PNs 
imgurru; pi. f. "clay envelope" M/NB of 

cuneiform tablet; "mould" for frit; < Sum. 
imhullis "like a storm" jB 
imhullu(m), anhullu "destructive wind; storm" 

[IM.tfUL]; < Sum. 
imhupu (a tablet) jB lex.; < Sum. 
imhur-esra, -asrulila, -asna(n), -asla, 

anhurasru (a climbing plant) M/jB, NA 

[U.IGI.20]; folk etym. 'it withstands twenty 

(ailments)' < maharu + esrd 
imhur-lim(i/e), anhullime (a medicinal plant) 

M/jB, NA [U.IGI.LIM]; folk etym. 'it withstands 

a thousand (ailments)' < maharu + lim 
imigidu (a kind of list) jB lex. 
iinikanum (female animal that has given birth) 

OB lex.; < Sum. 
imikkaruru(m) (a kind of grass)? O/jB lex. 

imirtu "sight, view" jB imratsunu mutu "sight of 

them is death"; < amdru 
imirtu — » also amertu I 
imiru — » imeru 
imistu "contraction" jB med., /. libbi "contraction 

of the heart", i.e. appetite ?; < amdsu 
imitta(m), emittam "on the right" OB, less freq. 

j/NB, NA [ZAG; 15; A.ZI]; < imittu I ace. 
imittu(m) I, emittu(m) "right side, the right" 

[ZAG; OB A.ZI(.DA); j/NB, NA 15] gener. "the 

right", i.-su "his right", sippi i. "the right-hand 

doorjamb"; "the right hand", also qdt i.; i. 

ummdni "right wing of army"; OB "(neighbour 

on) the right"; < imnu; > imitta 
imittu(m) II, emittu(m) "support; imposition" 

1. transf. divine "support", esp. in PNs 

2. "shoulder" of animal [UZU.ZAG(.LU); OB 
also MURGU; jB also 15]; also as cut of meat 

3. (a kind of lance) [Ug. ZAG.LU] 4. "imposi- 
tion" MA of punishment; NB of tenancy dues; 
< emedu 

imitum mng. unkn. OB of cattle, flocks 

imlum (a cone shape)? OB math. [IM.LA]; 

immanakku, imnanakku (a kind of stone or 
sand) jB, NA [(NA4.)IM.MA.(AN.)NA]; < Sum.; 
— » amnakku 

immanis "in daytime" OB; < immu + -an + -is 

immat(ile) — » mad 

immati/ema — » matlma 

immatimi — » matime 

immertu(m), Ass. emmertu "ewe" Bab., NA ? 
[UDU(.NITA)(-/«m); (UDU.)Ug; Nuzi UDU. 
MUNUS]; also as PN; < immeru 

immeru(m), Ass. emmeru(m); pi. m. & f. 
"sheep" [UDU; UDU.NITA] also specifically 
"male sheep, wether"; pi. "sheep; sheep and 
goats" [UDU.MES; UDU.pi.A etc.]; ;'. samni "fat 
sheep"; ('. maru(m) "fattened sheep" [(UDU.) 
NIGA]; ('. sadi(m) "mountain, wild sheep" 
[UDU.KUR(.RA); UDU.NfTA.KUR]; also in PN; 

> immertu 

immu(m) "heat (of day), daytime" O/jB opp. to 
night; /. musldli "heat of midday"; < ememu; 

> immanis 

immu "tablet, record" j/NB; < Sum. 

immu — » also imu 

immugubbu (or mugubbu) "exercise tablet" jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
immunedu (a kind of list) jB lex. 
immunusu, immunusu 'female clay'? mng. unci. 

jB lex.?; < Sum. 


inhu(m) I 

imna, imnu adv. "on the right" j/NB, NA [ZAG; 

15]; < imnu 
imnanakku — » immanakku 
imnis "on the right" jB [15-w]; < imnu 
imnitu 'male clay'? mng. unci. jB lex.; < Sum. 
imnitu "she on the right" (desig. of mother) jB 

lex.; < imnu 
imnu(m) subst. "right (side, hand)" [ZAG; 15] st. 

abs. ana imen "on the right"; imnukka "in your 

right hand"; "right side", imnussu "at his right"; 

> imna, imnis, imnu; imittu I, imitta 
imnu — » also imna 
imnu(m); f. imnitu "(lying) on the right" O/jB 

[A.ZI.DA; 15] of furniture, part of liver, jB lex. 

of subu-s\omer, < imnu; > imnitu 
Impurtanni (1st month at Nuzi); < Hurr. 
imra/dtu — » imertu; imru 
imriqqu "clay sealing, bulla" jB lex.; < Sum. 
imru "observation" jB; pi. f., mng. unci.; 

< amdru I 

imru(in) I "fodder" O/jB [MUR.GUD] for animal- 
fattening; < maru II 

imru II "family, clan" jB lex.; < Sum. 

imsarmupadu (a kind of tablet) jB lex.; < Sum. 

imsarsubbu — » sarsubbbu 

imsuhhu "whirlwind" jB lex.; also lit. [IM.SUH]?; 

imsu ~ "stiffness"? jB in ('. qdti "i. of the hand"; 

< amdsu 

imsu — » also emsu 

imsuguppu ~ "list of required materials" OB, jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
imsukku "(bun-shaped ? ) exercise tablet"? jB 

[IM.SU]; < Sum. 
imtanu "tuft of black hair" jB lex.; from 

donkey's rump; — » imu 
imtu(m) "poison" Bab., ref. to poisonous spittle 

of demons etc.; "venom" of snake, scorpion; 

imat marti "gall"; imat miiti "deadly poison" 
imtuhallatu — » anduhallatu 
imtuhsum, intuhsum (a container) OAkk(Sum.) 
imtu, intu 1. pi. tant. jB "loss(es)" in business 

etc.; ;'. ddmi "anaemia" 2.jB (a cutting 

implement); < matu II; > intatta 
imum (an implement) OB 
imu — » also emu 
imu, immu, e(m)mu "tuft of black hair" jB lex.; 

from donkey's head; — » imtanu 
imutum mng. unkn. OB 
imzidu (a kind of list) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ina, in (im-m..., ip-p... etc.) "in, on; by; from" 

(freq. abbr. in, with assimilation of n to 

following consonant (OA often wr. /)) [AS; TA; 

Bogh. SE] 1. of place "in, on"; of time "on, at", 
"during", ina PN "in the reign of PN"; before 
infin., ina amdrika "when you see" 2. of 
condition, ina baldtim "in health" 3. "among", 
ina sarrdni "of, among the kings" 4. "from, out 
of, ina qdt PN "from the hand of PN" 5. "by 
means of, with" tool, weapon etc.; word, 
incantation; "with, out of material (brick, 
stone) 6. "in consequence of, as a result of, ina 
mahdsim "because of beating"; ina qibit DN "at 
DN's command" 7. "with respect to; according 
to", "(measured) by" cubit, sutu etc. 8. ina Id 
(— » Hid) "in, because of the absence of, ina Id 
ide "unwittingly" 9. conj. + stat. subjunct. "so 
long as", ina haltu u salmu "while alive and 

inadanna — » iddanna 

inanna, after prep, also inanni "now" OAkk, 
Bab. absol., and after prep., adi i. "till now", 
kima i. "right now", istu i. "henceforth" etc.; 

< ina + anna; — » enenna; innannu; kinanna 
inannu (a cry to Sin) jB lex.; < Sum.; — » iutu 
inanu "very busy" jB; < inu 

inbaru — » imbaru 

inbu(m), enbu, imbu; NB pi. also f. "fruit, 
flower; sexual appeal" [GURUN] "fruit, flower" 
of tree, plant; inib (pan) satti(m) "/. of spring"; 
('. kiri "orchard fruits"; "fruit tree"; "fruit, 
flower( -shaped jewellery)"; ref. to moon-god, i. 
bel arhi; transf. of humans "offspring", esp. in 
PNs; "(sexual) attractiveness"; > enebu; — » 

indu — » imdu; undu I 

induhallatu — » anduhallatu 

induhhatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

induru (a waterskin) jB lex. 

inedukku — » unnedukkum 

inga, innigd "right now" NB; < ina + agd 

ingallu — » niggallu 

ingana "come on!" Am.; — » gana 

ingaralislsu — » ingirasu 

ingippu mng. unkn. jB 

ingirasu, ingalirdlislsu, MA imgiriasu, NA also 
ingiridsu (a fruit tree) M/NA, j/NB 

ingirenu — » ingurenu 

ingiridsu — » ingirasu 

ingu (part of a plough) jB lex. 

ingurenu, ingirenu (an object) NB; of metal; — » 

inguru ~ (an old garment) jB lex. 

inhu(m) I "hardship, trouble" O/jB, also pi.; 

< andhu I 

inhu II 



inhu II (a type of cultic song) MA, jB; 
> andhu II 

mi — ► eni; in ana ini — ► mlnu I 

inimma, inimmu ~ "oh!" jB in lamentations 

inimmu I, enimmu "word" jB(lit.); < Sum. 

inimmu II "cup, bowl" jB lex. 

initu(m) I, enitu(m), inittum "team of plough- 
oxen" O/jB; inidti illak "he works with the 
plough-team"; "(cost of hiring) plough-team"; 

< end III 

initu II (a secret language)? jB; < end III ? 

initu III (a ship)? jB lex. 

inkaru — ► ikkaru 

innabu "luxuriant" jB lex.; < enebu 

inna(n)nu/a/i "now that, as soon as" jB conj. + 

stat. subjunct.; < iiianna 
innedukku — » unnedukkum 
innigd — » ingd 

inninnatu "Innin-goddess" jB as epith.; < Sum. 
inninnu — » ennenu 
innintu — ► ennettu 
innu "look!" jB lex. 

innii "ours" (poss. pron.) NA; — ► nid'um 
innuharum — ► annuharu 
insabtu — ► ansabtu 
insis ~ "deceitfully" OB in i. lamnis 
in$n — » emsu 
intuhsum — » imtuhsum 
intatta "in need" NB in /. sakin "is in need"; 

< initu + -a«a 
mfu — > imtu 

inu I, e/w, jB, NB(roy. inscr.) also inum "when" 
OAkk, Bab.(lit.) conj. + subjunct.; OAkk also 
prep., inu RN "at the time of RN"; — > inuma; 

inu(m) II (a stringed musical instrument) O/jB 

inu ~ "job, craft" jB; > indnu 

inu(m) I, OAkk, Ass. enu(m) f. "eye" [IGI(.2); 
pi. usu. IGI.2.MES; Am. also IGl.m.A] 1. "eye" 
of god, human, animal; NA i. sakdnu "to pay 
regard to"; OB inka maffdrum "to please you"; 
i. lemufti "evil eye" 2. transf. in alpi lex. (a 
wine), OB math, (a geometrical figure); transf. 
"(spy-)hole" in oven, "mesh, interstice" of net, 
"thole" ? of wheel, "bubble" in beer 3. "spring, 
well", Ass. res eni "source" 4. "eye-stone" 
(desig. of ornamental stones), also fish-, bird-, 
pig-eye stones; — ► damqam-inam 

inu II "wine"jB lex. 

inuma, enuma "when" Bab. [UD] 1. conj. + 
subjunct. "when" (Mari also + indie.) 2. Bogh., 
Alal., Am. "that", lu tide i. salim "know that he 

is well" 3. prep, "at the time of, /. dawdem "at 
the time of the defeat" 4. adv. M/NB "at that 
time" (— ► inumisu); Am. "now" (for anumma); 

< inu I + -ma 

inume, inumi "when" OAkk, OA, rarely OB 

conj. + subjunct.; < umu I 
inumisu "in those days; then" OA, OB, NB(roy. 

inscr.); OB istu/warki i. "since then"; < umu I 
inumti — » umtum 

inunnakku "butter pot" jB lex.; < Sum. 
inusu, enusu, NB also inus "at that time, then" 

OAkk, Bab. [UD.Bl] esp. in main clause after 

inu(ma), ki; < inu I + -su 
inyanu (a metal object) NB 
inzah(u)retu, lex. also inzuhiretu, inzurdletu (a 

red dye) j/NB in pot; for textiles; also 

"/.-coloured (wool)"; < hinzuru 
inzaru, inzuruhu (an aromatic plant) Bogh., jB 

as drug 
inzum — » enzu 

inzuhiretu, inzurdletu — » inzahuretu — » hinzuru 
inzuruhu — » inzaru 
iphu — » ibhu 
ipiru — » eperu 
ipistu — ► epistu; epsu 
ipisula — » episum 

ipitu "clouding over" of eyes jB; < apu III 
iplu, eplu, ipletu pi. tant. "exchange equivalent" 

Nuzi; < apdlu I 
ippdru — ► appdru 

ippatu (a sea creature) NB sa tdmti 
ipperu — » ippiru 
ippiltu — » ibbiltu 

ippiru, ipperu ~ "conflict, war" M/jB; < Sum. 
ippitti — ► pittu I 
ipqum "embrace, protection" OAkk, OB; of 

deity, in PNs; < epequ 
iprasakku (a Persian legal official) NB; 

< OPers. 

ipru(m) "ration, subsistence allowance" [SE.BA] 
for person, family, animal; < eperu 

ipru — ► also eperu 

ipsis — ► ipsu 

ipsu(m), epsu(m) "deed, action; sorcery" [DU]; 
OA pi. "(building) works"; Mari "manufact- 
ure^ item)"; Am., Ug. "behaviour"; jB 
"(magical) activities; sorceries"; Bab., NA ;'. 
nikkassi "doing the accounts"; ;'. pi(m) 
"utterance, command", OB(lit.) ipsis pi= ana i. 
pi; < epesu II 

ipsu — ► also ibsu 




ipsur-limu/e (a medicinal plant) jB lex.; folk 
etym. 'it undoes a thousand (ailments)' 

< pasdru + lim 

iptennu, iptelinum "meal(-time)" O/jB; 

< patdnu I 

iptu(m) f., st. constr. ipat "luxuriance" Bab. ;'. 

kibrdtim "the wealth of the world"; jB 

"luxuriant" (a plant name) 
iptiru(m), ipterufm) "ransom (money)" O/MA, 

O/jB freq. pi.; for person, for goods; of person 

as ransom for other person; <patdru; — > 

ipu(m) "membrane; afterbirth" O/jB, MA ? [US] 

"film" on oil; "membrane" in intestines; 

"placenta" of animal; "blinkers" for horse 
iqbinu mng. unci. jB lex. 
iqnu — > uqnu 
iqupu — > uqupu 
ir... — ► also er... 
ird — > iria 

irana mng. unkn. Nuzi 

irarazakku "lamentation prayer" jB lex.; < Sum. 
iratu — > irtu 
irbu — » erbu I 

irdu (a disease of sheep) jB lex. 
irdu — ► also isdu 

ir'emum "loved one" OAkk; < rdmu II 
irhu ~ "aggressiveness, insolence" jB in irih pfsu 

"i. of his mouth"; < erehu 
iria, aria, elird adv. "side by side" Bab. usu. of 

parts of liver 
iridnu — » ilidnum; iriyannu 
irima'u (or italma'u) (a copper object) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

irimmu(m) "bead (necklace)" OB, Qatna; — > 

irimmu — ► also erimmu I 

iripu — ► eripu 

iristu — ► eristu II 

irisu — ► erisu 

iritu "guidance"? jB; < warum II ? 

iri'u, eru "dregs, lees" jB of beer 

iriya(n)nu/a (a plant) jB lex.; — ► ilidnum 

iriydtu — ► eriydtu 

irpi (an Egyptian official) Am.; < Eg. 

irsisu mng. unkn. NA, a precious item 

irtanu, istdnu "with breasts" jB transf. of date 
palm; < irtu I + -an + -i 

irtu(m) I, iratu(m), OAkk ertum "breast, chest" 
[GABA] of human, deity; du. esp. woman's 
"breasts"; transf. in battle /. turru, i. ne'tt "to 
turn s.o.'s breast = put to flight", also refl. "to 
retreat"; of animal; as cut of meat; transf. 

"breastplate" as protection or ornament; "breast- 
piece" of animal's harness; "front" of chariot; 

"edge, frontage" of sea, building, bow; in prep. 

usages ina i. "opposite"; ana i. "towards, 

against"; > irtdnd 
irtu II (a kind of song) jB 
iru mng. unkn. jB in /. sa buqli "/. of malt" 
irum — » eru II 
iru ~ "strong" jB lex. 

isarum (or isdrum) ~ "annexe, outbuilding" OA 
ishappu, ishabbu, OB ashappum "villain, 

rogue" O/jB; < Sum. 
ishenabe — ► ishenabe 
ishu(m) I f. "arm" O/jB of human; "fin, flipper" 

of fish; "wing" of bird; transf. "strength" jB 

lex.; — ► ezehu 
ishu II, MA ishu; pi. f. ishdletu "allocation" Bab., 

MA of offerings etc. 
ishunnatu(m), ishunnatu(m), ishunnu "bunch of 

grapes" O/jB, NA [(GIS.)kin.GESTIN]; OB, NB 

as fPN 
isihtu(m), esihtu(m) "allocation" O/jB of 

commodities allocated to s.o.; OB tuppi i. 

"allocation document"; < esehu; — ► isiktum 
isikku "hard"? jB lex. of clay; < Sum. 
isiktum, esiktum "allocation" Mari, OB(Esn.); 

< esehu; — ► isihtu 

isiltu(m), esiltu ~ "swelling, inflation" O/jB med. 
of parts of body; of land, troops (an epidemic); 

< eselu 

isimmanu(m), simmdnu, OB also simannum 
"ration (of flour and malt)" Bab. [zi.MUNU3/4] 
an edible commodity; j/NB also "allocation, 
allowance" of military or building materials; 

Isinitu, Isinitu "the Isin canal" jB; < PIN 

isinnu(m), issinu(m), issinnu; pi. f. "festival" 
Bab., M/NA [EZEN] urn i. "feast-day"; /. DN 
"DN's festival", /. MN "festival of MN"; also 
transf. as desig. of battle; OB "festival 
(allocation of food)"; < Sum. 

isinnu — ► also assinnu 

isinnu — > assinnu 

isippum mng. unkn OB in bit i. 

isiqtu(m) "engraving, scratch" O/jB as incised 
design, mark on water-clock; < esequ 

isirtu I "incarceration" Nuzi; < eseru II 

isirtu(m) II, esirtu "(debt-)collection" O/MB of 
silver, sheep etc.; < eseru III 

isitdtu —tasa'itu 

isitu ~ "friendly discourse" M/NB of human, 
god; locust's "chirping"; < esu ? 

isitu — ► also asa'itu 



isaru(m) I 

iskimbu, iskimmu -* giskimmu 

ismaru -* azmaru 

ismekku -* esmekku 

ispillurtu — ► ispallurtu 

isqarrurtu -* isqarrurtu 

isqdtu -* isqu; izqatu 

isqillatu — ► isqillatu 

isqippu -* isqippu 

isqu(m), isqu, esqu; pi. usu. f. "lot; share" Bab., 
NA [GIS.SUB.BA] 1. 1. nadu "to cast lots", ina i. 
lequm etc. "to receive by lot", i. + maqdtum "to 
fall" to (= ana) s.o. 2. "share (assigned by lot)" 
of land, inheritance; (by divine disposition) of 
land, people; of temple income, office, esp. NB 
of prebends; bel i. "prebendary" 3. of attribute, 
role assigned to s.o. by destiny, deity 4. (a 
musical interval sounded by lyre-strings 1+3); 
> esequ 

isqubbitu — ► asqubbitu 

isquldlu — ► asquldlu 

isququ(m), islsquqqu (a coarse flour or groats) 
O/jB [zl.KUM] grindstone for i:, akal i. "i. 
bread"; < Sum. 

isru(m) I (a small granary) O/jB lex. 

ism II "exacted payment" M/NB; < eseru III 

isru(m) III m. & f. (a part of the exta) O/jB 

isru — ► also isru II 

issahis, issahes, issahayyis(i) "together" NA; 
< issi + ahis 

issanu — ► asnd 

issen -* isten 

issenis -* istenis 

issenu -* istenu 

isset — ► isten 

issi -* isti 

issillatu -* isqillatu 

issinu — ► isinnu 

issu (or issutu); pi. i(s)sdte "woman, wife" NA 
[MUNUS(.MES)]; > issutu; -* issu; sinnistu 

issu — ► also isu; isdu; istu 

issutu (role of female) NA [MUNUS- ]; < issu; jB 
— ► sinnisutu 

issurri, issurru "perhaps" NA; < ina + surri 

istatirru; pi. istatirrdnu "stater" NB Gk. coin; 

istuhhu — ► istuhhu 

isu(m), issu "jaw" O/jB [(UZU.)ME.ZE; SI] of 
human, animal; i. saplA "lower jaw"; astr. in is 
II, also is le "bull's jaw", the constellation 

isu — ► hisu 

isdrum -* isdrum 

isratu, occas. misratu "plan, ground-plan" O/jB 
of building, field etc. i. eseru, m. mussuru "to 
lay out plan"; < eseru; -* usurtu 

issabtum -* ansabtu 

isser -* seru 2 

issu — ► isu 

issuris "like a bird" jB; < issuru 

issurtu "female bird" j/NB [MUNUS.MUSEN; 
AMA.MUSEN] also as fPN; < issuru 

issuru(m) occas. f.; pi. occas. f. "bird" [MUSEN] 
wild, tame; bit i. "poultry house"; sammi i. (a 
plant); aban i. (a stone); Nuzi "bird(-shaped 
vessel)"; ext. (feature of entrails); i. rabu 
"duck" [MUSEN.GAL-h/m], i. sdtnu; in com- 
pounds: i. appdri, asdgi, badilli, hurri ("rock- 
partridge"? [BURU5.HABRUD.DA]), kiri, kisi 
("swallow"?), kubsi, maskani, me, miisi, sadi, 
se'i, siiri, sari ('wind-bird', i.e. "weather- 
cock"); > issuris, issurtu 

isu(m), issu, Ass. e(s)su(m); pi. m. issu, OA also 
f. "tree; wood" [GIS] 1. "tree", /'. kiri "orchard- 
tree", 1. bilti "fruit-bearing tree", i. sadi 
"mountain tree(s)"; Nuzi "woodland, grove" 
2. "wood, timber", "(piece of) wood" ref. to 
house-beam, "(shaft of) weapon, stake", 
"fetter"; "firewood"; —* izqatu; kdtimisi 

Isu — ► wisum 

isurtu(m), M/NA esurtu "drawing, plan"; 
transf., divine, royal "design(s)"; OA 
"inscribed document, writing-board"; < eseru; 
— ► usurtu 

isu(s)su mng. unkn. jB lex. 

is "to, for" Early Mari, OB(Diyala) 

is -* also isu 

-is "to; like" term.-adv. suffix on subst.s and 
adj.s; -+ GAG §67 

is "where?" NB; < ayyis; -* is; mes 

isa(h)hu — ► ishu 

isanu ~ "important" M/jB lex.; usu. Id i. 
"powerless, poor" jB; < isu 

isarma — ► asar 

isaris, Ass. iles(e)ris, jB also misaris "correctly, 
normally", i. apdlu "to answer, repay 
satisfactorily, satisfy" s.o., i. aldku, i. dabdbum, 
OA /. atwum "to conduct o.s., negotiate 
properly"; < isaru I; —* misaris 

isartu(m), occas. usartu "prosperity" O/jB; 
< isaru I 

isaru(m) I, iseru, es(e)ru, Ass. es(a)ru, NB 
misaru ? "straight; correct, normal" [SI.sA; 
occas. GIS] of clay, wool etc.; "right, just, 
righteous" of ways, sceptre, word; of deity, 
man; "fair, handsome" of looks; "in order" of 

isaru(m) II 



bowels; f. isartu (a musical interval sounded by 
lyre-strings 2+6); < eseru; > isaru II; isartu, 
isaris, isarutu, isertum 1 -; — > misaru 
isaru (m) II, M/jB also (m)usaru "penis" O/jB 
[GIS] of man, dog etc.; appi i. "glans penis"; 

< isaru I 
isaru — ► eseru 

isarutu(m) "correct state, normality" Bab. 
[SI.SA- ] 1. aldku "to flourish"; NB "righteous- 
ness"; < isaru I 

isatis "on fire, ablaze"; < isdtu 

isatu(m), Am. also esdtu {.; pi. f. isdtdtu(m) 
"fire" [IZI; M/NA freq. IZI.MES] Am. sa i. of 
metal (a small brazier)?; "(bon)fire beacon" as 
signal; med. "inflammation"; OB (a disease of 
date palms)?; > isatis 

isbabtu ~ (a grass or weed) jB 

isbum, esbum (or ilespum) (a prof.) OAkk, also 

isburnaftu]? (or ispurna[tuf) "pine cone" jB 

isdahhum (a plot ? of ground) OB 

isdihu(m) I, isdihhu "profit(able business)" O/jB 
[NIG.ME.GAR]; < saddhu 

isdihu II, asdihu (a garment) jB lex. 

isdu(m), elusdu(m), OB also istum, M/NB also 
ildu, irdu, NA issu; pi. f. "foundation, base" 
[SUIJUS (-+ sursu); OAkk, OB also DU; UR; 
DUR] freq. du. 1. "foundation" of • building; 
transf. of throne, reign, land, city etc.; ref. to 
persons, "discipline" of troops, bel isdin 
"disciplined person"; "position, situation" of 
s.o. in life, esp. in PNs 2. "base" of vessel, 
"hull, keel" of boat; "stand" for jars; "central 
part" of object; "stump, trunk" of tree; i. same 
"base of heaven", i.e. "horizon" [AN.tJR] 

3. "root" of tree, plant, /. nasdhu "to uproot" 

4. "base" of part of body, feature on liver, jB 
du. "legs" of person; > isittu II; rasddu ? 

isdun mng. unkn. jB lex. 

isennu, isenu — > isinu 

iseris — ► isaris 

isertum "normal quantity"? OA of goods; 

< isaru I ? 

isertu — ► also esertu I 

iseru — ► isaru I 

ishanabas, ishanabe — ► ishenabe 

ishar "blood" Bogh. in aban i. "blood-stone"; 

< Hitt.; jB -+ ashar 

ishenabe, ishanabe, ishenabe, ishanabas; pi. 
ishanabedte (a garment) M/NA, M/NB; 

< Hurr. or Hitt.? 

ishenase; pi. ishenasena ~ (desig. of a stool or 

chair) MB(Alal.);< Hurr. 
ishihatum (a wound)? Mari; < sahdhu ? 
ishilsis "into sherds" jB 1. purruru "to shatter"; 

< ishilsu 

ishilsu "(pot)sherd" jB [SKA.KUD.DA]; > ishilsis 
ishitum "razzia, raid" Mari; < sahdtu I 
ishiuli "contract" OA; < Hitt. 
ishu, isa(h)hu (a piece of military kit) 

MB(Alal.), M/NA, NB of leather, textile 
ishu — ► also ishu U 

ishu "bridegroom, husband" jB lex.; < Hitt. 
ishunnatu — ► ishunnatu 
ishuppu (a game)? MB 
isibgallu (a chief purification priest) jB lex.; 

isibkigallu (kind of purification priest) jB lex.; 

isibmassugallu (kind of purification priest) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
isiktu "marshland" jB lex. 
Isinitu — ► Isinitu 
isinu(m), isenu(m), isilennu, issenu "stalk, stem" 

Bab. of grain; also ('. eqli (a kind of weed); 

isippu(m) (a purification priest) Bab. 

[ISIB(=ME)] of temple staff; Ass., desig. of 

king; ('. Eridu, desig. of Adapa; <Sum.; 

> isipputu; -* isibgallu etc. 
isipputu "role, position of a purification priest" 

j/NB i. epesu "to fulfil function of isippu"; 

< isippu 
isirtu — ► esertu I 

isistum mng. unkn. OB lex. 

isittu(m) I, esittu(m) "storeroom, treasury" Bab., 

NA [erIm] in temple, palace; "treasure, stores" 

(-+ laginu) 
isittu (m) II "foundation, base" O/jB; isitti sami 

"horizon"; < isdu 
isitu — ► esitu 
isiu -* usu 
iskarissu (a kind of rodent) OB lex., jB 

iskaru(m), eskdru(m); pi. m. & f. "work 

assignment" [eS.gAr; OB also AS.GAR; MA 

GIS.GAR] 1. "work assignment" for man, 

animal, for day(s); MB of daily march 

2. "(assignment of) work materials" 

3. "(delivery of) completed work", NA 
"(payment in lieu of) work assignment" 

4. OAkk, Bab. "(field for) work assignment" 

5. "text series", e.g. of Gilgames, Etana; /. 
masmassuti "incantation series" etc.; NA Id sa 

iskihhuru 134 

/'. "not in the series"; also f. pi. "(sub-)sets" of 
songs within an /.; < Sum. 

iskihhuru (a prof, desig., phps.) "ointment- 
mixer" Nuzi, desig. of woman; < Hurr. 

iskikitum (a bird) OB 

iskinu pi. tant. "supplementary payment" OAkk 
[NIG.KI.GAR]; < sakdnu 

iskiski mng. unkn. Nuzi ina MN sa i.; < Hurr. 

isku(m) I f. "testicle" [Sir] of man, animal; 
tukkanndt i. "scrotum"; i. alpi 'ox's testicle' (a 
kind of cucumber) 

isku II "son" jB lex.; NA in PNs ? 

iskurratu, ikkurratu (a milk product)? NB 

iskuru(m), eskuru(m) "wax" [DUy.LAL] jB from 
bee's honey; for making figurines, for writing 
boards; OB pi. f. iskurdtum "wax-candle"? 

iskushu (woollen chariot cover, rug)? Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
is IS — » isu 

islitum (a festival) Mari 
islu (a plant) jB lex.; MA pi. f. 
ismannu — ► issimannu 
ismaru — ► esmard 
ismekku — ► esmekku 
isnugallu — ► asnugallu 
ispa (desig. of silver) OA 
ispallurtu(m), palillurtu(m), NA ispillurtu 

"cross" O/jB, NA [BAR] ref. to cross-shaped 

object; "crossroads"; astr., ext. "cross-shaped 

feature"; jB adv. pallurta "cross-wise" 
ispardu, isperdu, ispar "horse-bit" M/jB 
ispartu(m), uspartu "female weaver" [MUNUS. 

US.BAR; OB GEME.US.BAR]; < isparu 
isparu (m), usparu(m); Nuzi pi. also f. "weaver" 

Bab., M/NA [(LU.)US.BAR] bit i. "weaver's 

workshop"; wakillrabi i. "overseer of weavers"; 

/. birmi/kite/siprdti "weaver of multicoloured/ 

linen/s. cloth"; > ispartu; isparutu 
isparutu "weaver's craft; guild" Nuzi, NB 

[US.BAR- ]; < isparu 
ispattalu "overnight accommodation" OA; 

< Hitt. 
ispatu(m) "quiver" [Am. KUS.E.MAR.RU] usu. of 

leather for arrows, javelins; also "bow case" jB 

isperdu — ► ispardu 

ispiku(m), ispikku "stores (of crops); grain-bin" 
OAkk, O/jB [i.DUB] usu. pi.; bit i. "store- 
house"; < sapdku 

ispu (a container) NB 

ispum — ► also isbum 

ispurnatu — ► isburnatu 

ispurusinnum (or ispuruzinnum) (an 
implement)? OA 

isqappu — ► isqippu 

isqarrurtu(m), esqarrurtu, isqarrurtu (an 
agricultural implement)? O/jB circular or 
cylindrical ?; astr. as star emblem, also d /.; — » 
qardru ? 

isqdtu — ► izqdtu 

isqillatu(m), isqillatu, (is)sillatu "(a type of) 
shell" O/jB [NA4.PES4] of river, canal, sea; also 
OB, Am. (a container for oil); OB as PN 

isqippu, isqippu, isqappu ~ "earthworm" jB 
[MAR.GAL] as drug; (name of an illness); d /. as 
DN; also (a bird) 

isqu —* isqu 

isqubbitu — ► asqubbitu 

isquqqu — ► isququ 

isrd — ► esrd 

isrdtum, isretu — ► esertu I; esretu 

isri — ► asm HI 

isris — ► isaris 

isrisu — » esrisu 

isrum I f. (a woollen band, sash) OA 

isru(m) II, esrum, isru(m); pi. f. "enclosed 
village"? O/jB 

isrum HI "tithe" OB, payment of 10%; < eser 

isrd —* esrd I 

issa "although" Mari; < ina + sa 

issakku — > issiakkum 

issakkiitu — > issiakkutum 

issanu pron. adj. "hers, belonging to her", also 
"theirs" NA; — ► issunu 

issassume — > salsiimi 

issebu — > essebu 

issebu — > essebu; essebu 

issenu — ► i«ii« 

isserta — » ierttt II 

issessdni, isse(s)su — > essesu 

isse'u — > esse'u 

issi "she" (3 f. sg. nom. pron.) NB; — ► if 

issiakkum, issakku "city-ruler, ensi; (a class of 
farmer)" [ENSI(=PA.TE.SI)] 1. 1. /'W; as royal 
title; 1. Assur, title of Assyrian king 2. Bab. 
(class of tenants of state land); 1. sarrilsakin 
mdti "tenants of king/governor"; < Sum. 

issiakkutum, issakkiitu "ensi-ship" [ENSI- ] 
"position of city-ruler"; OB "service of tenant- 
farmer"; < issiakkum 

issidre —* sidru 

issimannu, ismannu (a bronze object) 
MB(Alal.), Nuzi 

issini "they" (3 f. pi. nom. pron.) NB; 

• sina I 



issmnu —* isinnu 

issu; pi. issu "woman, wife" O/jB lex., lit.; — ► 

issu "he" (3 m. sg. nom. pron.) NB; — > su 
issuhru (an object) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
issuhurriwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
issunu "they" (3 m. pi. nom. pron.) NB; — > sunu 
issunu pron. adj. "theirs" NA; — ► sunum I 
issuttu —* essiitu 
istd — ► isti 
istagurru, estagurru "(offerings) returned from 

sanctuary" OB; < Sum. 
istananu, iltandnu "north(ern)" Nuzi; ina i. eqli 

"to the north of the field"; < istdnu + -dnu 
istanu(m), iltdnu(m) "North" Bab., NA 

[IM.SI(.SA); j/NB, NA also IM.2] as cardinal 

point, bit i. "north wing" of palace etc.; "north 

wind"; "the North (lands)" OB(Shemshara); 

> istananu 
istdnu — ► irtanu 
istdnu — > isten 
istaranis, istaris "to the goddess" jB with vb.s of 

calling, attending; < istaru 
istaritu 1. O/jB (a priestess, hierodule) [ d l5- ; 

Ug. NU.GIG.AN.NA] 2.jB (epith. of Istar); 

< istarium 

istarium; pi. istariutum "man dedicated to Istar" 
OA; < istaru; > istaritu 

istartu "goddess" jB; < istaru 

istaru(m); pi. istardtum, istaru, istardnu 
"goddess" Bab. [WlNNIN, NB pi. d INNIN.NA. 
MES; ( d )lSg.DAR; d l5] ilu(m) u i. "god and 
goddess"; i.-su "his goddess"; "(statue of) 
goddess"; < DN Istar; > istaranis; istarium, 
istaritu; istartu; istaruta 

istaruta adv. (a musical term) jB [ d U.DAR-«-to]; 

< istaru 
istdt — ► isten 

istatan "each one" Nuzi; < isten 

iste — > isti 

isten, istenu(m), islltin(um), istidnum, is/ltdnu, 
later ilten, NA issen; f. isteat, istiat, islltelit(um), 
islltdt, NA isset 1. "one" before noun; emphatic 
after.noun; 1. ina suhdreka "one of your lads"; 1. 
u sinalsitta "one or two"; NB 1. ina put sani 
nasu "one guarantees the other"; math, "(the 
number) one" 2. "single" 3. "the first one" 
4. OB istitu(m) "once"; > istenseret etc.; 
istatan; istend; istenis; istenisu; istennutu; 
istenu; istissu; istiyu; ittiltu 

istena, istind, OA istena 1. "one each, one by 
one" 2. Mari "all alike, all together"; < isten 

isten -esret — > istenseret 

istenis, istinis, later iltenis, NA issenis, occas. 
istunis "together" [UR.BI; OA SU.NIGIN; NA 
also TA- ] of sending items, mixing ingredients; 
of time, "at the same time"; OB 1. zdzum "to 
divide equally"; "altogether, in total"; < isten 

*istenisu, jB iltenisu "for the first time" jB; 

< isten 
isteniu — ► istenu 

iste(n)nutu, ilte(n)nutu "single entity" Am., 
Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. 1. "(indivisible) unity" of 
kings, fields 2. "single set" of plural items, e.g. 
garments, armour (— ► istenu) 3. Am., Nuzi adv. 
"for the first time"; < isten abstr. 

istenseret, poet, isten-esret "eleven" Bab.; < isten 
+ -seret; — ► istenserisu; istenserfi 

*istenserlsu, istesserisu "eleven times" OB; 

< isten + -serisu 

*istenseru, MB iltenseru "eleventh" M/jB; 

< isten + -seru 
istenu — > isten 

istenu(m), istinu(m), later ilte/i(n)nu, Ass. 
is/lteniu(m), NA issenu "single", Ass. with pi. 
tant. subst. "one (set, pair of)" shoes etc.; "each 
one"; Nuzi of sheep "once (shorn)"; jB lex. 
"one year old"?; NB "one each"; Ug. of kings 
"in accord, united"; < istenu + -i 

istesserisu — > istenserisu 

istet(u) — ► isten 

isti, iste, Pre-Sarg. aste/i, OB also istd-, istu, MA 
ilte-, NA issi(-) "with" [KI; NA TA] + subst. or 
pron. suff. in gen. "with" s.o., O/MA also 
"from" + vb.s of taking, receiving; Ass. also 
"with, in possession of things; > issahis; — ► 

istidnum, istiat, istin(u) — ► isten 

istina/d — ► istend 

istinis — ► istenis 

istinu — ► istend 

istissu "once" Bab [l(-en)-su] absol. or after 
ana, ina, kima; < isten 

ististu — > ittiltu 

istit(um) — ► isten 

istiyu "first" jB; < isten 

istu(m), ultu, elustu, iltulali, NA issu, NB ildu 
"from, out of; since, after" [TA] A. prep. 1. of 
space: "from out of city, land etc.; 1. X adi Y 
"from X to Y"; "down from" sky, tower 2. of 
time: "since, after" a time, an event; /. X adi Y 
"from X till Y"; + infin. "after having..." 
3. misc.: 1. X adi Y, e.g. from straw to gold, man 
to woman, NB ultu ramnikunu "on your own"; 
late freq. i J ultu muhhi B. conj. + subjunct. 
1. "since, after" 2. "when, as soon as" 3. "since, 




because" Man, + indie. 4. Mari i.-sa, NA i. 
mar, i. bit, NB ultu muhhi (sa) "since"; 
> istuma; — » isti 

istu — » also isdu; isti 

istuhhu(m), ileltuhhu, istuhhu, estuhhu, Nuzi 
also iltuhlu; pi. f. & m. "whip" Bab.; sa i. 
"whip-holder"; bit i. "whip-container" on 

istuma conj. "if indeed" OA, OB; Mari also + 
indie; < istu 

i stum's — » i stents 

isu(m) "to have" (no pres., prettjsi, isu; stat. rare; 
-» GAG §106r) [TUK; Mari also IN.TUK] 
"possess" object; "have" merchant, witness, 
relative, opponent; "suffer from" illness, debts, 
fear; personal characteristic; of loan "bear" 
interest; of creditor "be owed" by (= eli, 
OAkk also itti, OA isser); Am. "exist" 
(< W.Sem.); > isdnu; — » lassu I 

isu — » also esu I; hisu 

isuhhu (desig. of a garment) Am. 

isumaka/i (a kind of payment) Nuzi; -» 

isutu mng. unci. jB lex. 

isuzzu — » izuzzum 

ita "adjacent to" OB [US.SA.DU] in field descr.; 

< itu st. constr. 

itahlasanu "dislocated, slipped" of exta jB; 

< nehelsu 

itahlisu? (an illness affecting the head) jB lex.; 

< nehelsu 
italma'u — » irima'u 

itannu "mesh, interstice" of net jB 

itanu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

itanu — » itu 5 

itaplustu; pi. itaplusdte 'looking' NA in sa i. [sa 

iGl.DUy] (a copper object); < paldsu Ntn 
itaslulu -» saldlu II Ntn 
itdtu — » itu 3 
itbaranu "companionable" jB of man; < itbdru + 

itbartu "club, consortium" jB; < itbdru 
itbaru(m) "friend, colleague" Bab., OA; also 

"shareholder" in commercial association; 

> itbdrdnu, itbartu, itbdrutu; — » abdru III 
itbarutu(m) 1. 0/jB "business partnership" 

2. NB(roy. inscr.) "skill"; < itbdru 
ite — » itu 1 

ite'(el)lu -» ne'ellii Ntn 
itellum — » etellu 

itepsu "expert, competent" jB; < epesu II 
itertum "supplementary consignment" OA of tin 

etc.; < watdrum 

itguru (a bird) jB om.; -» etguru 

itgurutu mng. unci. jB comm. 

ithu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

ithuru; pi. ithurdnu, ithurdte (a kind of standard, 

emblem) M/N A, jB " 
ithusu — » athusu 

ithusu mng. unkn. NA in bit ithisi 
itihilum (an object) OA 
itillu — » etellu 
itinnu(m), Ass. etennu(m); NA pi. f. "builder" 

[(LU.)SITIM; NA LU.DIN] NB as family name; 

< Sum. 

itinnutu(m) "builder's craft" Bab. [LU.SITIM- ] 
NB also "job of builder" as prebend; < itinnu 

itirtu(m) (a milk product) OAkk(Sum.); jB lex. 

itisutu mng. unkn. Nuzi in sipir i. "/. work" 

itltu in NB(roy. inscr.) = itutu I ? 

itku "paralysed"? Bogh. lex., of neck; < atdku 

itku, utku "(wooden) peg" jB lex. 

itmu Gt ~ "to nod the head" jB lex. Gtn ittamul 

itpesu(m) "expert, competent" Bab. of god, king 
etc.; < epesu II 

itpuru "wearing tiara"? jB epith. of Istar; 

< apdru 

itqu(m) m. & f. 1. "fleece" Bab. [si'K.Aka] of 
sheep; of person's hair; "(woollen) flock, tuft"; 
(garment made from fleece) 2. jB mag., also 
etqu, in e. eper sepi "lump of dust from under 
s.o.'s feet" 

itqulu (a garment) jB lex. 

itquru(m), itqurtu(m); pi. f. "spoon" [(GIS.) 
DILIM] of metal, wood; "pan" of a balance; 
"blade" of an oar; med. i. (abdri) (an ointment) 

itrdnu — » idrdnu 

itru — » idru I.II 

itta — ► itti 

ittahu "next to, by" NB + gen. subst. or pron. 
suff.; < ina + tdhu 

ittamir, ittemir, ittiyamir (a stone) jB 

ittamu — » itmu 

ittan mng. unci. jB lex. 

itte — ► itti 

itteltu — » ittiltu 

ittemir — » ittamir 

itti, ittu, itte-, Am. itta-, OAkk, OB also ittum 
"with" [Kl; NB also TA ?] 1. prep. + gen. subst. 
or pron. suff.; be, stand etc., go, send "with" 
s.o.; speak, fight, be angry "with"; compete 
"with", be equal "to" s.o.; divide "with" 
s.o.; take, buy "from, chez" s.o.; Mari of 
troops, be "under" s.o.; NB "at" time of day, 
"per" mina 2. conj. Mari "while, whereas", Ug. 
"as soon as"; > itti 



itti "on top of that, in addition" NB; < itti 

ittidu (a bird, phps.) "francolin" O/jB 

[DAR.MUSEN] with distinctive cry 
ittil-imut 'he lay down and died' (an owl) jB 

[KU.KU.BA.US.MUSEN] om., mag.; <itulu + 


ittiltu, itteltu, Nuzi usu. iltileltu, ististu "one time, 
once" M/jB; Nuzi also "the first time", (for 
istet) "one"; < isten 

ittilu(atool) jB lex. 

ittiyamir — » ittamir 

ittu(in) I, idatu; pi. iddtu(m) - "peculiarity"? 
Bab., NA [A] 1. "characteristic, special nature" 

2. pi. [A.(2.)MES] "(ominous) conditions", iddt 
lemuttim, dumqi "signs of evil, good", samS u 
erseti "of heaven and earth" 3. NB lu idat, 
idatumma introducing solemn statement; < idu 
{.; = i. II 

ittu(m) II, Ass. ettu(m); pi. ittdtu(m) "sign" 
[ISKIM] 1. "signpost, road marker" 2. math, 
"diagram"? 3. "characteristic mark)" of person, 
deity 4. "(ominous) sign", esp. good, bad 
(damc/u, lemnu) S. "password, verbal cue" 6. in 
commerce etc. ana ittisu "at the agreed point, as 
agreed"; = /. I 

ittu — » also Id; itti 

ittu(m) I "seed-funnel" [GIS.NINDA] O/jB on 
seeder-plough; < Sum. 

ittu II (a garment) OB( Alal.) 

ittu — » also itu-; itu; ittu 

ittuhlu ~ "messenger" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

ittum — » itti 

ittus(su) "clothing" Nuzi; as ration; a specific 
garment; < Hurr. 

itu(-), ittu- "with" MB prep, of things, persons 
"with, chez" s.o.; also jB ana itisun "with 
them"; < itu 

itu(m), etii, ittii(m); pi. m. & f. "boundary; 
neighbour" [US.SA.DU] 1. "boundary", upper/ 
lower, east/west; "border, side" of river, field; i. 
etequ "to cross boundary", esp. transf. "to 
transgress a limit" 2. st. constr. ite + subst. 
"alongside", /. ahdmis "bordering one another" 

3. f. pi. itdtu(m), lex. itidtu "borders, environs"; 
st. constr. as prep, "all round, surrounding" 

4. NB "hull" of ship 5. "neighbour" [(LU.)US. 
SA.DU], NB pi. also itanu; > ita; itu-; itutu II 

itulu(m), utulu(m) "to lie down; sleep" Bab., 
OA, NA Gt (pres. ittdl, pret. ittil; perf. ittatil; 
imper. itil; stat. utul; (-» GAG §107j) [NA] "lie 
down", "lie" with spouse; transf. of gall "be 
lying" Gtn iter. [nA.nA] D "put to sleep" S 

caus. [nA] "make" s.o. "lie, sleep"; "lay" 
ingredient in salt; > ittil-imut; muttiitu 7 ; -» ndlu 

itunum — » utunu 

itussarra (or ituzzarra) (an ornament) Am. 

itussu — » izuzzum 

itutu(m) I, ututu, NB also ititu 1 ; jB pi. utdtu ? 
"selection" Bab.; esp. /. kun libbi "steadfast 
choice" (liter, "choice of steadfastness of 
heart"); OB ana i.-ya "by my free choice"; 

< watum; — » ititu 

itutu II ~ "cirumference"; < itu 

ituzzarra — » itussarra 

itemmum — » etemmu 

ittu(m), ittu, iddu f. "bitumen" Bab., NA [ESIR; 

ESIR; occas. A.BUL; Mari occas. ESIR.RA] for 

buildings; boats etc.; figurines; buru sa i. 

"bitumen springs"; in similes, black kima i. "as 

pitch"; < Sum. 
itum — » utu 
i'u mng. unkn. jB lex. 
iutu (appeal to Samas) jB [l. d UTU]; < Sum.; -» 

ivvaru (or iwiluru) (a wooden object) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
iwirtum — » amertu I 
iwiru — » iwaru 

iwitu(m) ~ "malicious talk" O/jB; < ewum II 

iwuru — » iwaru 

iyarum — » ayyaru I 

iydti — » ydti 

iyaumas in sam i. (a plant) jB rit.; < Hrtt.? 

Izalli (or Azzalli ?) rdg. unci, (a month) 

izana'u (a plant) jB lex. 
izbu(m) "misbirth, foetal anomaly" O/jB of 

human, animal; summa i. (teratological omen 

series); < ezebu 
izhu ~ "belt" jB lex.; < ezehu 
izibtu(m), ezibtufm) 1. OB (+ ezebum) 

"deposit", a kind of pledge 2. OA "divorce 

money"; < ezebu 
izikurum (a bird) OB 
izirtu "help, reinforcement" Am.; < W.Sem.; — » 

izlru "arm; wing" jB, NA 
izisubbu "stroke of lightning" jB [IZI.SUB.BA]; 

< Sum. 
izizzum — » izuzzum 

izmum (an extispicy technique) Mari 
izqatu, isqdtu "fetters, handcuffs" j/NB, NA; NB 
i. [GIS.SU.2(.MES)] nadu "to cast into fetters"; 

< isu + qdtu ? 

izru "curse" jB; < ezeru 


Izubitu, Izubu (a canal) jB; < Sum. 

izfitu — » ziitu 

izuzussi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

izuzzum, uzuzzu(m), OA izizzum, M/NB freq. 
usuzzu, also isuzzu, NA itussu "to stand" 
G (pres. izzaz, pret. izziz; perf. ittaziz; imper. 
iziz, M/NB freq. w/z; stat. na(n)zuz, M/NB 
iw/zmz etc.; other forms -» GAG §107a-h) 
[GUB; MB also GUB.BA] 1. gener. of person, 
thing "stand"; "serve (before)" s.o., esp. deity, 
king; "serve, be present" (as witness); "be 
available" of person, animal, boat; "remain"; 
transf. of oath, legal right "be valid"; OB /'. eli 
"be engaged on, work at"; OB ('. ana 
"accept liability for"; OA "stand by, belong to" 
s.o. 2. (ingress.) "appear, make an appearance"; 
"take up service"; "side with" (= isti, itti) s.o., 
"go to assistance of" (= ana, dat.) s.o.; M/NB 
of god "visit" s.o. in a hostile manner; of part of 
liver "stand erect" Gtn iter. [jB GUB.ME(S); 
GUB.GUB] of a number of people "stand 
around"; of snake, scorpion "repeatedly rear 
up" Gt arch. OB ingress, for G pres. "take up 
o.'s stand"; eli nakrim i. "triumph over enemy"; 
of flood "come to a standstill" S (S 1 OAkk 

138 izziru 

occas., Bab. pres. uszaz, pret. usziz; imper. 
suziz; stat. suzuz; infin. suzuzzu(m); S 2 OAkk, 
Ass., j/NB pres. usazzaz, pret. usalezziz; perf. 
ustazziz; imper. suzziz; stat. suzzuz; infin. 
suzzu(z)zu) caus. "cause to be present", 
"appoint" witnesses, substitute, pledge; "make 
s.o. serve"; "cause to triumph" over enemy; 
"stable" horse; "erect" stele, statue, tower; "re- 
erect" wall etc.; transf. OA "make" silver 
"available"; "enter" items in accounts; 
"establish" justice; "make" hair, furrow "stand 
upright"; poet, "create, bring into being" Stn 
MB "constantly make to stand" St jB "cause to 
appear" N OB(lit.) (infin. nazzazum; stat. 
nanzaz) ingress, of deity "appear, become 
present"; > uzuzzatta; usuzzdyu; mazzdzu; 
mazzaztu, mazzazdnum, mazzazanutum; 
muzzazu; mazzizu, mazziz-pdnuttu; nanzdzu; 
musazzizum; sazzuztum 

izzidaru "bed with side-rest" jB lex.; < Sum. 

izzihu (a gem)? Qatna 

izzimtu(m) "desire, objective" O/jB usu. with 
kasddu(m) "to achieve"; < nazdmu 

izzirtu "curse" M/NA, M/jB; < nazaru 

izziru "curse" M/jB; < nazaru 


-k — > -ka; -ki 

-ka, -k "you" (2 m. sg. ace. suff.) (-» GAG §42) 

ka — » kiam 

ka'dtu — ► qayydtu 

kababu(m) I, gabdbu(m); jB pi. f. "shield" O/jB, 
NA (with KUS or GIS det.); nds(i) k. "shield- 

kababu II, gabdbu "to burn" Bab. G (a/u) 
intrans., of fire, wood; transf. of illness; Mari, 
trans, (submit lamb to extispicy)? D trans, 
"burn, scorch" wood; transf. of Lamastu "burn" 
s.o.'s body; > kabbu; kibbu II; gabbubu; 

kababu — » also kapdpu 

kabddu — ► kabdtu 

kabaku (a topog. feature) NA 

kaballu(m) "leggings" O/MB in pairs, freq. 
attached to shoes 

kabaltu (a plant)? jB lex. 

kabalu(m) "to be paralysed" O/jB G (a/u) stat., 
of part of body D "constrict, paralyse" part of 
body; OB transf. "hinder, obstruct" s.o. 
Dt pass, of D, of lips "be paralysed"; 
> kubbulu; — » kibiltu 

kabarahhum — » gabarahhu 

kabartu "thickness" jB comm.; < kabru 

kabartu — » also kabbartu; kabru 

kabaru(m) "to be(come) thick, solid" G (;'/;'; stat. 
kabar, NB also kabir) of animal, person; part 
of body; tree-trunk, grain, door; moon; of voice 
"loud" D (jB once uhabbir) "make thick; 
thicken" Ntn jB of snake "constantly become 
thick"; > kabru, kabartu, kabrutu; kubru, 
kubartu, kubdrum, kuburru; kabbaru, 

kabbartu; kubburu; mukabbirum, 

muktabbirum; takbdru; nakbartu; -*hahdru II 

kabdru — » also kawdrum 

kabar'u pi. (a festival)? Mari 

kabasu(m), Am. kabdsu "to tread" G (a/u) 
[ZUKUM; KI.US] 1. on ground, road, boundary; 
house, palace; "tread down, trample" ramp, fire; 
"tread on" neck, foot 2. transf. "tread down, 
suppress" enemy, criminal, noise, "forgive, 
remit" crime, debt; anzilla k. "infringe taboo" 
3. OA rama(n)ka k. "exert yourself 4. M/NA, 
NB "let" time "pass", NA "continue" D ~ G 
"tread, walk over" land etc.; "tread down, on" 
neck, opposition; anzilla k. "infringe taboo"; 
OA (also Dtn) "drop, suppress" claim S caus. 
N NA/NB 1. of land "be subdued" 
2. "continue" 3. OB "set foot on"; > kabsu I, 
kabistum'-; kibsu I; kubdsu; kubussu; 
kubbusum; nakbasu; sukbusu 

kabdsu — » also kapdsu II 

kabdsu — » kapdsu I.II 

kabastu — » kabru 

kabasu "to put headgear on" jB G in kubsu 
kabis; < kubsu denom. 

kabdsu — » also kabdsu 

kabattu(m), poet, also kabtatu(m), later occas. 
kabittu "liver", also "innards"; usu. transf. 
"mood, temper, humour", joyful, peaceful, 
unrestful, angry; "mind, intention"; Am. 
kabattuma [once UZU.UR5] "on the stomach"; 
— ► kabdtu 

kabatu(m), NA also kabddu "to be(come) 
heavy" G (Hi) [DUGUD] 1. of animal, objects; 
transf. of fear, work, orders, domination; 
"become burdensome, aggravating", of illness 



kadaru(m) II 

"be serious"; of fire "be extinguished"? 2. "be 
important, respected" of person, word; 
qaqqadum k. of respected person D 1. "make 
heavy" penalty; "extinguish" fire; "aggravate, 
exaggerate" 2. "treat honourably, respectfully", 
"regale, entertain honorifically"; with resum, 
qaqqadum "honour" s.o.; Ug. "honour (s.o.) 
with" reward Dt "be honoured" OB Dtn Am. 
iter, of D; OA, OB "do the honours and ...", 
"be so complimentary as to ..." S "give 
importance to" matter OB; "work" sculpture 
"massively" NB; > kabtu, kabtutu; kabbuttu; 
kabittu; kubtu; kubdtu; kubuddd'u, kubuttu; 
kubbutu, kubbuttu; nakbatu; takbittu; -* gabldu; 

kaba'u, kapa'u ~ "reed foliage" jB lex.; -♦ 

ka(b)bartu(m) (part of foot) O/jB of human, 
also du.; of bird; < kabbaru 

kabbaru(m) "very thick", freq. serves as pi. of 
kabru Bab., M/NA [GUR4.GUR4] of animal; 
part of body; textile, trunk of tree; of rain 
"dense"; < kabdru; > kabbartu; -* kubburu 

kabba'um "stitcher" OB; < kubbu II 

kabbillu (wooden part of chariot) jB lex.; 

kabbu "glowing" jB, NA; of charcoal, incense; 
of hot wind; < kabdbu II 

kabbuttu; pi. kabbutdti "counterweight (for 
jewellery)"? Am.; < kabdtu 

kabbutu -* kubbutu 

kabduqqu -* kaptukkum 

kabhu mng. unkn. Nuzi 

kabidu -* gabldu 

kabilukku (a dish or fruit) NA 

kabistum (part of a cubit) OA st. abs. kabsat, 

< kabsu I ? 
kabislstu -* kapsu 

kabittigalzu (a plant) jB lex.; < Kass. 
kabittu(m) 1. also kibittum, "main body (of 

troops)" Mari, OB(N.Mes.) 2. euph. "left 

hand" lex. 3. (a double pot) lex.; < kabtu 
kabittu -* also kabattu 
kabkuru(m) (or kapkuru(m)) (a container) 

OAkk, for flour; jB lex. 
kablitu (or kaplltu) mng. unci. jB 
kablu(m); pi. m. & f. "(furniture) foot" [GIS. 

BAD.GU.ZA] of chair, table etc. 
kabnu "casing, tyre (of wheel)"? NB comm.; 

< Aram. 

kabru(m); f. kabartu(m), NB also kabastu 
"thick, solid" [GUR4.RA] of person (in PN), 
animal; part of body, flesh; of grain, sesame; of 

textile, garment; "large" of measuring vessel; 

< kabdru; -* kabbaru 

kabrutu "thickness" jB lex.; < kabru 

kabsat -*- kabistum 

kabsatu -* kabsu U 

kabsu I "continuous" NA of land-tenure; 

< kabdsu 

kabsu II; f. kabsatu "young sheep" OB, j/NB, 

kabslsu -* kapsu 

kabsarru (or kapsarru) "stone-carver" M/NA, 
M/NB [(LU.)KAB.SAR] of precious stones, 
masonry; < Sum. 

kabsarrutu "profession of stone-carver" Bogh. 

kabtatu -* kabattu 

kabtu(m); f. kabittu(m) "heavy; important" 
[DUGUD; IDIM in PNs] 1. of stone, metal 
"heavy"; of garment; tribute, booty; transf. 
"grave, serious" of wound, illness; sin, 
punishment, quarrel; of mist, cloud 
2. "important, honoured"; as subst. "important 
person, VIP"; sumu(m) k. "respected, famous 
name"; of divine order, pronouncement; 

< kabdtu; > kabittu; kabtutu 
kabtutu "majesty" jB, of god; < kabtu 
kabum -* kabutu 

kabu(m) ~ "plant pod"? Bab. 

kabA -* also kabutu; kubbu I.II 

kabullu -* kamullu 

kabutu(m); pi. m. kabu; OA sg. kabum 

"(animal) dung" Bab., OA [SURIM] of horse, 

sheep etc.; snake; k. Seris "ox-dung" med; 

libitti k. "dung-cake" 
kabzuzu(m) ~ "educated person"? jB lex.; 

kabzuzuttu "role of educated person"? Bogh. 
kadabbedu ~ "oral paralysis, aphasia" jB 

[ka.dab.BE.da]; < Sum. 
kadadu, lex. also hadddu "to rub in, anoint" jB 

G (alu) with 2 ace. D - G ?; >makaddu, 

kadammu; pi. f. ~ "dungeon"? NA 
kadanu (a rush-like plant) jB 
kdddnu -* kddu 
kadapu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kadaru I (a reed fence)? jB lex. 
kadaru(m) II "to rear up" Bab., NA G {Hi) of 

enemy, batde "rise in opposition", "be 

insubordinate" S "stir up, incite" battle Ntn jB 

med. "jerk repeatedly"?; > kadru, kadrutu, 

kadris; makdaru 1 ; takdlru 1 

kadaru III 



kadaru III "to delimit" M/NA, M/jB G (/'//) 

kudurra k. "draw a boundary" D ~ G "draw" 

boundary; < kudurru II denom. 
kadaru IV "to labour"? NA G; < kudurru I 

kadasu "celebration" OB (var. of haddsu) 
kaddarhu (a tree) jB lex. 
Kadduhha -* Ukaduhha 
kadilu -* qadilu 
kadiseru (a plant) M/jB 
kadmuru, kid(i)muru mng. unkn. M/NA in 

name of Istar temple 
kadrayitu f. (epith. of Istar) jB 
kadris "aggressively" jB; < kadru 
kadru(m), qadru; f. sg. kadirtu, kadratu "rearing 

up, aggressive" Bab., NA of bull, king, deity, 

enemy; < kadaru II 
kadru (or katru), OB also kidr&m "present, 

greeting gift" Bab. to deity; to king; also as 

"bribe"; < Sum. 
kadrutu "aggressiveness" jB lex.; < kadru 
kadu; NB pi. kadanu "guard, watch" j/NB esp. 

military, rab kdddnu "commander of the 

watch"; k. nasdru "to keep guard"; NB "(fee 

for) guard" on orchard; sa k. "watchman"; (bit) 

k. "guard-house"; < kddu II 
kadu(m) mng. unkn. OB lex. 
kaduOn) I mng. unci. O/jB G (a) "to be 

distressed"?, "cease"?; > mukiddumr 
kadu(m) II "to watch, guard" Bab. G («) NB 

D OB "watch out (for)", "be attentive" Dt pass. 

"be observed"; > kddu; mukiddumr 
kaduhhu "with gaping mouth" jB lex.; < Sum.; 

-♦ Ukaduhha 
kadurru -* kudurru I 
ka'essu -* ka'issum 
kagallu(m), kankallu, kigallu f. "(a kind of) 

waste land" O/jB [KI.GAL]; < Sum.; -♦ kikallu 
kagiskarakku -* kannaskarakkum 
kagum mng. unkn. OB lex. 
kahama adv.? mng. unkn. MB 
kahassinna mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kahsu "throne" Am.; < W.Sem. 
ka'inimmaku "wish, plan"? jB; < Sum. 
ka'isu "slaughterer" Nuzi of sheep; < kdsu 
ka'issum, ga'issu, jB g/ka'essu - "travelling 

merchant" O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
kakammatum (a part of the body) OB 
kakaniassu (part of body armour) Nuzi, of 

kakanuzzu (an object) Nuzi, in pairs 

kakardinnu, NA karkadinnu, NB kaskadi/annu, 
OB(Alal.) kakatennu "victualler" [LU.SUM. 
N1NDA] a palace employee 

kakddlu -* kaqda 

kakikkum? "recorder" OB [KA.Kl], a municipal 
official concerned with sales 

kakilu (a bird) MB 

kakkabanu 'starry one' jB 1. (a bird) 2. (an ox) 
3. (a kind of lapis lazuli); < kakkabu 

kakkabis "like stars" j/NB; < kakkabu 

kakkabtu "star" M/NB, NA [MUL; MUL] as 
ornament, of gold etc.; NB as brand-mark on 
slaves, beasts; < kakkabu 

kakkabu(m) "star" [MUL; later also MUL, UL, TE 
and AB] also ref. to planets; k. samelsamdmi 
"stars of heaven"; ina k. bidtum S "to leave (a 
magic potion) outside overnight" O/jB; k. rabu 
"meteor"; "star( -shaped ornament)" of metal, 
stone; < Sem. kabkab-; > kakkabtu, kakkabis, 

kakkaltu, kalkaltu (an irrigation device) jB 

kakkannu -* kankannu 

kakkartum (a round loaf) OAkk, O/MB; OA 
"bun (ingot)" of copper; < kakkaru 

kakkaru, Alal. also kakkuru (a round loaf)? 
Mari, Alal., Am., Bogh. 1. Mari, Bogh. (a loaf) 
2. Am. (a silver disc)? 3. Alal., Am. (an 
ingot)? of copper; > kakkartum 

kakkassu -* kakkusu 

kakkisatti "like a weasel" NA; < kakkisu + -atti 
(-.GAG §1131) 

kakkisu f. - "weasel" M/jB, NA also as PN; jB 
k. ndri (a diving bird) 

kakku(m) "stick; weapon" [GIS.TUKUL; occas. 
GIS.SI'ta] 1. rarely "stick" 2. gener. "weapon" 
OA rabi k. "armourer"; OB sab /t.b'-a "armed 
troops"; k. epesu(m) "to do battle", ana k. 
pardkum "confront for battle"; k. seberu(m) 
"break weapons"; k. mahdsu(m) "strike with 
weapon(s)", also = "afflict with illness" 3. as 
divine symbol k. sa ilim "divine emblem", sa 
Samas etc. 4. (a feature on liver) 

kakku -* also kanku 

kakku(m), kakku'u (a small legume, phps.) 
"lentil" OAkk, Bab. [GU.TUR]; > kakkutu 

kakkullu(m), klqaqqullu, MA kukullul f. 
"mash-tub" O/jB, M/NA [GAKKUL] in similes; 
also (a wooden box); NA (a basket or tray) for 
fruit, leavings, rab qaqqulldte (an official); MA 
sa kukulli (a desig. of young worker); < Sum.; 
> kakkultu 

kakkultu "mash-tub" jB; also M/jB k. mi 
"eyeball"; < kakkullu 




kakkuru — » kakkaru 

kakkusakku, kakkusakku jB 1. (a plant)? 2. (a 

stone); — ♦ kakkusu, kanku 
kakkusu(m), O/jB kakkussu, NA also kakkassu 

1. ~ (leguminous vegetation) 2. (a stone) M/jB, 

NA; < Sum.?; — » kakkusakku 
kakkusakku -» kakkusakku 
kakkusu — » kukkusu 
kakkutu "a lentil 7 " jB [GU.TUR] also "pimple"; 

<kakku nom. unit. 
kakmum; f. kakmltu "of Kakmum" O/jB (an 

object; a kind of door); < PIN Kakmum 
kaksallu (a kind of wooden peg) jB lex.; < Sum. 
kaksu (an arrow) jB 
kakugallu, kakugalldku (an incantation priest) 

jB; < Sum. 
kakugallutu "profession of incantation priest" 

jB; < kakugallu 
kal(a) -» kalu II 
kalabbu — » kalappum 
kalabunu, kalabuttu —* kallabunu 
kalakku(m)I; pi. f. ~ "excavation, trench" Bab. 

[KI.LA; TUL(.LA)] "pit" (in canal-bed, field) and 

its spoil; esp. math, in problems; "underground 

store" for grain, straw etc.; < Sum. 
kalakku II (a kind of box) M/jB, NA; Nuzi in 

pairs; also (a seat), "box" in chariot (as part of 

constellation); NA "kelek, raft" 
kalakku III (a kind of wall-plaster) MB, 

kalakkutu (a kind of earth)? MA 
kalama, kaldm(u/i) "all (of it)" Bab. [DU.A.BI; 

DU; DU.DU.A] indeclinable as obj. of vb. or gen. 

after St. constr.; in appos., e.g. riqqi kalama "all 

sorts of aromatics", ili kalama "all the gods"; 

< kalu II + -ma 
kalamdhu — ♦ galamdhu 
kalammaru — ♦ karammaru 
kalammu (part of a chariot) MA, of Wood 
kalappum, kalabbu; pi. f. "pickaxe" Ass., NB ? , 

of metal 
kalasu(m) "to contract o.s., roll up" O/jB G (;'/;') 

of part of body; of dog Gtn (lex. also hitallusu) 

iter, of sheep's nose D fact. lex. only; > kalsum; 

kald'um — » kalu V 
kalbanatu (or labbdndtul) pi. tant. (a siege 

instrument) jB 
kalbanis "like a dog" O/jB; < kalbu 
kalbanu, ka/ulbannu (a plant) M/jB [GIS/U. 

kalbatu(m) "female dog, bitch" O/jB [NIG] also 

transf. (a strap on a plough); < kalbu 

kalbu(m) "dog" [UR.GI7; UR; Mari also 
UR.GI7.RA] also "(figure of) dog", "dog figur- 
ine"; transf. as term of humility; of subject; astr. 
"(constellation) Hercules" (with det. MUL); lex. 
(a fish); k. ursi "badger" [UR.Kl]; k. me "otter" 
[UR.(GI7.)a]; k. Samas mng. unkn.; -♦ also 
lisdnu 5, zubbu; > kalbanis, kalbatu 

kaldu — ♦ kasdu 

kalgukku(m), kalguqqu (a red mineral paste) 
O/jB, M/NA [KAL.KU7.KU7; IM.KAL.GUG] in 
glass-making, as drug; < Sum. 

kalis "totally" OAkk, Bab. [DU-lis]; < kalu II 

kalitu(m) "kidney" [(UZU.)ELLAG(=BIR)] of 
human; ext. of animal, as meat; k. birkimlburki 
"testicle"; astr. (desig. of star) identity unci. 
[MUL.BLLAG], k. Ea (desig. of crescent moon) 

kalitu(m) 1. lex. (wooden part of chariot) 
2. OAkk(Ur III) (ornamental item), of gold; 

< kalu V 

kalkallu (a bowl) jB lex. 

kalkaltu — ♦ kakkaltu 

kalku (a component of armour) Nuzi 

kalldbu -* kalldpu 

ka(l)labunu; f. ka(l)labuttu "(kind of) locust" 
j/NB, NA; NB f. as PN 

kallamare "in the early morning" NA; < kallu + 
amdru I ? 

kallammahu (a plant) jB lex. 

kallanu mng. unkn. NB 

kallapu, kalldbu; pi. kalldblpdni (a foot-soldier) 
NA, NB; k. sipirti "messenger"; rab k. "chief 

kallasudi (a drug) jB; < kallu + asudu ? 

kallatu(m), Ass. kallalutu "daughter-in-law, 
bride" [E.Gl4(.A); E.GI.a] of human, deities; OB 
st. abs. ana kalldt u mdrat "to be daughter-in- 
law and daughter"; also "young woman, bride" 
ingener.; k. Samas "dragonfly" (-♦ kulilltu), k. 
serri 'snake's bride', "lizard", both as drugs; 
> kallutu 

kallatutu -♦ kallutu 

kalle, kalliu — ♦ kallu 

kallimum ~ "delivery (of a person)" OB; 

< kullumu 

kallu(m); Ass. pi. f., NB kallanu "(kind of) 
bowl" Bab., M/NA [(dug.)bur.zi.GAL] for 
liquids, food; of metal; k. seleppi "tortoise's 
shell"; k. qaqqadi "cranium"; — ♦ kallasudi 

kallu(m), NA kalliu "express messenger, 
courier" Bab., NA k. ndri/tdbdli "river/land 
courier"; NA rab k. "chief courier"; inalanalki 
kalle "post-haste"; -♦ kallamare 

kallumi — » kalu II 



kamaru(m) I 

kallumu — » kullumu 

kallutu — » kalldtu 

kallutu(m), Nuzi also kallatutu "role of 

daughter-in-law, of bride" O/MB [Ug. E.GI. 

A.MES]; MB sipir k. "bridal activity"; < kalldtu 
kalmakru(m) (or kalmaqru(m)) "(kind of) 

battle-axe" Bab. [GIS.AGA.SILIG] of metal 
kalmarhu (a tree) Nuzi, jB 
kalmartu — » kanwartu 
kalmatu(m) "insect(s), bug(s)" etc. [UH] usu. 

coll.; OAkk as PN 
kalpurhu (or galpurhu) (desig. of grain) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

kalsum "contracted, shrivelled" OB lex.; 

< kaldsu 

kaltappu (an object of gold) NB; = gistappu ? 
kalteniwe(s), galteniwe, NA galdanibdtu (desig. 

of grain) Nuzi; NA (an official); < Hurr. 
kaltum, keltum ~ "vassal(-ruler)"? Mari 
kalu I "held back, detained" M/NB of persons; 

< kalu V 

kalu .II, OA also kulum, geri. kili- "all, totality" 
[DU; DU.A.BI] 1. st. abs. kalali "everything", 
"everyone", esp. kalaliluma 2. st. constr. + 
subst. "all", "the whole of, "everyone of; 
kal(a) umi(m), kallumi "all day", "every day", 
M/NA, M/jB "during the daytime" (jB also = 
late afternoon); NA kal musi "night-time" 

3. with pron. suff., after subst. "all of it", 
malum kalusa "the whole land", esreti kalisina 
"every shrine"; lit. also before subst. 

4. OB(poet.) + -is-, kaltssa "totally"; > kalis; 
kalama; kalummum; kullatu I, kullatdn 

kalu(m) III "lamentation-priest" Bab., NA 
[(LU.)GALA; NB also (LU.)SU]; < Sum.; 
> kalutu I; — » galamdhu, galaturru, galaussu 

kalu(m) IV (a yellow mineral paste, phps.) 
"orpiment" Bab. [IM.KAL.LA; IM.gA.LI] for 
figurines, wax writing-boards etc.; < Sum. 

kalu(m) V, OA kald'um "to hold (back), detain" 
G (a/a; imper. kila) [NB GUL] "hold, detain, 
arrest" person, slave, prisoner; "restrain, pull 
up" an animal; "stop, block off crater, 
diarrhoea; "hold back, withhold" goods, tribute, 
"withhold, deny" request; "restrain" noise, 
weeping, prayer, hair (from falling out); 
"prevent" s.o. "from" doing; "moor" boat 
Gtn iter. D rare ~ G "withhold" S caus. "make 
(s.o.) hold (s.o.) back"; "make (s.o.) prevent" 
s.o. from doing; "make (s.o.) cease" 
fighting SD lex. = S ? N pass, of G; "be held 
back, delayed"; of blood "be staunched"; of hair 
"be retained" Ntn iter, of N; > kalu I; kalu. 

kdlitu; kilu I, kilitum; kildtu; makallu, maklutu; 

suklu; kula'utu'- 
kalu, NA kdliu (2-4 rather kalul) 1. M/NB 

"dam, barrage" [BAD.DINGIR.RA] in irrigation 

system 2. jB, NA (a bird, phps.) "crane" 3. NB 

(a fetter)?, of iron 4. lex. (a plant); < kalu V 
kalulu mng. unkn. lex. 
kalumatu f. "lamb" Nuzi as PN; jB lex. of girl; 

< kalumu 
kalumdu — ♦ kalumtum 
kalumis "like lambs" jB; < kalumu 
kalumitu "lamb-rearer"? MA f. prof.; < kalumu 

+ -i 
kalummum; Nuzi pi. kalummanu "everything" 

Mari, Nuzi; usu. + pron. suff.; < kalu II 
kalumtum, kalumlndu "female lamb" O/jB, freq. 

as PN; < kalumu 
kalumu(m), OA kulumum "lamb" [(UDU.) 

SILA4]; freq. as PN; > kalumatu, kalumtum, 

kalumitu, kalumis 
kalundu — » kalumtum 
kalutu — ♦ kalutu II 
kalutu(m) I "lamentation-priesthood" Bab. 

[(LU.)GALA- ; jB also NAM.GALA] as prebend; 

OB of kalu priests as group; "craft of the kalu"; 

"textual corpus of kalu"; < kalu III 
kalutu II, kalutu ~ "tree" jB lex.; -» akalutu 
kalwasse (type of payment)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kalzu; pi. kalzdni ~ "precinct"? M/NA of palace 

in k. ekalli etc. 
kdm — » kiam 
kamadu(m) "to beat cloth"? O/jB G; D mng. 

unci.; > kamdum; kdmidu; kimdu; gammidatu 1 
kamakissu — » kamkissu 
kamalu "to be(come) angry" M/NB(lit.) G (;'/;') 

with (= itti) s.o. Gt stat. recipr. "are angry with 

one another" D fact.; stat. "is angered" 

N "become angry"; > kamlu; kimiltu; kammdlu; 

kummulu; kitmulu 
kamamtum (a vegetable) OAkk(Ur III); -» 

kamamu ~ "to nod the head"? jB G (alu) S stat., 

mng. unci. 
kamamu — » also qamdmu 
kamannu — » kamunu I 
kamantu — » kammantu 
kamanu f. (a loaf or cake) M/NB, NA 

[NINDA.2/3.SILA] containing honey, figs etc.; k. 

tumri "loaf (baked on) the coals"; NA also 

honey "comb" 
kamaris "in the trap" jB; < kamdru I 
kamaru(m) I, kamarru "hunting trap" OA, jB; 

> kamaris 

kamaru II 


kamu(m) I 

kamaru II, kammaru "defeat" jB; k. sakdnu "to 
accomplish defeat of s.o. 

kamaru(m) III (a fish) O/jB [KA.MAR.KU 6 ]; 

kamaru(m) IV "to pile up, accumulate" Bab., 
NA [GAR] G (a/u, NA Hi) dates, property; 
math, "add (up)" [UL.GAR; GAR.GAR] Gt "pile 
up permanently" wealth; "secrete" poison 
D ~ G wealth; corpses Dt pass, of D; of wealth 
etc.; of men "come in crowds" N pass, of G of 
ruins, people "be heaped up"; > kamru, 
kamriitu; kimru, kimirtw, kumurru; kitmuru; 
nakmaru, nakmartu; kumdru 1 - 

kamasu(m) I, MA kamdsu "to gather in" G {Hi) 
harvest, animals, population; "pack ( into" 
container, space etc.; MB "deposit" tablet, gold; 
OB "finish up" doing D "gather in" 
people, animals; "consign" corpse to tomb 
Dt pass, of D S "store up", transf. 
"deposit" wisdom in s.o. N "be gathered in"; of 
journey, shearing "be finished, wound up"; 

> kamsum I; nakmasu 1 -; takmisu 1 - 
kamasu(m) II, kamdsu, kamdsu, once hamdsu 

"to kneel, squat down" Bab., M/NA 
[(DOio-)GAM] G (Hi) "kneel, crouch" before 
(= esp. sapal, mahar) god, king; of invalid; of 
part of body; of cow Gtn iter. Gt stat. ~ G stat. 
"is crouched, kneeling" of person, animal; pret. 
MA, of cow D stat. "is kneeling", NA "resides, 
lives" Dt "kneel down" S "make to kneel, 
squat" in cult, enemy in submission N ~ Dt Ntn 
iter, of N "constantly be submissive"; 

> kamsu II, kdmisum; kitmusu; kummusu; — ► 

kamasirum — ► humsiru 

kamasu "rest period" jB lex. 

kamdsu — ► also kamdsu I.II 

kamasseru — ► kamissaru 

kamdsu — ► kamdsu II 

kamasurru — ► kamissaru 

kamatis "to outside" jB; < kawum I 

kamdtu — > kammantu 

kamatu — ► kawum I 

kam'atum, kamatu, NA ka'u ? "truffle" O/jB, 

kamdalum — ► kandalu 
kamdum, kandu (desig. of textile) OA, jB lex.; 

< kamddu 
kamessaru — ► kamissaru 
kamesu (a food) NA 
kamesurru — ► kamissaru 
kamgu — > kanku 

kamidu(m) "fabric-beater" O/MB, Mari [LU. 

TTJG.DUg(.A)]; < kamddu 
kamiru (a noble) Am.; -> gdmiru ? 
kamisum "one who kneels" OB lex.; 

< kamdsu II 

kamis "in a bound state" O/jB, NA, esp. k. 

susubu "to make live in bondage"; < kamu I 
kamissaru(m), kamalessaleru(m), occas. 

kamalesurru "pear (tree)" O/jB, NA 
kamitis "in bondage" jB 
kamitu I "bondage" jB, also pi.; < kamu I 
kamitu II "(kind of) ring" jB lex.; < kawum I 
kamitu — > also kawum I 
kamkadu, kankadu (a plant) jB lex., med., 

growing in rock crevices 
kamkammatu(m) "ring" OAkk(Ur III), O/jB of 

metal; transf. astr., round moon; med., desig. of 

part of body 
kamkissu, kamakissu (part of body of animal) 

jB lex. 
kamlu, once kamru "angry" jB of god, man; 

< kamdlu 

kamma "so, thus" Am., Nuzi, Ug.; < kiam + 

kammakkum (wooden part of chariot) Mari 

kammallu (a tree) NB 

kammalu(m) "opponent, ill-wisher" O/jB in k. 
natdlu(m) "to identify an opponent"; < kamdlu 

ka(m)mantu, kammandu, kamdtu (an edible 
plant) j/NB [U.AB.DUp] 

kammaru (desig. of gold)? Am., jB 

kammaru — ► also kawdrum 

kammaru — ► kamaru II; kawdrum 

kammu(m) I "board, plaque" Bab., M/NA 
[KAM] 1. "(writing) tablet, board 7 ", "(text on) 
writing tablet" 2. M/NA pi. m. & f. "plaque" of 
gold etc. as ornament; NB pi. f. "board" for 
smoothing bricks, of wood, iron; Mari, of pine; 

< Sum. 

kammu II, NA ka'u ? (a plant used in tanning) 

kammu III (a metal dowel) M/NA, NB 
kamru "piled up" j/NB of stored dates; of heaps 

of rubble; < kamaru IV 
kamru — > also kamlu; kawdrum 
kamrutu "state of rubble" jB; < kamru 
kamsum I (desig. of garments) OA, jB; 

< kamdsu I 

kamsu II, kamsu "squatting, crouching" MA, jB; 

of animal; < kamdsu II 
kamu(m) I "bound" O/jB [LAL] of man, 

prisoner; the "bound" gods; < kamu II; 

> kamis, kamitu I, kamutu 

kamu(m) II 



kamu(m) II "to bind" OAkk, Bab. G (Hi, occas. 
ulu) [LAL; OAkk SU.DUg.A] enemy, land; god, 
demon, bird; transf. of spells, diseases; of 
feature of liver D ~ G N pass, of G [LAL]; 
> kamu I.III, kamis, kamitu I, kamutu; kimitu; 

kamum III (or kdmum) pi. "fetters"? OAkk; 

< kamu II 

kamu — > also kawum I.II 

kdmum — ► kamum III 

kamullu, kabullu (a plant) jB lex. 

kamunu(m) I, NA kamu'u, Nuzi also kamannu 

"cumin" [U.GAMUN(.SAR); OAkk U.TIR] as 

spice, drug; k. blni (a tamarisk product); -> 

kamunu II (a fungus) jB, NA [uzu.DIR] in 

steppe, mountain; on wall; in pot 
kamusas (a bronze component of harness) MB; 

< Kass. 

kamussakku(m) (a kind of chair or bed) O/jB 
[KA.MUS]; < Sum. 

kamussatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kamusu mng. unkn. j/NB; var. of kamunu I ? 

kamutu "bondage" M/NB(lit.) [LAL] in 
kamu(s)su(nu) "in bondage"; < kamu I 

kamu'u — ► kamunu I 

kamzuzu — ► kanzuzu 

kanagurru(m), lex. var. kuriguru (a circular 
threshing-floor path) OB, jB lex.; < Sum. 

kanahu — > kana'u 

kanakku 1. Nuzi (a household item) 2. jB mng. 

kanaktu(m), Am. kanatku (an incense-bearing 
tree) Bab., M/NA [SIM.GIG] samanlzer k. 
"oil/seed of/:."; "aromatic resin (from k.)" 

kanaku(m) "to seal" G (a/u) door, container; 
silver etc.; tablet, letter; NB "transfer to 
s.o. by sealing (document)"; as magical act, 
with blood; stat. "is cryptic" D OA, Nuzi, jB 
"seal up" S caus. of G "make s.o. seal"; OB 
"make s.o. draw up sealed document" N "be 
sealed" of grain, textile, tablet; Mari "be attested 
by sealed document"; < kunukku denom.; 
> kanku, kaniku, kaniktu; kinkum I; kanniku; 
maknakum, maknaktu 

kanakurtum (a type of oil) Mari 

kananu(m), qandnu "to roll up" Bab., OA 
[GUR] G (a/u) "wrap up" silver, figurine; of 
part of body "curl up, contract"; "tuck up" 
garment; of snake, refl. "coil (o.s.) up" Gtn 
iter., of parts of body; of snake D ~ G 
"contract" part of body; stat. "is curled up" like 
dog; of horns of moon Stn MA "repeatedly 

bow o.s. down" N of foot "contract" (itself) 

Ntn iter, of N of parts of body; of invalid; 

> qunnunu 
kandnu — > gandnu 
kanasarru(m), kanazerru(m); pi. f., also 

kasansardtum (wooden part of wheel) O/jB for 


kanasu(m), kanaslsuttu (a red flower) Bab.; 

< Sum. 

kanasu(m) I, OAkk, NA also handsu(m) "to 
bow down, submit" G (ulu, rarely Hi) [gOr] of 
enemy, worshipper, subject; of features on liver 
Gt stat. "is constantly submissive" D "subject" 
people, land; mountains; kisdda k. "bow o.'s 
neck, submit o.s." Dt "be subjected" SD ~ D S 
"make s.o. submit"; > kansu I, kansis, kansutu; 
kinsu; mukannisum; suknusu 

kanasu II "to gather in" NA, NB D people, 
harvest; < Aram.; > kansu II; kinistu 

kandsunu — > kundsunu 

kanasuttu — > kanasu 

kanatku — > kanaktu 

kana'u, kanahu 1 - (a plant) jB 

kanazerru — > kanasarru 

kanazu "to store away" NB food, tools; 

< OPers. kanz "treasure" denom. 
kandaku "(boat's) hold"? NB for dates 
kandalu(m), OB also kamdalum (a metal item)? 

Bab.; — > kundulum 
kandara(sanu) (a linen dress)? NB 
kandaru — > kanduru 
kandirsu — > kundirdsu 
kandu "jar" NB for tar, wine; < Aram. 
kandu — » also kamdum 
kanduru, Nuzi kandaru M/NB 1. (desig. of 

terrain), also as PIN 2. (a vessel, phps.) 

"rhyton" and/or "potstand"; < Sum. 
kanerhu (a plant) jB lex. 
kangannu -> kankannu 
kangiskarakku — > kannaskarakkum 
kangu -* kanku 
kaniktu(m) "sealed document" O/MB; also 

"sealed (consignment)"; < kaniku 
kaniku(m) NA f.; pi. m. & f. "sealed document" 

O/jB, M/NA kanikdt simdtim "purchase 

documents"; MA bit kanikdte "tablet-container"; 

jB also "(clay) sealing" for jar, door; < kandku 
kaniniwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kanipanu (a plant) jB lex. 
kdnisu — > kansu I 
kankadu — > kamkadu 
kankallu — > kagallu 




kankannu, kakkannu, NB kangannu "(wooden) 
pot stand" j/NB, NA esp. for large washing 

kankiru (or kankuru) (an object) NA of copper 

kanku(m), kakku, j/NB kanlmgu "sealed" Bab. 
of silver, vessel, document; "sealed 
(document)"; "(clay) sealing", NB "seal"; 
transf. jB "closed off, banned" of sea-port, 
"sealed" of womb, "hidden" of mystery, also in 
kakku sakku (a type of text); < kandku 

kankuru — » kankiru 

kannala — » akanna I 

kannama — » akannama 

kannaskarakkum, kanniskarakkum, kinnaska- 
rakkum, ka(n)giskarakku(m) (a kind of table) 
O/jB [(Gl5.)KA.KARA4]; < Sum. 

kannatu — » kannu II.III 

kanniku "sealer, one who seals" j/NB; NB k. 
bdbi "gate-sealer" as family name; < kandku 

kanniskarakkum — » kannaskarakkum 

kannu(m) I "(vessel-)stand; (a large vessel)" 
OAkk, Bab., NA 1. [GlS.GAN] "stand" for pot, 
for metal vessel 2. [DUG.GAN] "jar" for milk, 
oil, beer etc.; "(drinking) goblet"?; "bucket" for 
well; < Sum.; — » kannulathu 

kannu(m) II; pi. f. "band, binding" Bab., NA for 
hair, attached to clothing; wrestler's "loincloth", 
"(menstrual) cloth"; "binding" for sheaf; (a 
kind of trap); NB also of leather 

kannu III; pi. f. "shoot, seedling" jB, NA of 
vine, fruit-trees 

kannulathu (a household utensil) Nuzi; 
< kannu I + Hurr. -athu ? 

kannutum "accommodation, board"? OA in 
kasap k.; < kanu D 

kansu — » kansu I 

kansu (a milk product) OB lex. 

kansis "submissively" j/NB; < kansu I 

kansu I, kassu, kdnisu, kansu, hansu, hassu 
"submissive" M/NA, M/NB; < kandsu I; 
> kansis, kansutu 

kansu II "work-team" NB; < kandsu II 

kansutu "submissiveness" NB; < kansu I 

kantappu ~ "fish's tail"? jB, part of a figurine 

kantuhhum (attachment to a chariot) Mari 

-kanu — ► -kunu 

kanu(m) "to care (for)" G "dress up, prepare 
o.s.", stat. "is cherished" D of deity "treat 
kindly"; of human "praise, do honour to" deity; 
OA "accommodate, put s.o. up"; "attire (for 
burial)"; "care for, look after" clothes, house, 
statue etc. Dt pass, of D N "be (too much) 

cared for" jB; > kanutu; kinutu; kunnu, kunnutu, 
kannutum; tekn&m, teknitu 

kanu(m) OAkk, Ass. kudnu(m) "to be(come) 
permanent, firm, true" [GI.NA; GIN] G (u) of 
house, land, reign, foundation "be permanent", 
"firmly established"; astr. "remain visible"; of 
market "be stable"; of person "be reliable"; of 
statement "be(come) dependable, immutable"; 
of libbu "be loyal"; of a prediction "be realized"; 
of a sacrificial animal "be in correct state" 
Gtn iter., of planets "repeatedly stay visible" 
Gt "become permanent" D 1. liter., transf. 
"establish firmly" foundation, kingship etc.; 
"give permanence to" sceptre, reign, prosperity; 
"install" building, beam, door etc.; "permanently 
deposit" tablets in library; "fix" bowstring 
2. "define, fix" law, time (for, heavenly 
movements, boundary; "fix, impose" tax, 
tribute, domination, offering; OB + ace. infin. 
"impose" duty to do; "assign" payment etc. 
to s.o. 3. OA "make secure" for s.o. 4. leg. 
"establish" (s.o.'s guilt), "convict"; "confirm" 
s.o.('s statement); "prove, confirm" a fact; NB 
eli ram(a)nisu k. "confess" 5. in cult "set up" 
offering, furnishing "correctly" Dtn iter, of D 
Dt pass, of D Dtt NA of person "be confirmed 
in post" D 2 (uka(w)wan, Aram, formation) NB 
"define precisely" St OB ~ "cause to indict" 
person; > kinu, kina, kittu I, kinis, kinutu; kunu; 
kayydnu, kayydnis, kayyamdnu, kayyamdniu, 
kayyamdnu; kunnu; mukinnu, mukinnutu; 
makdnu'-; takittum I 

kanuku mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kanunu — » ganunum II; kinunu 

-kanusu — » -kunusi 

kanutu f. "the cherished" jB epith. of goddess; 
< kanu 

kanwartu, MA kalmartu, NA garmartu (a 
festival; also as MN) Ass. 

kanzabu (a musical instrument) jB; < kazdbu I 

kanzu (a plant) jB lex. 

kanzuzu, kamzuzu jB 1. [ZAG(.GA)] ~ "gums" 
of human 2. (a dung-beetle) 

kapad — » kapdu 

kapadu, MA kapdtu "to plan, scheme" Bab., 
M/NA G (ulu, occas. Hi) "plan, have plan for" 
wish, garden, temple, journey; to do 
(infin., ace. or ana); battle, evil (against s.o. = 
dat. or itti/anal-is); Mari, of consulting omens; 
NB "hasten" to do Gt "plan, devote o.s. to consistently" D ~ G "plan, scheme" 
Dtn OB lihtappud "let him take constant care 



kapru II 

of"? S caus. of G; jB also "make s.o. hasten"; 

> kapdu; kdpidu; kappidu 1 ; kipdu; kitpudu 
kapalu(m), qapdlu(m) "to roll up, wind up" 

O/jB, NA G (Hi) reed-mat Gt recipr. "inter- 
twine" each other, of snakes, birds etc.; 
children's game D "roll up" corpse in shroud; 
dung-ball Dt "roll o.s. up" of snake; transf. 
"form a band, conspiracy" of people, land 
N NA of glaze ~ "roll together"; > kdpilu; 
kitpulu, kitpuliitu; kiplu; kapilu'-; kapullum*; 
kappultum; — » muqappil ze 

kapdnu —* gapdnu 

kapapu(m), kabdbu "to curve, bow" O/jB, NA 
[GILIM; GUR] G (alu) of parts of body, stat. 
"are curved, bent"; "surround" with 
(= 2 ace.) D "bend, twist" part of chariot; stat. 
of parts of body, foetus "is bent, curved" 
S caus. jB/NA "make" mankind "bow down" 
N "be bent, twisted" of neck, part of liver, 

> kippu, kippatu; kuppupu 

, kaparru(m) I; jB pi. f. kapardti, Nuzi, Hurr. pi. 
kaparrasta "shepherd-boy" OAkk, O/jB 
[(LU.)K A.BAR]; > kaparrutu 

kaparru II ~ "spadix" of palm tree ? j/NB; 

kaparru III (a whip or goad) j/NB; < Sum.? 

kaparrutu(m) "work of shepherd-boy" O/MB; 
< kaparru I 

kapartu — » kapru I 

kaparu(m) I "to peel, strip" Bab. G (alu) "peel" 
reed, pole D "clear away, strip off plants from 
land, horns from ziggurrat Dt OB transf., of 
affair "be cleared away"; > kapru III; kapiru 1 -; 
takpuru, takpurtu 

kaparu(m) II "to wipe (clean)" Bab., M/NA G 
(alu) tears, hands etc.; vessel, stone Gtn iter., 
teeth, mouth D [5u.GUR.GUR] "(cultically) 
wipe clean" s.o.; town, house, field; by ritual 
activity N "be wiped clean" jB; > kdpiru^; 
kupirdtu, kupurtum; takpertu 

kaparu(m) III "to smear" Mari, OB(Hana), jB, 
NA G (alu ?) esp. stat. with bitumen (kupru) 
etc. N "be smeared" with bitumen; < kupru 

kapdsu — » kapdsu II 

kapasu(m) I, kabdsu(m) (a seashell) O/jB 
[NA4.KA.BA/PA.ZA]; also imitations in stone or 

kapasu(m) II, kabdsu(m), kaplbdsu(m) "to bend 
back, distort" O/jB G (/'//) of part of body, 
snake, horn of moon, part of liver D "make 

squint" eyes; stat. "is bent" N "be bent up" of 

parts of liver; > gabdsu; kapsu; kipsu; kdpisu 
kapasu(m) O/jB G (stat. kapus) 1. OB, jB lex. 

"be abundant" of smoke 2. Mari mng. unci., of 

acrobat; > kdpisum 
kapatu(m) O/jB G (Hi) of ear, mng. unkn. D "to 

bring together, collect" troops; ominous signs; 

stones; "roll into ball" ingredients (into pill); 

stat. "is rolled up" of lizard, ~ "form ball", of 

flesh, hair etc. Dt pass, of D; > kupputu, 

kupputtu; kupatinnuP- 
kapdtu — » also kapadu 
kapdu — » kaba'u 
kapdu, kapdali, kapad adv. "urgently, quickly" 

NB also ana k.; < kapadu 
kapidu "planner" jB; < kapadu 
kapilu (a leather strap)? NA; < kapdlu ? 
kapilu "winder" OB lex., a prof.; < kapdlu 
kapiru "wiper" or "caulker" jB lex.; < kapdru II 

or III 
kapisu (an official)? jB; < kapdsu II 
kapisum; f. kdpistum, jB habbistu (a cultic 

performer) O/jB; < kapdsu 
kapitum "stony ground" Mari, in eqel k. "stony 

terrain"; < kdpu + -it 
kapizzuhhu (an object) Am. in pairs; of gold; 

< Hurr. 

kapkapu ~ "powerful" M/jB 

kapkuru — » kabkuru 

kaplitu — » kablitu 

kappaltu "groin" jB of man 

kapparinnu mng. unkn. NB; — » kubarinnu 

kapparnu (a copper can) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

kappatinnu — » kupatinnu 

kappidu mng. unkn. jB; < kapadu ? 

kappu(m) I "wing" O/jB [PA] of bird, ant, god, 
statue; on star; transf. of feature on liver, on 
lung (hast), k. ini(m) "eyelid, eyelash"; lex. 
(branch of tree); — » agappu; gappu 

kappu(m) II "hand, palm of hand" 1. [A(.2)] of 
humans, du. kappdya "my hands"; isid k. "base 
of hand"; NB ina muhhi k. "in one go"; of 
animal "paw" 2. "(small) bowl" of wood, gold, 
silver; NA pi. kappdni 3. jB "edge, bank" (or = 
kdpu ?) 

kappu(m) III (part of harness) O/jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

kappultum "wrapping" OA as purpose of 

textile; < kapdlu D 
kapru(m) I; pi. m. & f. "village" [NA URU.SE]; 

sat k., sat kaparti (a kind of bird) 
kapru II (a kind of offering)? M/NB desig. of 

sheep, beer, dates 

kapru HI 



kapru III ~ "clipped" lex.; < kapdru I 

kapsu — » kapsu 

kapsu "buyer" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kapsu, kabsu, kaplbsu; f. kahis/stu "bent up, 

distorted" jB of part of liver; < kapdsu II 
kapsarru — » kabsarru 
kapsusihuru (desig. of a kind of sheep) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

kaptaru (a tree) jB lex. 

kaptaru; f. kaptaritum "Cretan" Mari; < PIN 

kaptukkum, kabduqqu "two-sutu container" 

O/jB, NA [DUG.2BAN] for liquids, wool; 

kapu — ♦ kepu 
kapu(m); NA pi. kdpdni "rock, cliff' Emar, jB, 

NA of river, of mountain (jB -+ also 

kappu II 3); OB, in PN of man ?; > kdpltum 
kapu ~ "to oppress, wrong"? jB G (a) 
kapullum mng. unci. OB, feature of wool; 

< kapdlu ? 

kaqda/u, qlkaklqdalu, gag(a)da(m) "constantly" 
Bab.; < qaqqadu ? 

kaqqadu -* qaqqadu 

kaqqarsu — » qaqqarsu 

kaqqaru -* qaqqaru 

kaqqullu — » kakkullu 

karabu(m) I "prayer; blessing" M/NB, NA 
[SISKUR; SiSKUR; A.RA.ZU]; < kardbu II infin. 

karabu(m) II "to pray, bless, greet" G (a/u) 
[SUD] 1. "pray" before (=mahar) deity on 
behalf of (= ana, dat.) s.o., for (= ana); 
"make, utter" prayer (ikribu, tamitu); in PNs 
"pray to, supplicate" deity (= ace.) 2. "dedicate" 
votive offering, animal, funerary offering 3. of 
deity etc. "bless, give benediction to" person, 
object 4. "greet (with a blessing)" Gtn iter. 
Gt "constantly pray to, call blessings on" D ~ G 
Mari "pray" for (= ana) s.o. S, Stn caus. of 
G 1 O/jB ? N pass. jB "be greeted"; > karbu; 
kiribtu; kurbu; kardbu I; kdribu; karubu, kirlbu; 
ikribu; -* kurlbu 

karagaldu -* karimgaldu 

karakku -* kurukku 

karaku "to roll up, collect" M/NB, NA G (i/i) 
1. "block" water, canal 2. "wrap, twine" 
3. "gather" troops 4. NA in hendiad. mng. 
unci., phps. "do promptly" or "do again" 
D "wrap up" tongue S NA "have collected" 
St jB med. "surround" finger with liquid? 
N "be wound up" of intestines; transf. of people 
"be assembled"; > karku; kerku I, kiriktu; 

karaldnu etc. -♦ kardnu 4 

karallu I ~ "goad" jB lex.; also as desig. of 
jewellery item 

karallu II ~ "happiness" jB comm. 

karammaru, kalammaru, karriammaru (an 
administrative register) NB; < Iran. 

karammu (part of storage facility)? NB; -♦ 
karmu II 2 

karamu(m), NB also keremu "to grasp, restrain" 
Bab., NA G (i/i) person; "withhold, delay" 
payment, journey; "stock up" bricks, seed 
N NA of eyes "be hindered" from seeing; 
> karmu I; nakramu 

karananu "wine-coloured" jB lex.; <kardnu 

karanatu(m) 'little wine' OB as hypocorist. PN; 
j/NB (desig. of stone); < kardnu 

karanu(m), OA, NA kirdnu(m) "vine; wine" 
1. "vine" [GIS.GESTIN] 2. "wine" [GESTIN(.NA); 
later also GIS.GESTIN] good, poor, red, bitter, 
strong etc.; NA rab k. "wine-overseer" 
3. "grapes" 4. in comb.: k. le, k., Idni, also 
karaldnu and var., NA kardn la'u (a kind of 
vine); k. selebi 'fox-wine' (a plant); ser k. 
'vine-snake'; > kardnatu, kardnu; karananu 

karanu "(red) wine-coloured" jB lex., desig. of 
lapis lazuli; < kardnu + -i 

karaphu, karpahu "fallow land, year" Alal., NA 

kararatu (a magical word)? jB 

kararu "midday heat" jB [AN.BIR9] 

kararu I "to put (down), discard" M/NA, Ug. 
G (a/u) "put" "down, on" somewhere; 
"lay" foundations; stat. of place "is situated, 
lies"; "throw, cast" person, lot; "drop" sweat, 
"deposit" corn etc.; "put, impose" work, duty; 
"cast" o.'s eye on; "lay low" s.o., with 
weapon N "be set up" of bed 

kararu II mng. unkn. jB G stat. (condition of 
eyes); > karru V-; karriru'-; karurtu 1 

karasu ~ "to tie up" jB lex., NA G; D -» 
mukarrisu ?; > kurussu 

karasu(m), gardsu(m), hardsu "to break off, 
pinch off O/jB G (i/i, occas. a/u) [KID] clay, 
esp. klgersi k. "pinch off a lump"; "gnaw" bone 
Gtlex. only D 1. jB ~ G "pinch off lumps; of 
pig "gnaw" wall 2. OB denom. from karsu 
"slander" s.o.; > karsu; kersu; karrisum; 

karasku "funerary chapel"? Am.(MiL); < Hurr.? 

karasu(m), karsu(m) "leek" Bab., NA 
[(U.)GA.RAS(.SAR); OAkk once RAS.GA.SAR] 
cultivated; wild, in mountains; also (a stone); -♦ 

karasu -* also karsu 

karasu -* karasu II 

karasu(m) I 


karu(m) I 

karasu(m) I "military camp" [KARAS(=KI.KAL. 
BAD, KI.KALXBAD)] Bogh. also "troops, army"; 

< Sum.? 

karasu(m) II, karasu "catastrophe, disaster" 

karasu — ♦ also mukarrisu 
karatasna (or karaurna) (an object) OB(Alal.) 
karatnannu, Qatna qardandnu (an ornament) 

Am., Qatna; in pairs, of gold 
karattu "like a grain-store"? jB; < karu I + -attu 
karatu "to slice" jB, NA G (Hi) "cut off tail; 

"fracture"? figurine D "cut off hand, horn; 

"chew up" lip; > kartu 
karatu(m) G mng. unkn. OB stat., condition of 

gall N "to be merciful", as infin. "forgiveness" 

jB; > nakrutu 
kara'u "to bow (o.s.) down" NB; < Aram. 
karaurna '— » karatasna 
karballatu "(pointed) hat" NA, NB 
karbanum -* kirbdnu 
•karbu "blessed" NB in fPN Karibtil; 

< kardbu II 

kardu (a kind of door) jB lex. 
kargullum - "market value" OB; < Sum. 
karibu; f. kdribtu "one who blesses" M/NA, 

M/NB 1. (a priest), niqe kdribi "offerings for 

the k." 2. (a supplicant deity or genie), occas. 

d K.; MA f. "female genie" in wood; < kardbu II 
karihuri (an official) Nuzi 
karimgaldu, karimtaldu, karagaldu "quiver"? 

M/jB on chariot; < Kass. 
karintu — ♦ karmu I 
karkadinnu — » kakardinnu 
karkamisum "of Carchemish" OB desig. of 

vessel; < PIN 
karkarru (a bird) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
karkartu (an edible plant) MB, NA 
karkarum mng. unkn. OB, desig. of chair 
karkasum, karkasu (a kind of mash) O/jB lex. 
karkittu "prostitute" jB lex.; < Sum. 
karku "rolled, gathered" j/NB, NA of threads, 

textiles; of troops, ina karkdti "en masse"; of 

mash "soaked"?; < karaku 
karmis "into a ruin" j/NB in emilusemi k. "turned 

into a ruin"; < karmu II 
karmu I; f. karintu "delayed" NA; < kardmu 
karmu(m) II "heap, mound" l.Bab. "ruin 

mound", esp. ana till u k. "into mounds and 

ruins" 2. M/NA, Mari ? "grain heap"; bit k. 

"granary"; rab karmdni (an official) (-» 

karammu); > karmis; karmiitu 
karmutu "ruination" j/NB esp. in k. aldku "to go 

to ruin"; < karmu II 

karpahu — » karaphu 

karpanis "like a pot" jB; < karpatu 

karpassu (a fibre, phps.) "cotton" NB; 

< Sanskr. 

karpasu ~ "magnificent" jB lex. 

karpatu(m) "(clay) pot" [DUG] also as measure, 

OA (= '/4 naruqqum), OB for liquids, St. abs. 

karpat; occas. of stone, metal; < karpu 
karpum "pot" OA; > karpatu; karpanis 
karratu mng. unkn. M/jB, desig. of a window 
karriammaru -* karammaru 
karriru (desig. of criminal) jB lex.; < kararu II ? 
karrisum; f. karristum "slanderer" OB; < karasu 
karru I adj. mng. unci. MB epith. of mounds; 

< kararu II ? 

karru(m)II "knob" Bab., NA [GAR(.BA)] 

"pommel" of sword; sikkat k. "knob-pegs", i.e. 

decorative wall pegs; "knob" on throne, also 

"throne" (same word ?); transf. "peak" of 

mountain; < Sum. 
karru III (a mourning garment) O/jB 
karru -* also karu; kerru I 
karsu(m) (a kind of song) jB 
karsillu(m) (or karzillu(m)) "knife, scalpel" 

O/jB [GfR.ZAL (later wr. DU)] of copper, used 

by surgeon; < Sum. 
karsu(m) "slander" Bab., NA [EME.SIG(.GA)] k. 

akdlu(m) "to slander", dkil k., Mari sa k. 

"slanderer"; NB also "(true) accusation"; 

< karasu 

karsanu/u (desig. of bison) M/jB, Bogh. [MB 
GU4.SA.GU4]; < karsu + -an + -i 

karsu(m), karasu m. & f. "stomach, interior"; of 
human "stomach", pi k. "epigastrium"; of 
animal, also as food item; "insides" in gener., 
also "womb"; transf. "mind, understanding, 
mood" etc.; "interior" of house, of ear; k. ubdni 
(fleshy side of finger/toenails); > karsdnu 

karsu — ♦ also karasu 

karsu (a deformation on the exta) jB 

kartappu(m), qartappu(m), jB kerdippu 
"(animal) driver" [LU.KIR4.DAB (-♦ also 
sakrumas)] esp. of horses; M/NB (a high 
official); < Sum. 

kartillu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kartu - "shredded" jB of reeds; < karatu 

kartum "current price" OB in karat ibbassu "the 
existing price"; < karu nom. unit. 

karu(m) I, qaru; MA ace. karu' a, gen. karu'e 
"grain-heap, grain-store" [GUR7]; bit k. 
"granary"; OB also as capacity measure 
(= 3,600 kur); j/NB (g's)/t. "hold" on boat; NB, 
of property held in common; < Sum.; > karattu 

karu(m) II 


kasu(m) III 

karu(m) II "to be(come) short" Bab., M/NA 
G (u/u, also ///') [LUGUD(.DA)] of space, of 
time; of heart, life "be(come) diminished" Gtn 
[LUGUD.MES] "contract repeatedly" of parts of 
body; of life "constantly become diminished" 
D "shorten" time, "diminish" s.o.'s life, "put in 
desperate straits"; stat. "(are) very short", of 
parts of body etc.; MA "deduct, subtract"? 
S "shorten" days; > kuru, kuritu'-; kurrd; — » 

karum — » also heru II D 

karu(m), NB also karru "quay, port" [KAR] 
1. "(river) quay, quay-bank, wall"; NB "bank" 
of ditch 2. "port" on river, on sea, in PINs; rab 
kdri "quay, port overseer"; NB "quay, port 
dues" 3. OB - "chamber of commerce" 4. OA 
"trading colony", e.g. karum Kanes, St. abs. kdr 
karma "colony by colony"; bit k. OA, also NA 
"customs house", NB "shop" S. OB ~ "current 
price" (set by karum); < Sum.; > kdrtum 

karum — » also kerru I 

karu I "to rub" jB med. G part of body; "rub on" 
medicine Gtn iter. D ~ G "rub" flesh with 
(= ina) 

karu(m) II "to be dazed" O/jB, NA G (pret. 
ikiir) D stat. ~ "is incapacitated"?; > kuru I; 
kirtu 1 

karubu "reverently greeted" M/jB, epith. of 
deities; < kardbu II 

karurtu ~ "hunger cramp" jB lex.; < kardru II ? 

karzillu — » karsillu 

kasaku — » kasku 

kasal — » kaslu 

kasamu(m) "to cut up, chop" OA, O/jB G (a/u, 
jB ///) [GAZ] body, wood, reed; med. 
malmdlis/istenis k. "chop up together"; 

> kasmu; kismu, kisimtum, kisittu; kasimum 
kasanitu (a red stone) jB [NA4.GUG.GAZI.SAR]; 

< kasu II 
kasappum (an object) 7 OB 
kasapu(m) I "to break (into bits)" O/jB, M/NA 

G (a/u) esp. bread, fig. etym. + kusdpu "to 

break bread, have meal"; wood, fingernail etc. 

D ~ G lex. only Dt pass, of D; > kassupu; 

kusdpu, kusipu I, kuspu; — » kaspu 
kasapu(m) II "to make funerary offering" 

OB(Susa), Man, jB G (///, jB once takassap) 

in kispu k. N pass., of funerary offering "be 

offered"; < kispu denom. 
kasaru(m), Bab. also keseru "to block; pave" 

O/jB, M/NA G (///') with stone, bitumen; 

"block" canal N NA of air "be blocked off; 

> kisirtu; kdsiru 

kasasu(m), kasdsu(m) "to chew, gnaw" Bab. 
G (a/u) of human, animal; of fire; of pain 
"gnaw"; OB om. of oil "encroach on" water 
Gtn (u/u) D "gnaw, cause pain"; > kdsistu; 
kissatu I ? , II, kissatu; kusdsu; kussusu; — » 
gasdsu G 

kasilaqqu — » kizaldqu 

kasilutum mng. unkn. OA 

kasimum "(reed) chopper"? OB; < kasdmu 

kasipu -* kusipu II 

kasiru(m) "barrage" O/jB in watercourse; 

< kasdru 

kasistu "gnawer" (f.) jB epith. of fire; of 

demon 7 ; < kasdsu 
kasts "in bondage"? jB; < kasu I 
kasitu "(magical) constraint" jB; < kasu I 
kasiyd — » kasu II 
kaskasu(m) "gristly extension of breast-bone, 

ensiform cartilage" Bab. [GAG.ZAG.GA] of 

sacrificial sheep; NB as cut of meat; OB of part 

of furniture-leg 
kasku — » kasku 

kaslu, kasal (a kind of land-plot) NB; < Aram.? 
kaslu — » also kislum 
kasmu "chopped" MA, jB of tree, plant; 

< kasdmu 

kaspu(m) "silver" [KU.BABBAR; OAkk, OA, 
also OB freq. KU; jB also KI.SAG] as raw 
material; used for objects; as currency; "price; 
money"; — » kasdpu I 

kassibdnu/u, kassibu — » kusipu II 

kassidakku — » kassidakku 

kassupu "broken"? NA; < kasdpu I D 

ka(s)susu(m) "(hunting) falcon" O/jB 
[SUR.MUSEN]; also as figurine; as desig. of 
hero, as PN 

kasu I "bound" j/NB [LA]; as subst. "captive"; 

< kasu III 

kasu II pi. tant.; NB Aram. pi. kasiyd (a spice 
plant, phps.) "mustard" Bab., NA [(U.)GAZI. 
SAR (GAZI freq. wr. SILA4)] as food-plant, in 
med., roasted, crushed etc., me k. "mustard 7 - 
water"; k. serri 'snake A:.' (a plant); transf. ~ 
"granule"; as desig. of semiprecious stone aban 
k. [NA4.GUG.GAZI.SAR (GAZI wr. SILA4)]; 
> kasanitu; kasutu II 

kasu(m) III "to bind" G (u/u, Hi) person, animal; 
foot, hand, of illness "grip" insides; OA transf. 
"obligate" s.o.; j/NB "bind" stone, bricks and 
mortar into wall Gtn iter, of illness D - G 
"bind" person, animal, limb; OB om. stat. of 
part of body "is grown over by" (= ace); OA 
"obligate" Dt pass, of D S caus. of G Mari 



kasii(m) III 

N pass, of G; > kasu I, kasis, kasutu I, kasitu; 
kisu III; kisitu*; kusitu, kusiu; maksu, maksutu 

kasu(m) m. & f.; pi. f. "cup, bowl" [GAL; MB on 
(DUG.)GU.ZI] freq. of metal; for oil, wine; MB, 
NA as measure of capacity 

kasulathu (a copper item) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kasumma — » kazumma 

kasurru — » kisurru 

kasusu — » kassusu 

kasutu I "bondage" jB; < kasA I 

kasutu II "mustard 7 plant" NA; < kasu II nom. 

kasabu ~ "to reduce, pare off? jB, NA G (a/u) 
stat. of part of body; of gold St 2 mng. unci., 
phps. "reach fullness" N "be reduced"?; 
> kdsibu; — » hasdbu I 

kasadum "to seize hold" OA G not attested 
D person, goods Dt pass, "be seized" N of 
person, goods "be seized"; > kussudu 1 

kasapu, kesepu "to think" NA, NB G (///) 
"reckon, estimate", stat. of goods "are reckoned 
at" value D "take into consideration, think 
out"; > kisiptu 

kasaru — » kasru 

kasaru(m) "to tie, knot; gather" G (a/u, Bab. 
occas. Hi) [KESDA; KAD, KAD in PNs] 1. "knot, 
tie up" string, hair, cloth 2. "gather" troops, 
animals, goods; "compose" literary work 
3. "organize" work, battle, protection 4. "gather, 
form" cloud, smoke, astr. glow; absol. of cloud 
etc. "form, be concentrated" S. "join together, 
construct" camp, wall, fort 6. of ice 
"consolidate", of part of body "contract 7 , go 
hard", transf. Id kdsir ikki "not hardening the 
heart", i.e. merciful 7. of god "strengthen" man, 
esp. in PNs Gt stat. recipr. "is interwoven"; "is 
clad in" fear, radiance D ~ G "bind round"; 
"assemble" troops; "organize" battle; 
"construct" camp, fort; Mari "fortify" town; of 
illness "paralyse 7 "; of field, stat. "is hard" 
Dt "gather together" of troops, clouds DRt 
Mari S caus. "cause to organize" battle; stat. "is 
hardened"? St "gather" troops etc. "together" 
N pass, of G "be gathered"; of work "be 
organized"; of part of body "be bound" by 
cramp ?, "paralysed"?; > kasru; kisru, kisirtu; 
kassdrum, kassarutum; kdsiru, kdsirtum 
kdsirutu; kdsiranupsi; kissuru; kuslrum*; 
kussuru; taksiru; maksaru; sutaksuru 

kasasu(m) I, gasdsu "to grind, grate" O/jB, NA 
G (a/u) [KA.GUZ] usu. "grind, grate" o.'s teeth, 
also absol., without obj., as sign of aggression; 

"rub"? tongue, heart; ext. stat. "is rubbed away" 
Gtn iter, "persistently grind" teeth, also absol. 
D "cut down, cut back" wings, nails, fingers 
Dt pass, of D of fingers St ~ G, of Adad 
"grind" (teeth) N ~ G as sign of aggression ? 
Ntn ~ Gtn; > gassu II, gassatu*; gisisu?; 
kassisu; kussusu; taksisitu 
kasasu II ~ "rain"? jB 
kasdsu — » also gazdzu; kasdsu 
kasatam -» kasdttam 
kasatis "in early morning" jB; < kasdtu 
kasa(t)tam "in early morning" OB; < kasdtu 
kasatu(m) f. pi. "early morning" O/jB; 

< kasu lll;> kasatis; kasdttam; — » muskasat 
kasibu ~ "reducing" jB coram.; < kasabu 
kasiranupsi (a functionary) OB(Alal.); 

< kasdru 

kasirtu — » kisirtu 1 ; qasirtu 

kasirtum "female 'knotter', tailor" OB; < kdsiru 

kasiru(m) 'knotter', "tailor"? [LU.(TUG.)KA. 

KESDA] alongside weaver, NA, NB rab k. 

"chief tailor", NB of hats; also jB lex. (a kind of 

mongoose); OA, as var. of kassdrum; < kasdru 
kasirutu "craft of tailor 7 " NB; < kdsiru 
kasisihatu (a spice) j/NB 
kasru(m), jB occas. kasaru "firmly joined, solid" 

of troops, clan; OA "well packed" of donkey; 

"clustered" of skin marks; astr. of halo ~ 

"concentrated"; < kasdru 
kassarum ~ "packing-supervisor" OAkk, OA, 

Mari of goods in boat, in donkey caravan ( O A 

— » also kdsiru); < kasaru; > kassarutum 
kassarutum "function as packing-supervisor" 

OA; < kassdrum 
kassidakku(m), kazzidakkufm) "miller" Bab. 

[(LtJ.)KA/GAZ.zi.DA(- )]; NB also Kassidakku, 

as family name; < Sum. 
kassisu "habitually grinding teeth" jB of person; 

< kasdsu I 

kassu — » gassu II; gazzu; kasu I 

kassutu uncert. NB 

kasu(m) I, Bogh. kassu; f. kasitu "cold" Bab., 
NA [SED7] of water, place; oven; transf. Bogh. 
of words; < kasu III 

kasum II, qasum "the (Mesopotamian) steppe" 
Mari; < W.Sem. 

kasii(m) III "to be(come) cold" Bab., M/NA 
G (//;') [SED7] of water, weather; med. of 
patient; infin. kase umi "cool of the day, 
evening" Gtn iter, of patient, part of body 
"continually become cold" D [SED7] "cool 
down" (trans.) land; horse, after exercise; med. 
part of body, concoction; glass in kiln; transf. 

kasu 152 

"calm" heart; > kasu I, kasdtu, kasdtis, 
kasdttam; kisu; kusu, kusu, kusdyu; mukarsitu 1 ; 

kasu "to skin, flay" M/NB, NA G (u, Nuzi also 
T) "skin" animal, captive; "flay" skin (of 
captive); "strip" off layer, from eye, plant? 
D ~ G "flay" animal, person S caus. of G Mari 
N pass, of G; > kisu I; kd'isu; makdsu; takdsu 1 

kdsa -* kdsim 

kasadu(m) "to reach, arrive; accomplish; 
conquer" G (alu) [KUR; jB occas. SA.SA] 
1. "reach, arrive at" place, level; person; time, 
day, season; of time, event "arrive"; also + ana, 
ana serlmuhhi, adi 2. "stretch as far as", "be 
contiguous with"; of house "equal" (in value) 

3. "(succeed in) reach(ing)", "locate" s.o., 

4. "achieve, get" silver, health, offspring, 
kingship; desire, plan 5. "conquer" land, city, 
"defeat" enemy; of demon, curse, ordeal "catch 
up with, overcome"; freq. qdtum as subj. 
6. "complete, accomplish" job, field(-work); 
"master" instructions 7. of supplies, people "be 
sufficient, adequate" Gtn iter, of G OB Gt OB 
lex., mng. unci. D "drive off, chase away" 
person, demon, animal; "send away" 
messenger; Nuzi "disinherit"; OA, Mari, Bogh. 
"pursue, follow up" s.o., M/NA "chase, catch 
up with" animal Dtn iter, of D "constantly 
pursue"; Alal. "repeatedly send away" wife 
Scaus. of G St OB "complete (work on)" field 
N pass, of G; NB also of payment, land- 
holding "belong with, pertain to" Ntn ~ Gtn of 
G 5; > kasdu, kasittu; kdsidu; kisdu, kisittu; 
kussudu; mukassidu 

kasdhum -* hasdhu 

kasdme — ♦ kisamma 

kasansardtum -* kanasarru 

kdsanu — ► kdsunu 

kasapu(m) "to cast spells (on s.o. = ace), 
bewitch" O/jB G (ill) D ~ G; > kispu; kusdpu; 
kassaptu, kassdpu, kassdputu 

kasaru(m), keseru "to restore; have success" 
G (OAkk, OB alu, later Hi) 1. "repair" building 
etc.; "replace" grain etc.; in PNs, of deity 
"compensate" 2. of person "accomplish" 
"successfully"; of illness "be(come) satis- 
factory" D ~ G "restore" building 
N ingress, of G "be accomplished success- 
fully"; > kisertumr; kusiru; kusurraum; 
taksitu; kisimi?, kisirtu 1 ; kusdru^, kusartu 

kasasu(m) I "to gain control of, acquire" OA, 
O/jB G (alu. Am. Hi) liter., property, leg. 
"assume control of s.o., Am. "control" enemy; 


transf., wisdom D OA "make, acquisitions" 
N OB, with kissdtum "be taken as pledge" 
Rtn ? (ptcp. muktassassu) jB "constantly gain 
mastery over" s.o.; > kassu, kaskassu; kdsisum; 
kasusu; kissii, kissu; kissdtum, kissutu; — ♦ 
kissatu I 

kasasu II ~ "to become dizzy"? jB G (ulu) of 

kasatu(m) "to cut off Bab, NA G (Hi) "chop 
down" tree, vine; "cut off caravan, 
descendants; "cut down" oil issue 

kasaum —* kasu II 

kasdu(m), NB kaldu "achieved, successful" Bab. 
[KUR] of revolt, attack; desire, plan; "sufficient, 
adequate" of work etc.; "arrived" of goods; 

< kasddu; > kasittu 
kaserkana mng. unkn. NB (a plant)? rdg. 

kdsi -* kdsim 
kasidu "conquering" NA in DN A Kdsiduti; 

< kasddu 
kasim. kdsi, kdsu(m), kdsa(m) "to .you" (2 sg. 

pron.) Bab., NA; OB m. & f. dat? "toj"'for you"; 

later kdsa^ = m. and kdsi =^Jjj^iso ace, gen. 

after sa Id "wi\hout rT T^*lcuasim; sdka 
*kasina "(to) you" (2 f. pi. ace, dat. pron.) not 

attested (-♦ GAG §41 i) 
kasisum "creditor, pledge-taker" OB, Ug.; 

< kasasu I 
kasittu(m) 1. OB "recovered (goods)" 2.jB 

"success"; < kasdu 
kasitu f. mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kaskada/innu -* kakardinnu 
kaskassu(m) "all powerful" Bab., as divine 

epith.; OB (desig. of divine weapon); < kassu 
kaskasum "(the cuneiform sign) KASKAL" OB 

ext. [KASKAL] 
kasku, kaskiniwe, kas(a)ku (a kind of land 

holding) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kasmahhum, kasmdhu "first class beer" O/jB 

[KAS.MAy]; < Sum. 
kasmushu (or gasmushu) (an object) 

OB(Alal.); < Hurr.? 
kassaptu(m) "sorceress" Bab. [MUNUS. 

USn(.ZU)]; < kasdpu 
kassapu "sorcerer" O/jB [LU.USn(-ZU)]; 

< kasdpu 
kassaputu "sorcery" jB akle k. me k. "bread of 

sorcery, water of sorcery"; < kassdpu 
kassidu mng. uncert. jB of sign 
kassu "massive, strong" NB of flood-waters; 

< kasasu I; > kaskassu 
kassu -* also kansu I 



katu(m) I 

kassu "Kassite" Bab. lex., of words; as PN, as 

kasu(m) I "to cover over" O/jB G {Hi) with 
(= ace.) dust N of person "be mistreated"? 

kasu(m) II, OAkk kasaum ~ "to increase" 
(intrans.) OAkk, OA, O/jB G (Hi) jB of profit 
(taksitu) D "make profit", infin. kussu "profit"; 
stat. "is plentifully endowed with" hair; "ex- 
pand" temple St OB mng. unci.; > kussiP; 
taksA, taksitu 

kasum III mng. unkn. OAkk G (pret. iksu) 

kasu "to delay, linger" M/NA, M/NB G (u) of 
person; of plant "be late" D "hold up, delay" 
s.o.; NA "tarry" St "be held up, delayed"? 

kasu —* also kdsim; kidsum 

kasudu "informer" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kasunu, NA before stress kdsanu- "you" (2 m. 
pi. pron.) M/NB, NA dat., after ana; gen.; ace; 
-♦ kdtunu 

kasurritu (textile from Gasur) jB lex. 

kasu(r)ru(m) "of Gasur" 1. "basalt" jB in myth, 
for door-sockets 2. OA, of person, of textile; 

< PIN (= Nuzi) 

kasusu(m) (a divine weapon) O/jB of Nergal; 

om., as desig. of catastrophe; as epith. of deity, 

king; < kasasu I 
kasutu mng. unkn. jB comm. 
kdta -* kdti 

katabbum -* katappum 
kataduggu "saying, utterance" jB [KA.TA. 

DUG4.GA]; < Sum. 
katamlalu -* kutamlalu 
kdtamma -* qdtamma 
katammu "lid, cover" NB, for kettle, stove; 

< katdmu 

katamu(m) "to cover" G (alu) [DUL] 1. "cover 
( up" with (= ace/ma) earth, light etc.; 
stat. "is covered" with (=ace) flesh; "close" 
lips; of dust, sand "cover, shroud" city, sky 

2. of demon etc., fear, radiance "overwhelm" 

3. "hide, secrete", "seize and detain" person, 
animal D ~ G [DUL] "cover" with (=acc./ina) 
earth, garment etc.; "close" eyes, lips; "cover 
over" vessel, oven; Am. "conceal" Dtn "keep 
constantly secret", words Dt pass, of D of 
mouth "be closed"; of person "be clad" with 
garment SD ~ D ? S caus. "make" dust "cover 
sky"; "close" lips Stn iter, "constantly close" 
mouth N "be covered" with (= ace) garment 
Ntn [DUL.DUL]? iter, "be constantly over- 
whelmed", also ~ Gtn; > katmu, katammu; 
kitmu, kitimtu; kutmu, kutwnmu; kutumtu; 

kdtimtu; kuttumu, mukattimtu; naktamu, 

naktamtu; saktumu; taktimu; kdtimisi 
katappatu, once haltappdtu (part of animal's 

breast) jB lex.; < katappum or katappu ? 
katappum (an object) OA, OB of wood, silver, 

copper; < Sum.? 
katappu "bridle, halter" M/jB [Am., Bogh. 

KUS.KA.TAB(.ANSE)] for donkey, horse; 

< Sum. 

katarru (a kind of fungus) jB, NA [KA.TAR] in 

house, on wall; < Sum.? 
kataru I "to get (as) help" NA/jB G {Hi) of 

troops; < kitru I denom.? 
kataru II ~ "to wait" NA G {Hi); < Aram. 
katatu(m) "to quiver, vibrate"? O/jB G (pret. 

iktut) of part of liver ? D "shake"? (trans.) lex. 

only Stn of flesh "quiver continually"? St "be 

disturbed", astr. "descend" 
katatu "needle"? jB lex. 
kata'um "to distrain, take as pledge" OA 

G (ala) slave, tool Gtn iter, of G D ~ G with 

pi. obj., slaves; > kdtu; kattu; kututum 
kati, kdta, jB also kdtu "you" (2 sg. pron.) Bab.; 

kdti m. & f. ace, gen.; kdta m. only, ace, gen., 

Mari also nom., jB only dat.; -♦ kudti; sdka 
katimattu, katimuttu (a bird) jB 
katimisi (a climbing plant)? jB lex.; <kdtim + 

katimtu -* katmu 
katimtu 1. jB "net" for birds etc. 2. (desig. of 

kind of door); < katdmu; -* mukattimtu 
katimuttu -* katimattu 
*katina "you" (2 f. pi. ace pron.) not attested 

katinnu — ♦ kattinnu 
katmu(m) "covered" O/jB of earth; "concealed"; 

f. katimtu "a secret", k. sade "secret places of 

mountains" etc.; < katdmu 
katrti — ♦ kadru 
kattamma -* kayydnu 
kattd'um — ♦ kattti 
kattillu, kattellu (a predatory animal) Bogh., jB 

killing horse; among demons, diseases 
ka(t)tinnu (a metal weapon) MB(Alal.), Nuzi, 

kattu — ♦ gattu I; ku 
kattu(m), kattd'um, kattu'wrp- "corroborator" 

OAkk, OA ? , O/jB of judicial statement; 

< kata'um 
katum (a tool) OB? 

katu(m) I "weak, needy" O/jB; < katum II; 
> katutu 

katum II 



katum II "to become poor" OA; > katu I, katutu; 
— » qadd'um 

katu "surety, pawn" MA for loan; < katd'um 

katu — » kati; ka'um; qayydtu 

katunu "you" (2 m. pi. pron.) M/jB ace, gen., 
after ana; — » MSunu; kunuti 

katum — » kitturru I 

katutu "poverty" jB; < katu I 

katdpum — » qatdpu 

ka'u — » kam'atum or kammu II; kayyu 

ka"u D NA "to wave" frond 

ka'um; pi. Aratam (a cloth) OA 

fcfl'j/ — » ga'w 

ka"ulu — » /:«//« III 

kauriyannu mng. unkn. Nuzi in desig. of gold 

ka'urraku "carver of reliefs"? jB lex.; < Sum.? 

kawali — » qawali 

kawalzuru (a metal object) Nuzi; < Hurr.; — » 

kawarum, MA kabdru, NB kamma/dru, kamru 
~ "ramp" Bab., MA; Man also (a component of 

kawatumma in k. epeSu ~ "to plunder" or 
"confiscate"? Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

kawum I, kamu "outer" Bab. [(AN.)AS.A.AN; 
BAR(.RA)], bdbum k. "outer gate"; f. kamitu 
"(area) outside", kamltuS "to the outside"; f. pi. 
kawlmatu(m) "environs" of city, "open 
country"; > kamdtiS; kamitu II, kimd, takwurrC- 

kawum II, kamu "to burn" (trans.) Bab. G rare 
D "roast, bake" N pass. lex. only; > nakmu; 

kayyaman(a) — » kayyamanu 

kayyamaniu — » kayyamanu 

kayyamanu(m) "permanent, regular" Bab., NA 
[SAG.US] "permanent" water etc.; astr., ext. 
"normal(ly present)" of features; as adv., also 
kayyamdnfa) "constantly"; (desig. of planet) 
"Saturn" [also TUR.DIS]; <kayydnu (irreg. 
extended form); > kayyamaniu, kayyamdnd 

kayyamanu, NA kayyamaniu "reliable" j/NB of 
words; NA "permanent" [(LU.)SAG.US] of 
soldier, of lion; of offering "regular"; as adv. 
"constantly"; < kayyamanu + -I 

kayydn(alu), kayyanamma — » kayyanu 

kayyanis "constantly" OB; < kayyanu 

kayyanu(m) "constant, regular" OA, Bab. 
[SAG.US; jB also GUB] of tribute, rain, famine 
etc.: of person "constantly present"; of part of 
liver "normal"; OB klma kayyantimfma) "as 
normal"; in adv. usages OB kayyantam, also 
(ana) kattam(ma), O/jB kayydn, M/NB 

kayydna/u, kayyanamma "regularly, con- 
stantly"; jB "in usual meaning"; < kdnu; 

> kayyamanu; kayyanis 
kayyanzu ~ "property"? Emar 
kayyipu "criminal" jB lex. 

kayyu, ka'u, akayu "(donkey) stick" jB lex.; also 

part of loom 
kazabu (a plant) jB lex. 
kazabu(m) I "to be attractive, alluring" O/jB 

G stat. of cow D "flatter, fawn" of man, dog; 

> kazbum; kuzbu, kuzbdnu, kuzbdnltu, 
kuzubtum; kuzdbum; kanzabu; kuzzubu; 

kazabu II "to tell lies" Am. G (Hi); < W.Sem.; 

> kazbutu 

kazallu (a plant) jB [U.KA.ZAL] as drug 

kazalluhu (a plant) jB lex. 

kazan, kazanena — » qazan 

kazdru — » kezeru 

kazazakku mng. unkn. jB lex.; < Sum.? 

kazdzu — » gazdzu 

kazbum "charming, alluring" OB as fPN 

Kazubtum; < kazabu I 
kazbutu "lies" Am. in awdt k.; < kazabu II 
kazirsu mng. unci. Nuzi 
kazirtum (desig. of slavewoman) OB 
kaziru "fringe, curl"? M/jB of plant, also med. (a 

plant); of stone ornament, pi. kazirdnu; 

< kezeru ? 

kazitassu mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kaziztu subst. "cutting off 'jB ext.; < gazdzu 

kazratu — » kezretu 

kazu — » kizti 

kazumma (or kasumma) in k. epesu of woman ~ 

"to scratch" s.o.? Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
kazurhu, kazuShu (a garment); < Hurr. 
kazzapurushu (an implement) Nuzi, of copper; 

< Hurr. 

kazzaurnu ~ "substitute, compensation"? Nuzi; 

< Hurr.? 
kazzidakku — » kassidakku 
kazzu — » kizzu I 

ke, a(k)ke, ikke "how?", "how!" in exclamations 
before vb., adj. in st. abs.; in rhetorical 
questions; OA before number, "approximately"; 
— kl 

ke' am — » klam 

kike — » klkl 

kelesu — » kaldsu 

keltum (a disease) OB lex. 

keltum — » also kaltum 

keltuhlu — > geltuhlu 

kem — » klam 




kena — » kina 

kenu — » kinu 

kenutu — » klnutu 

kenniwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

keppu(m) "skipping rope" O/jB; also as an 
attribute of Istar; < kepu 

kepu(m), kapu "to bend (back)" O/jB G [GAM] 
stat. of part of liver, of body, horns of moon 
"are curved" D ~ G stat. "is curved" Dtn OB 
mng.? St(n ? ) of Istar "make whirl 
round"?; > keppu 

kerdippu — » kartappu 

keremu — » kardmu 

kergllu — » gergllu 

kerhu(m) "enclosure wall; enclosed area" Bab., 
NA of city, temple court 

kerku(in) I "blockage"? Bab., of water-flow; NB 
in susdnu sa ker(e)k(et)i (an irrigation work- 
er)?: < kardku 

kerku II "roll" NA, NB of cloth, of papyrus; 
< Aram. 

kerlainmu (a small vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 

kerperushu (an object on wall) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kerretu — » genu I 6; kirretu; kirru; qerltu 

kerridir — » genidir 

kerru(m) I, Mari karrum, kdrum "male sheep" 
OAkk, OA, Mari 

kerru(m) n "(area of) collarbone" Bab., of 
human, left, right; also du.; of bird 

kerrum — » also gerru I 

kersappu — » gistappu 

kersu, gersu "pinched-off piece, lump" M/jB, 
OA ? of clay; of dough; OA of piece of metal ?; 
of miscarried foetus ? , also um k.; < kardsu 

kern — » klru I 

kerzizu (an object) jB in Marduk Sa k.; rdg. 

keseru — » kasdru 

kesu — » klsu II 

kesu (a prof.)? jB lex. 

kesu(m) mng. unkn. OB, jB lex. G 

kesepu — » kasdpu 

keSeru — » kaSdru 

kettu — » kittu I 

ketu — » kittu I; kltu 

kezertum — » kezru 

kezeru(m), kazdru "to give s.o. a (special kind 
of) hair-do" O/jB, NA G (Hi) king, woman, 
animal; OB nebehlparsl kezerim (a payment 
relating to function of a kezretum); > kezru, 
kezretu, kezrutu; kizirtu; kuzlrum; kaziru*- 

kezretu(m), kazratu "woman with (special kind 
of) hair-do" O/jB, NA [MUNUS.SUHUR.LA] a 
type of cultic prostitute; OB wakil kezretim 
"overseer of the prostitutes"; jB issur kezreti (a 
bird); < kezeru 

kezru(m); f. kezertum "with (special kind of) 
hair-do" O/MB lex., NA [lu.SUHUR.LA] also 
as PN, fPN; < kezeru 

kezrutu "status of a kezretu" MB; < kezretu 

-ki, -k, NB -ku "you" (2 f. sg. ace. suff.) (-» 
GAG §42g-k) 

-ki — » also -kim 

ki "like; how?; as" 1. prep.: "like"; "according 
to"; "for" (a price); "on account of; before 
infin., kl Id meke "without negligence", kl Sakdn 
bilte "by imposing tribute"; MB kl qdt, jB kl Sa 
"instead of 2. interrog. adv.: "how?", NA PNs 
before prec. "How should I ...?"; — » kiyd; 
masu I G 6 3. conj. usu. + subjunct. [NB GIM] 
temporal: "when" before pret., perf., pres., stat. 
4. condit.: NB "if before perf., pres.; Id 
introducing oath = neg., e.g. kl undeSSer "if I 
abandon" = "I will not abandon", kl Id = pos. 
(kl adi before pres.); kl ...kl "whether ... or"; 
Sa'dlu kl "to ask" etc. "whether" 5. MB 
"because" 6. "that" after vb. of knowing, 
saying, swearing 7. "just as", usu. kl Sa; > klam 
etc.; klkl; klma, klme; ke; kiSuma; — » akanna I; 
akl; klnaniia 

kla — » klam; kiyd 

kia'im in k. u k. "here and there" Mari; also Am. 
ki-ia-am . . . ki-ia-am; — » klam 

kiaki "thus"? OB(poet.) 

kiam, kla, Mari also kem, M/NB also kd(m) "so, 
thus" [UR5.GIM] 1. of way of speaking, writing, 
calculating etc.; "etc., and so on"; SI lu k. "so be 
it (for ever)"; OB Summa Id klamma "if it is 
not the case", MA u Id kla 2. O/MA k.-ma "just 
so, in the same way" 3. OB as pred. ~ "it is", 
warhum klam "it has been a month"; + pron. 
suff. klaSSa "she is like that" 4. after prep., 
inalana k., OA akklam, OB(N.Mes.) also 
ikkem "hence, in consequence"; aSSum k. "for 
that reason, purpose" 5. Jfc. . . . Jfc. "once... 
another time, now ... then", of person jfc.' jfc. "so- 
and-so" 6. O/jB interrog. "how (much)?"; < kl 
+ -am; > kdmma; — » akia; kia'im; klaSSu 

kia(s)su Bab. lex. = klam + -Su "in that way" 

kiasum, jB kdSu "to help" O/jB, esp. infin. 
"assistance, support"; > kiSamma ? 

kibaltu (a kind of semiprecious stone) jB lex. 

kibalu, kipald "rebel land" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kibarru "boat of inflated skins"? NA/jB 

ki(b)bu(m) I 



kibasu — » kibsu II 

kibbdtu — » fc'Mu II 

ki(b)bu(m) I; pi. ki(b)bdni (an object) Bab., NA; 
of gold; < Sum.? 

kibbu(m) II; lex. pi. f. "bum mark, brand"? Bab.; 
Mari (an extispicy procedure)?; < kabdbu II 

kibegum "initial state" OB math.; < Sum. 

kibiltu unci. jB lex.; — » kabdlu 

kibinu (syn. for) "father" jB lex. 

kibirru(m); pi. m. & f. 1. Bab. ~ (a weapon) 
2. Bab. lex. "taper, fire-brand"; < Sum. 

kibittum — » kabittu 1 

kiblu — > kiplu 

kibnu — » &;/j/w< 

kibrdtu — » fa'A™ 

kibritu, kubritu "sulphur" M/jB [PlSio(=Kl.A). 
( d )lD; PlSio- d lD.LU.RU.GU; also kibri- d lD (folk 
etym.)] as drug, of various colours; rit, om.; 
isdt k. "fire of s." 

kibru(m), kipru(m); pi. m. & f. "bank, shore, 
rim" [PlS|o(=Kl.A)] of river, canal, sea, as safe 
place; "rim" of oil cup; "border, edge" of 
furniture, boat; of part of body, k. inim "rim 
(=white) of eye"; in kibrdt erbetti(m)larba' 'i(m) 
[UB.DA.LIMMU(.BA)] "the four edges" of the 
world, jB also kibrdtum alone [UB.MES] "the 

kibru. kubaru - "old man" jB lex. 

kibrum — » also kiprum 

kibsu(m) I; pi. m. & f. "track, footprint" [KI.US] 

1. "tread, imprint" of foot, k. redu "to follow a 
track", sa kibsi "tracker" (NA — » rddiu 2); 
"droppings" of animal, as drug; MA "rung" of 
ladder, jB "step"; k. sepe "soles of feet" 

2. "track, route" of person, animal, k. sakdnu 
"to make o.'s way"; transf. "mode of life, 
behaviour, course of life" 3. math, "way of 
calculation"; OA kibsdtum "deducted amounts"; 
< kabdsu 

kibsu II, NB also kibasu (a garment) M/NB usu. 
of deity 

kibsum I (or kipsu) "donkey foal"? OA 

kibsu II (or kipsu) (a fungal mould) jB as skin- 
complaint; zer k. as drug 

kibsu (or kipsu) (a bird) jB lex. 

kibtu(m); pi. kibdtu, Mari kabdtum "wheat" 
Bab., NA [(SE.)GIG(.BA); NB also GIG.Bl] 

kidam "to the outside" OB; < kidu 

kidadabru (a plant) jB lex. 

kidanu(m), kididnu adv. "outside" Bab., MA of 
buildings salana k, "exterior"; of persons 
"away" from home, family, land; as prep, 
"outside" gate etc.; < kidu + -dnum 

kidanu "external" MB of wall; < kiddnu + -i 

kidapasse — » kindabasse 

kiddum — » kidu 

kiddudu — » kidudu 

kidennu — » kidinnu 

kididnu — » kiddnu 

kidil — ► kidinnu 

kidimuri — » kadmuru 

kidinetu "forest" jB lex. 

kidinnu(m), kidennu(m), kidinu - "protection, 
aegis" OB(Susa), M/NA, M/NB [UBARA; in 
PNs also BAR] at Susa ~ "divine protection" for 
person; later also privileged status (incl. tax 
exemption) of cities and their citizens, amelldl 
k. "exempted man/city"; in PN Kidin-DN (NB 
also Kidil- before Ellil, Iltar); jB "protective 
watch"; < Elam.; > kuddunu; kidinnu I, 

kidinnu I; f. kidinnitu "protege(e)" M/NB, esp. 
as (f)PN; < kidinnu 

kidinnu II (or kitinnu) 1. NB (a fabric, textile)? 
(-» kidintu) 2. j'/NB (a metal object) 3. NB (a 
payment or delivery) 

kidinnutu "exempt status, protection" j/NB, NA 
esp. in k. kasdru, k. sakdnu "to establish 
(s.o.'s) exemption"; < kidinnu 

kidintu f. var. of kidinnu II 1 ? 

kidinu — » kidinnu 

kiditu "exterior part" O/jB [SA] om. (a part of the 
liver); pi. kldetum, kididtu - "outlying 
establishments"; < kidu 

kidkidru — » kukkudru 

kidmuri — » kadmuru 

kidrum — » kadru 

kidu(m) "exterior" O/jB of part of geometrical 
figure; "external" of plaster on wall; astr. of 
moon's halo; MB as fPN "(Woman) from 
outside"; < kidu + -i; > kiditu 

kidu(m), OB also kiddum; pi. m. & f. "outside, 
countryside", esp. as opp. to in the city; as 
habitat of plants, animals; "outside" of building, 
of human body; > kidam; kiddnu, kiddnu; kidu, 

kidudu, kiddudu pi. tant. "rites" jB, NA 
[KI.DU.DU] of ritual in temple, freq. with parsu; 

< Sum. 

kigallu(m) "socle, pedestal" OAkk, Bab., NA 
[KI.GAL] of building, statue; "(foundation of 
earth =) underworld", also in DN Eres-kigal; 

< Sum. 

kigallu — » also igigallu; kagallu 
kiga(l)lu -> kikallu 




kigamlum, OA also kugamlum, M/NA gugamlu 

"animal pen" Ass., OB; OA for donkeys, MA 

kigullatu (desig. of a woman) jB, among 

paupers etc. 
kigullu ~ "place of destruction" jB lex.; <Sum. 
kigurrum (a mathematical body) OB; < Sum.? 
kihullu "mourning rites" jB [KI.HUL]; also 

"mourning place"; < Sum.; — » gihlu 
kika "thus, like"? Am.; < W.Sem. 
kika(l)lu, kiga(l)lu "hard ground" Bab. [KI.GAL 

(.LA)]; < Sum.; — » kagallu 
kikamunu "third in line" Nuzi [3-mu-nu] of 

person for duty; < Hurr.; — » kukumnu 
kikarpu "three-year-old" Nuzi, of animals; 

< Hurr. 

kikl, keke, kikiva "how?" M/jB in exclamation; 

kikittu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kikittu "ritual procedure" M/jB [KiD.KID 

kikiya — » kikl 
ki(k)killu — » kilkillum 
kikkimu, kikkisu (desig. of a reed artefact) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
kikkiranu(m), kikkiridnu, kirkiranu, kilkillrdnu, 

kiskiranu, kiskaldnu, MB(Bogh.), Ug. 

kirkiriyannu "pine or juniper seeds" O/jB, MA 

kikkisu(m), NA kikkisu "reed fence, wall" O/jB, 

NA [GI.SIG]; as enclosure for field, orchard; as 

hut for ritual 
kikkisu — > kikkimu 
kiksu ~ "splinter of wood" jB lex. 
kikunannum, kipunannum (an item of dress) 

kikunnum — » gegunnu 
kikurru ~ "temple foundation" jB; < Sum. 
kilallan, kilallu(n); f. kilattdn, OA also kilaltdn, 

OB gen. kilettin "both" [MAS.TAB.BA] of 

persons, things, as subst. or adj.; with pron. 

suff., e.g. OA kilalldkunu "both of you"; OB st. 

abs. kilalal kilalal "in pairs"; — > kalu II 
kilamu — > gildmu 
kilattdn — » kilallan 
kilatu pi. tant. "barrage" M/NB in watercourse; 

< kalu V 
kildu — » kisdu 
kill — ► kalu II 

kilibbu "total" jB lex.?; < Sum. 
kilibbum — » also kilimbu 

kilidar (desig. of horse) MB, also as name of 

kilildnu — » kardnu 4 

kilTlis "as with a wreath" jB with vb. of 

surrounding; < kililu 
kililu(m) "wreath" OAkk, Bab., NA [GILIM] 

1. head ornament for humans, gods, of silver, 
gold; OAkk, OB transf. desig. of DN in PNs 

2. jB, NA, NB also killilu "parapet" of wall, 
building 3. Bab. lex. (a kind of rush)? 4. (issur) 
k. (an owl); d K. (a female demon); > kililis; 
kullulu II, kulilum II; — » kululu 

kilimbu, kilibbum, kilimmu "reed bundle" O/jB 

[GI.GILIM]; < Sum. 
kilimmu -*kilimbu 
kilippu — » kuluppu 
kilitum "restraint" Mari, as function of door; 

< kalu V 
kilkildnu — » kikkirdnu 

kilkillum, jB ki(k)killu (a reed structure) O/jB, 

for rituals 
kilkirdnu — » kikkirdnu 
killatu — » kullatu I 
killilu -» kililu 2 
killilu — » kulilltu 
killu(m) mng. unci. 1. OB ext. (part of liver)? 

2. jB lex. in aban killi (a stone) 
killu — > also ikkillu; kllu I 
kilpum I "profit"? OA 

kilpu II mng. unkn. NB 

kilsukku (or kirsukku, habsukku ?) (part of 

plough) jB lex. 
kilsu ~ "(physical) contraction" jB comm.; 

< kaldsu 
kiltappu — » gistappu 

kllu I, NB killu "enclosure, confinement" M/NB 
[KI.SU] of prisoner; bit k. "prison"; sa k. 
"prisoner"; issur k. "cage-bird"; < kali) V; — » 
k. II 

kilum II "finale" of song Mari; = k. I ? 

kilubu "(bird) cage, trap" Am.; < W.Sem. 

kilullu ~ "massacre" jB lex.; < Sum.? 

kilupinnum — » kulupinnum 

kilzappu — » gistappu 

-kirn, -ki "to you" (2 f. sg. dat. suff.) (-» GAG 

kim — » kima 3 

kima adv. "outside" jB; < kawum I 

kima "like; when, as, that" [GIM] 1. "like", in 
similes; "according to" measure, word, decree 
etc.; math, "equal to", "equal in rank to"; "as" of 
person's role, number's function 2. "in place of, 
instead of, sa kima PN "PN's repre- 
sentative^)"; kima kunukki "instead of a seal" 

3. OB klm(a) inanna "right now", kima 



kinitu II 

saldsisu "just three times", kima pdnisu "at 
once"; Am. + adv. "... as possible", e.g. kima 
mddis "as much as possible" 4. before infin. "in 
order to", kima libbika Id mardsim "so that you 
should not feel insulted"; OA kima itappulim 
ittanapulunidti "they will pay us as far as 
possible"; OB kima Id nabsi "as though it had 
not occurred"; "instead of doing; "in spite 
of doing; "as soon as", kima ase samsi 
"as soon as the sun rises/rose" 5. adv., OB after 
sa "from time to time, on occasion"; asar kima 
sapdrim "wherever he may send" 6. conj. 
"when" (NA + indie.) 7. conj. "because", "in 
such a way that" 8. conj. "that" after vb. of 
saying, knowing 9. conj. "as" in comparative 
clauses, kima tidu "as you know", also ana 
kima, akkima; kima sa "just as though"; < ki + 
-ma; — » kime; kimu; kum 

kima' "how much?" NB; < Aram. 

kima(h)hu(m), gimdhu "grave, tomb" Bab., NA 
[KI.MAH]; bit k. "mausoleum"; < Sum. 

kimdnu — » kimu 

kimarru — » gamarru 

kimatu — » kimtu 

kimdu(m) (a kind of cloth) OB, Ug., jB ? ; 

< kamddu 

kime "like; as, that" Alal., Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. 

1. prep, "like", "according to" 2. conj. (freq. + 
indie.) "when", "if; "because"; "that" after vb. 
of saying etc.; "in order that"; "as, in the way 
that"; < kl + -me II 

kimek (part of a vehicle) jB lex. 

kimiltu "wrath, anger" M/NB of deities [DIB; 

DINGIR.SA.DIB.BA]; < kamdlu 
kimirtu(m) "sum, total" Bab. esp. math.; 

< kamdru IV 

kiinitu "bondage" jB; < kamu II 

kimkimmu, kinkimmu l.jB "wrist (joint)" 

2. lex. (syn. of taboo) 

kimmagatu pi. tant. (a kind of textile) MB 

kimru(m) "layering), heap(ing)" O/jB, NA of 
dates; NA ( udu )£. (a sacrificial sheep); Am. (a 
festival); < kamdru IV 

kimrum — » also gimru 

kimsu(m), kimu, kissum "shin, lower leg" Bab., 
NA [DUio-GAM] 1. "shin, calf of human, left, 
right, also du.; of animal, constellation; of boot 
2. Nuzi (a measure of length, = esemtu, 3 /4 
cubit) 3. "support", OB of DN in PN; math, of 
three-dimensional body; Nuzi (part of a lock); 
— » kamdsu II 

kimtu(m), kintum, kimatu f. "family" [IM.RI.A] 
bit k. "family house"; -» kimu 

kimu "family" jB; — » kimtu 

kimu, NB also kimdnu "instead of Bab., M/NA; 

as prep. OB kimusulsa "instead of him/her"; "in 

return for"; Nuzi "as" share, gift etc.; — » kima; 

kimufalu; kum 
kimuhlu "substitute"? Nuzi; < kimu + Hurr. 

-uhlu 1 
kimiitu "bondage" jB; < kamu II 
kimzuru mng. unkn. jB in k. sa ameluti "human 

k." as drug 
-kin(a) "your" (2 f. pi. gen. suff.) (-► GAG 

kina, kena "yes!" OA; < kinu 
kinahhu; Hurr. pi. kinahfyena "purple" Nuzi in 

minas; garments sa k.; < PIN Kinah(n)i ? 
kinakata adv.? mng. unkn. MA 
kinaltu — » kinistu 
kinanna "so, thus" Am., Nuzi, Bogh.; — » ki; 

kinartu — » kinistu 
*kinasi(m) "to you" (2 f. pi. dat. pron.) (— » 

GAG §4 If) 
-kinasi(m) "to you" (2 f. pi. dat. suff.) (-» GAG 

§42g-k); jB also ace. 
kinastu — » kinistu 
kinati "you" (2 f. pi. ace. pron.) Bab. unattested 

-kinati "you" (2 f. pi. ace. suff.) Bab. (-► GAG 

kinattu(m), kindtu; pi. m., later also f. kindtdtu 

1. "employee, menial"; as coll. "staff; 
OB(Chagar Bazar) sut k. (a sutu-measure); 

2. j/NB, NA business or prof, "colleague" 
kinattutu "colleagueship" jB; Am. "personnel"; 

< kinattu abstr. 
kindtu — » kinattu 
kindtu — » kinu; kittu I 

kinayyatu pi. tant. (a present, payment or 

offering) j/NB, N A 
kinburru (a nest)? jB of a bird; < Sum. 
kindabasse, kindabasse, kidapasse etc. ~ 

"loincloth" M/NA 
kingallu "leader of assembly" jB epith. of Nabu; 

< Sum. 

kingu — » kinkum I 

kinis "reliably, genuinely" OAkk, Bab. 

"faithfully, truly"; "duly, legitimately"; "right-' 

eously"; < kinu 
kinistu, kinastu, kinaltu, kinartu "priesthood, 

religious staff NB [LU.UKKIN]; < kandsu II 
kinitum I (a kind of emmer) Mari 
kinitu II (or qinitu) "concubine"? jB lex. 
kinkimmu — » kimkimmu 

kinkum I 



kinkum I, j/NB kingu "sealing" Bab., of bag, 

door; OB "sealed tag"; < kandku 
kinkum II (a festival) OB; (name of 6th month 

at Esn.) 
kinnanu (syn. of) "father" jB lex. 
kinnarum; pi. f. ~ "lyre" Mari, Ug.; < W.Sem. 
kinnaruhuli "lyre player" Alal.; < kinnarum + 

Hurr. -uh(u)li 
kinnaskarakkum — » kannaskarakkum 
kinnikem "over there" Mari 
kinnu, ginnu, gennu "mountain" M/NB nereb(i) 

k. "mountain pass"; < Sum. 
kinsigu — » kinsikkum 
kinsigubbu (one present at afternoon meal) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
kinsikkum, kissikkum, kinsigu, kinzigu "late 

afternoon" Bab. [KIN.SIG]; < Sum. 
kinsu — » kimsu 
kinsu "slope" j/NB, constructed round house, 

field; < kandsu I 
kintillii "completed job" jB; < Sum. 
kintum — » kimtu 
kinturru — » kitturru I 
kinu(m), Ass. kenu(m) "permanent, true" 

[GI(.NA); GIN, esp. in PNs; ZI.DA] 

1. "permanent" of health, life etc.; of part of 

liver, station of planet, temple 2. "reliable, true" 

of word, command; of person, servant, partner 

"honest"; "loyal", "righteous" of king 

3. "legitimate" of son, ruler, math, "correct", 

also of standard measures; < kdnu; > kina, 

kittu I; kinis; kinutu 
kinunatu (a tree) jB lex. 
kinunu(m), M/NA kanunu; pi. f. "brazier" 

[KI.NE; NB also KI.NE.NE] of copper, silver etc.; 

MA "oven" of brick; (a festival) esp. as name 

of 10th month, Mari, Nuzi, NA [m.AB (-► 

Tebetu)]; also in PNs; > Kinunu 
Kinunu; f. Kinunitu; Kilanundya "bom on the 

Kinunu festival" M/NB, NA [KI.NE(.NE)- ; NA 

ITI.AB- ]; < kinunu 
kinuphussi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
-kinusu — » -kuniisi 
kinutu ~ "nickname" jB comm. of word for 

illness; < kanu 
kinutu, NA kenutu "loyalty, steadfastness" NA, 

NB; < kinu 
kinzigu — » kinsikkum 
kipalallu (a piece of furniture) Am. 
kipalu — » kibalu 

kiparu (an official at Susa) Bab.(Elam); < Elam. 
kipattu "vulva"? jB in sapat k. 

kipdu, kipidu "plan(s), efforts" jB, esp. with 
suddii "to make s.o. abandon plan"; < kapddu 

kipilu — » kiplu 

kipkippu (a bird of prey)? jB 

kiplu, kiblu, NA kipilu 1 "twisting, twine" M/jB 
of rope; decorative "twine" on whip, on door; 
of withies, as packaging material; also (part of 
body)?; < kapdlu 

kipnu (or kibnu) (a plant) jB lex. 

kippatu(m) "circle, hoop, ring" Bab., M/NA 
[GAM; math, also KA.KESda] 1. math, "circum- 
ference; circle" 2. "perimeter" of heaven and/or 
earth; of baldachin 3. "ring" of metal; held by 
ruler, of door; "handle, grip" of vessel, musical 
instrument; (feature on liver) 4. kakkab k. (a 
star) 5. "tendril, twining stem" of vine 6. k. 
lemutti "ring of evil"; < kapdpu 

kippu(m) "loop, trap" O/jB, NA as trap for 
birds, animals; pi. "loops" of intestines of 
sacrificial sheep, "(resultant) omens"; < kapdpu 

kipputtatu pi. mng. unkn. Susa, a device for 
casting lots or sim. 

kiprum (or kiblprum) (an object or substance) 

kipru — » also kibru 

kipsu — » kipsu; kispu 

kipsu, kipsu "constriction, contraction" jB ext.; 
< kapdsu II 

kipsanti mng. unkn. Nuzi in sa k., desig. of 

kipsu — » kibsu I. II 

kipsu — » kibsu 

kipu; pi. kipdni (a linen cloth) NB 

kipualu, kupudlu (a kind of tamarisk) jB lex. 

kipunannum — » kikunannum 

kiqillutu "rubbish dump" NA; < Aram. 

kiradu(m) (leather container) O/jB for oil 

kirdnu — » kardnu 

kiraru mng. unkn. OB(Alal.), as MN 

kirassu — » kirissu 

kirbanu(m), karbdnum, ki/urbannu "lump (of 
earth)" Bab., NA [LAG] 1. "clay lump" in 
symbolic acts, k. nasakumlnadumlfyepu "to 
throw/cast/break a lump"; k. laqdtum "pick up 
lumps"; mag., math. 2. of other materials, 
"lump" of lapis lazuli, salt 3. k. eqli [LAG 
GAN/A.sA] (a plant, phps.) "camomile"; also ~ 
(a grasshopper) 

kirenzi "proclamation" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kirgunnu (a container) jB lex. 

kiri(b)bu (or kiri(p)pu) (a garment) jB lex.; -» 

kiribinnu (a garment) NA lex.; -» kiribbu 




kiribtu "blessing" M/NB, NA from deity; k. DN 

"one blessed by DN" freq. in PNs; < kardbu II 
kivibu — » kiribbu 

kiribu "blessed one" NB in PN; < kardbu II 
kirikarum (a bird) OB 
kiriktu "collection, accumulation" M/NB of 

water at regulator; < kardku 
kiriinahhu "park" jB/NA, NB [GlS.KIRl6.MAy] 

of botanical garden at Nineveh; city sector at 

Uruk; < Sum. 
kirimmu "(crook of) arm" M/jB; as protection to 

child, supplicant etc.; also du. 
kirinnu/u ~ "clay lump" M/jB lex., of potter; 

< Sum.? 

kirinnu — » also girimmu 2 

kirinnu — » kirinnu 

kirippum (an oil jar) Mari 

kirippu — » also kiribbu 

kirissu(m), MA kirassu ~ "hairpin, clasp"? 

O/MA, O/jB [GIS.KIRID(=SIR)]; < Sum. 
kiris, kirlsum — » kirii 
kiritum I (a container) OB, for foods 
kirltu II 1. (a rope) jB lex., for boat 2. NB pi. 

kirala (an ornament in gold) (or — » kirratu) 
kiritu — » also qiritu 
kirium — » kirii 

kirkiranu, kirkiriyannu — » kikkirdnu 
kirlammu (a container) jB lex.; < Sum. 
kirmahhu (or gelirmahhu) "large oven, kiln" jB 

lex.; < Sum.; -» kiru I 
kirnaya (desig. of a coat) NA lex. 
kirratu(m) (or girratu(m)) (an ornament) 

OAkk, Mari, in gold; MB, attached to chair; — » 

kiritu II 2 
kirretu (a kind of meat) jB lex. 
kirru(m), kiru (a big jar) [(DUG.)KIR; OAkk 

DUG.GIR; Bogh. DUG.GIR.GAN/KIS] for liquids; 

of stone, metal; < Sum.; -» kerru; kirratu 
kirsukku — » kilsukku 
klrtu "daze, coma"? jB lex.; < kdru II ? 
kirii(m), OA kirium, term. -adv. kiris, kirlsum; pi. 

m. & f. "(fruit) plantation, orchard" [GIS.KIRI6; 

Mari also GIS.KI.SAR] esp. of date palms; 

klru(ni) I, keru f. "oven, kiln" Bab. [GIR4] OB 

esp. for bitumen; < Sum. 
kiru II (an official) NB 
kiru — » also kirru 

kisal (a weight) NA/jB [KISAL] prob. V20 shekel 
kisalbarakku "outer court" OB(N.Mes.), Mari; 

< Sum.; — » kisallu 

kisallu(m), MB also kisellu; pi. f. "forecourt" 

Bab., M/NA [KISAL] of temple, palace, house; 

k. ndri "river foreshore"; < Sum.; — » 

kisalbarakku; kisalluhhu;kisalmdhu 
kisallu — » also kisallu 
kisalluhhatu(m) "female courtyard sweeper" 

O/jB [MUNUS.KISAL.LUH]; < kisalluhhu 
kisalluhhu(m) "courtyard sweeper" O/jB 

[KlSAL.LUtj]; < Sum.; > kisalluhhatu; -» kisallu 
kisalluhhutu "role of courtyard sweeper" Nuzi, 

Bogh. [KISAL.LUH- ]; < kisalluhh(at)u abstr. 
kisalmahu(m) "main court" Bab. [KISAL.MAH] 

of temple; < Sum.; -» kisallu 
kisbu — » kupsu 
kisellu — » kisallu 
kisibirritu(m), ki(s)sibirru(m), kusibirrltu, 

M/NB ku(s)sibirru, Ass. kisibarru(m) 

"coriander" [(U.)SE.LU(.SAR)]; M/NB also a 

metal object ? 
kisiggu, kisikku pi. tant. "funerary offerings" jB; 

< Sum.; — » kisikkum 

kisikkum (a vase) Mari; = kisiggu ? 

kisikku — » kisiggu 

Kis(i)limu (9th Bab. month) M/NB [ITI.GAN 

(.GAN.NA); OB rdg. uncert.]; > kissilimu 
kisilimu — » kissilimu 
kisillu — » kisallu 
kisimmu - "sour milk"? Bogh., jB 

[(U.)GA/HAB]; < Sum. 
kisimtum (a vegetable) OB; < kasdmu 
kisinnu (a bronze object) MB( Alal.) 
kisintu — » kisittu 
kisirru (a tool) NB 
kisirtu "wall facing" Mari, M/jB( Ass.) of stone, 

brick; on quay-wall, city-wall, tower, building; 

< kasdru 

kisittu(m), kisintu, kisittu "branches, boughs (of 
tree)" Bab., M/NA of cedar; for fuel; "stem" of 
reed, of stag's horn; transf. "descent" of person, 
city, k. sdti "primeval ancestry"; "descendant, 
offspring"; < kismu 

kisitu (or gislsltu) (a weapon) Nuzi; < kasu III ? 

kiskibirru, kiskibirru (a trap)? or "kindling 
wood" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kiskilatu (or kiskildtu) pi. tant. (a musical 
instrument)? jB/NA; — » kiski'u 

kiskilili (a demoness); — » lilium 

kiskirru(m), kiskirru(m) (a wooden board) 
Bab.; NB (a type of temple contribution 
(recorded on a wooden ledger)) 

Kiski(s)sum (3rd ? month) Mari, OB(Esn.) 

kiskisum (a wooden siege implement) Mari 




kiski'u (a musical instrument)? jB lex.; — » 

kislahu "threshing floor" jB lex.; < Sum. 
kislaqqu — » kizaldqu 
Kislimu — » Kisilimu 
kislum, kaslu (part of body) O/jB, NA of 

human; animal; to right and left of backbone; 

OB kisil riff; "side ? of hand" (or — » kisallu) 
kismu(m) "cutting" O/jB; Mari "stubble"?; jB 

lex. (a growth of leeks)?; < kasdmu 
kispu(m), Nuzi, NA, NB kipsu; Nuzi pi. f. 

"funerary offering" (to ancestors) Bab., NA 

[KI.Sl.GA] food, drink ana k.\ k. kasdpu "to 

make a funerary offering"; um k. "day of 

funerary offering"; > kasdpu II 
kispu — » also kupsu 
kissatu(m) I, NB also kissatu "fodder" Bab., NA 

for domestic animals, birds; NA, NB rab k. 

"fodder-official"; jB k. serri 'snake-fodder' (a 

plant); < kasdsu ? 
kissatu II "(action of) gnawing" jB; of fire; k. 

(libbi) (an illness); < kasdsu 
kissikkum — » kinsikkum 
ki(s)silimu "born in Kislimu" MB in fPN 

Kissillmitum; < Kisilimu 
kissu (part of a plough and a chariot) MB 
kissu — » also kisu I.II; kissu 
kissu — » kisu 
kissugu (a fish) jB mag. 
kissuku — » kisukku II 
kissurratu — » kisurratu 
kistum (topog. term)? OB 
kisum — » kizum 
kisu(m), kissu(m) "footing, plinth" Bab. [KI.SA] 

around base of building, gate, wall; < Sum. 
kisu — » also kizu 
kisu(m) I, kissu (a kind of reed) O/jB lex. [Gl.Zl] 

(a reed; an object made of reed); < Sum.? 
kisu(m) II, kesu, kissu, kisu f. "money-bag; 

money" [(KUS.)NIG.NA4] of leather, for gold, 

silver; k. sa tamkdri "merchant's money-bag"; 

transf. (sum of money as capital investment); 

aban k. (stone weight); nas k. (merchant); jB 

"(gardener's) bag" 
kisu III, occas. kisu "binding, bonds" M/NB; kis 

libbi "heart constriction" (a medical complaint); 

< kasu III 
kisukku — » kisukku II 
kisurratu, kissurratu, OB also kiturratum (a 

reed pipe)? Bab. as musical instrument 
kisurru(m), kisurru, kasurru; pi. m. & f. 

"border, territory" Bab. [KI.SUR] "boundary" of 

field; "ground plan" of building; "territory"; 

< Sum. 

kisallu(m), kislsillu, kisallu f. "ankle" O/jB 
[ZI.IN.GI] of human; left, right; of animal; 
"astragalus, knucklebone" as "jacks, fivestones" 

kisaru — » kisru 

kisillu — » kisallu 

kisiptu "calculation" jB, NA; < kasdpu 

kisirtu(m) l.jB med. - "thickening, constric- 
tion", also NA kasirtu 2. O/jB ext. (a feature on 
liver) 3. OB "rental payment" 4. jB (a kind of 
construction) 5. M/NA (a kind of document, 
phps.) "envelope, case-tablet"; < kisru 

kisru(m), occas. kisaru; pi. usu. m. "knot; 
concentration, group; rental" [KA.KESDA; 
KES(.DA); l.KESDA] 1. "knot, bonding" of reed- 
stem, string; "joint" of arm, finger; "clasp" etc. 
of shoe, container; of mountains k. sadi, pi. f. 
kisrdt s. "natural rock, bedrock" 2. "concen- 
tration, conglomeration" of tangled reed; "lump" 
of material; "accumulated wealth"; "group, 
band" of men, esp. military, OB k. (sarrim), 
NA k. (sarruti) "(royal) contingent", pi. also f.; 
rab k. "centurion"; astr. "group" of stars; 
"crossing" of path with ecliptic ? 3. transf. k. 
libbi "anger" of deity, person; k. zikruti 
"concentrated manliness"; k. DN "strengthened 
by DN", esp. in PNs 4. OAkk, Bab. "rental 
(payment)"; NB (a collection of dues); 

< kasdru 

kissatu, gissatu "hair loss, shedding of skin" 
M/jB med.; < kasdsu 

kissu(m) "shrine" [ITIMA] as residence of deity; 
M/NA also desig. of (holy) city 

kissum — » also kimsu 

kissuru "interlocked, entwined" jB of 
iconographic elements; < kasdru Gt 

kisu I "flayed" jB; < kasu 

kisu(m) II "coolness" OAkk, Bab. k. (umi) "cool 
(of day), evening"; < kasu III 

kisa — » kisamma 

kisab(k)u — » kusabku 

kisadanussu "on his neck" jB; < kisddu du. 

kisadu(m); pi. f. "neck; bank" [(UZU.)GU] 1. of 
human, deity, statue; du. "(both sides of) neck", 
"back of neck" (as recipient of load, yoke); as 
place of necklace, seal etc.; of animal 2. OB f. 
(a neckcloth) 3. "necklace", "(stone worn at) 
neck, neckstone" 4. "bank, shore" of sea, water- 
course, also du. "both banks" 5. (part of a 

kisahu (an offering) jB lex.; < Sum. 

kisam ink. ... k. ... "either ... or ..." OA 




kisa(m)ma, MB kisa, jB also kasdme "forgive 
me" O/jB as interj., implying polite contra- 
diction; < kidsum imper.? 
kisaranum, kiselirdnum (an edible item) OA 
kisdu, MA kildu "acquisition" O/MB, MA; jB in 
k. eperi (an illness); lex. "limit, boundary"; 

< kasddu 
kiserdnum — » kisardnum 

kisertum, kisersum "bondage, captivity" Early 
Mari, OA; OAkk bit k. "prison"; < kasdru ? 

kishi "chair" jB lex.; < Hurr. 

kisibbu, kisippu "seal(ing)" jB; < Sum. 

kisibgallu "seal-owner" OB, jB lex. [KISIB.GAL]; 

kisinnu — » kissanu 

kisippu — » kisibbu 

kisirdnum — > kisardnum 

kisirru(m) "success"? OA Id sa k. "unsuc- 
cessful, failure"; jB of DN dlik k. "helper"?; 

< kasdru ? 

kisirtu (a food)? NB; < kasdru ? 

kisirum (or qisirum) mng. unci. OB math. 

kisittu(m) "achievement, acquisition; conquest" 
[KUR(- )] 1. pi. OA, OB "acquisitions" (other 
than by purchase) 2. "conquest" of land, town;- 
"items acquired by conquest, spoil", also freq. 
k. qdti, of town, property, population 3. k. Hint 
(a serious illness); < kasddu 

kisittu — > also kisittu 

kisitu ~ "rebellion" jB lex. 

kiskalanu — > kikkirdnu 

kiskanu, MA kiskand'u (a tree) M/NA, M/NB 
[GIS.KIN]; growing at Eridu; used as wood, 
drug; < Sum. 

kiskattu(m), kiskitiu(m), NA/jB kitkiitu, pi. f. 
kitkitdte [GIS.KIN.Tl] 1. "(industrial) kiln" 
2. "craftsman" Bab., NA esp. military 
craftsman; OB bit k. "workshop"; < Sum. 

kiskibirru — > kiskibirru 

kiskildtu — » kiskildtu 

kiskirdnu — » kikkirdnu 

kiskirru — » kiskirru 

kiskittu jB lex. 1. (part of a ship's keel) 2. (a 
leather item) 

kiskittu — > kiskattu 

kispu(m) "sorcery, evil spell" Bab., M/NA usu. 
pi. [USn; USn.ZU] k. pasltdru "to dispel 
sorceries"; qdt k. causing illness; < kasdpu 

kissappum — » gistappu 

kissanu, ki(s)si/ennu (a leguminous vegetable) 
Ass., O/jB [GU.NIG.HAR.RA] 

kissatu(m) I "totality, world" Bab., M/NA [KIS; 
SU; SAR; KI.SAR.RA] 1. before subst. "totality, 

all of, k. nisi "all people" etc. 2. alone "the 

world, universe"; sar k. "king of the world" 

3. of river "full flood", esp. mil k.; — > kasdsu I 
kissatu(m) II "emmer" O/jB [As(.A.AN) (-» 

kissatum III (a garment) OB 
kissatu — » also kissatu I 
kissatum, hissdtum pi. tant. "debt-slavery; 

distraint" OB of persons, property; "indemnity" 

for lost property; < kasdsu I 
kisselinnu — » kissanu 
Kissftu(m) "of Kis" O/jB epith. of Istar; < PIN 

kissu(m), kissu "(reed-)bundle" O/jB [GI.SA]; 

also math, "truncated cone"; < Sum. 
kissu pi. tant. ~ "exercise of power"? O/jB; 

< kasdsu I 

kissu "empowered, authorized" jB; < kissu(tu) 

+ -i 
kissutu "exercise of power, authority" M/NB, 

NA [SU; KIS] k. sabdtulepesulbelu "to 

seize/exercise/take control of power"; dl k. 

"capital city"; of king "personal authority"; 

< kasdsu I 
kisu — > kisu n.III 

kisu pi. tant. ~ "pain(s)" jB 

kisubb(an)is "into a waste" jB; < kisubbu 

kisubbu(m), NA also qisubbu, NB gilusubbu 
"waste ground" [KI.SUB.BA] k. petit "to bring 
w.g. into cultivation"; NB eqel k. "waste field", 
"waste (building) plot"; < Sum.; > kisubbdnis 

kisubu "ending of hymn" jB [KI.SU.BI(.IM)]; 

kisukkis "in captivity" jB; < kisukku I 

kisukku I "captivity" j/NB(lit.); < Sum.; -» k. II 

kisukku II, NA ki(s)suku - "grating"? j/NB, 
NA; = k. I ? 

kisuma (or kisuma) "so, thus" Am., Ug.; < ki 

kitbarattu ~ (bed-frame) jB lex. 

kitekaru "prostitute" Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 

kiterru — » kitru II 

kitimtu "secret, mystery" Ug., of scribal craft; 

< katdmu 
kitinnu — > kidinnu U 
kitintu — > kititu I 
kitirru — > kitru II 

kititu(m) I, kitinlttu, NA qititu "linen robe" Bab., 

NA; < kitu 
kititu II (a metal tool) MB 
kitkittu — > kiskattu 
kitmu(m) O/jB 1. "cover(ing)" of bed, vehicle 

2. (a musical interval sounded by strings 6 + 

3); also (a lyre-string); < katdmu 




kitmulu "very displeased" jB; < kamdlu Gt 
kitmuru "piled up" jB of treasure; of disease 7 ; 

< kamdru IV Gt 

kitmusu "kneeling, squatting" jB; 

< kamdsu II Gt 

kitpudu "cunning" jB, of spells; < kapddu Gt 
kitpulu "entwined" jB, of snakes; of wrestler 7 ; 

< kapdlu Gt 

kitpulutu in kilpulussunu "in an entwined state" 

jB; < kitpulu 
kitru I "help, reinforcements" j/NB, NA ana k. 

sapdrulaldku "to send/go for reinforcements"; 

"ally"; also of DN in PNs; > katdru I ? 
kitru II, kitelirru ~ "legacy, bequest" Nuzi; 

< Hurr.? 

kittabru (or kittapru) (syn. for arm) M/jB [SE]; 
also (a growth)? on lung, face; < abru II ? 

kittu(m) I, later also kelitu, Ass. kettu(m); pi. 
kindtum etc. "steadiness, reliability, truth" 
[NIG.GI.NA; jB also NIG.ZI; GI.NA]; pi. ~ sg. 
1. "stability, solidarity" OB of work, transf. 
"stable conditions" 2. "reality", ina k. "really, 
truly", ace. "honestly!, indeed!", "reliability, 
truth" of omens; zer k. "true, legitimate heir", 
esp. in PNs 3. "loyalty" of subject, slave 
4. "righteousness, justice", sari dayyanl din k. 
"just king/judge/verdict"; WfC. as DN; Id k. 
"iniquity", ana Id k. "unjustly" 5. "truth", NB 
ina kittisu "sincerely"; Id k. "untruth, lies"; 

< kinu 

kittu II (or qittu ?); pi. kildta (a stand, support)? 

kitturru I, kinturru, katuru "toad, frog" O/jB 

lex.; also "(stone figure of) frog" 
ki(t)tu(r)ru II (a kind of chair or stool) jB/NA; 

sa k.-su "chair person"; Nuzi — > kutturu 2; 

< Sum. 

kitu(m) "flax; linen" [(TUG.)GADA; occas. 

GIS.GADA] 1. as plant; zer k. "linseed" 2. "linen 

fibre", qe k. "linen thread" 3. as textile "linen"; 

ispdr k. "linen weaver" 4. "linen garment"; jB k. 

isinni "festival of linen clothing", labis k. "one 

entitled to wear linen"; Nuzi, NB "linen" for 

bed clothes; < Sum.; > kititu I 
kitu(m), ketu (a reed mat) OA, M/jB [GI.KID]; 

kitu — > also kittu I 

kitullu (a troop formation)? jB(Ass.) 
kiturratum — > kisurratu 
kitu(r)ru — > kitturru II 
kiurum I (desig. of shrine at Nippur) OB lex.; 

kiuru II (a metal basin) jB, NA [KI.UR]; < Urar. 

kiuru III "ground, earth" jB lex.; also (chthonic 
deity of Lullubu)?; < Urar. 

kiusu "step, tread" M/jB lex.; < Sum. 

ki'utukku syll. wr. not attested (an incantation) 
jB lex. [KI. d UTU(.KAM)]; < Sum. 

kiya "how much?" OB; — > ki 2 

kiyahum adv.? mng. unci. OB lex. 

kizalaqu, kiz/sla(q)qu, NB kasilaqqu ~ "treasure, 
treasury" NA, NB; of goddess 

kizapuzzu (an object) Qatna, of gold; < Hurr.? 

kizehhuru (a functionary) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kizibiannu — > zibibidnum 

kizinu — > gizinakku 

kizirtu "lock of hair, pigtail" NA; < kezeru 

kizitu (or kizzutu ) mng. unci. MA in suti sa ki- 
zi-ti (a kind of sutu measure); also (an 

kizla(q)qu — > kizalaqu 

kizum (or kisum) ~ (a pastry)? Mari 

kizu(m), NB also kisu, Nuzi, Ug. also kazu - 
"animal-trainer" Bab. [(LU.)KU§7] later esp. 
associated with horses, "groom"; > kizutum 

kizutum "job of a kizum" Mari; < Icizu 

kizzanis mng. unci. jB 

kizzanu, gizzdnu; f. klgizzdnitu (desig. of star, 
phps.) "goaf(-star)? jB; < kizzu I 

kizzatu(m), gizzatu(m) - "deduction, curtail- 
ment"? Bab., NA 1. OB transf. "curtailment, 
retrenchment"? due to famine 2. "deduction"? 
from yield of field, "diminution"? of field 3. pi. 
NA, NB (reserved land)?; < gazdzu 

kizzatu — > also kizitu 

kizzihu mng. unkn. Qatna, desig. of golden pin; 
< Hurr.? 

kizzu I, kazzu, gizzu "(young male) goat" jB 
[MAs.ZU]; > kizzanu; — > gazdzu 

kizzu II (a cloak for offering ceremony) MB 

-knu — » -kunu 

-ku — > -ki; -kum 

ku — > kum 

ku(m), O/MA ku(w)d'u(m), jB also kummalu; f. 
kattum, OA ku(w)dtum; pi. m. kuttun, kuttin, 
OA ku(w)d'utum; f. kdttun, kuttum "your; 
yours" O/MA, O/jB 1. with subst., OA esp. 
before, kuwdtum tertaka "your instruction", OB 
after, suhdre kuttin "your lads" 2. alone "yours" 
3. as pred., OA kaspum Id kud'um "the silver is 
not yours"; OB kumma "is yours", "is in your 
control/gift"; NA — > ikku 

kudnu — > kdnu 



kuduktu II 

kuasim, Ug., M/NA kudsa/u "to you" (2 m. sg. 

dat. pron.) OAkk, O/MB, M/NA; after a(na)\ 

also Bogh. for gen.; NA for ace; — ► kdsim 
kuati, jB kudta "(of, to) you" (2 m. sg. pron.) 

OA, jB lex., as ace, gen., dat.; — ► kdti 
kuatum. kud'u — ► ku 
ku'dtu — ♦ kuydtu 
kuba'atum pi. (a topog. term) OA (or — ► 

kupdtum ?) 
kubddu — ♦ kubdtu 
kubarinnu, kubarindu (a vessel) jB lex.; — ► 

kapparinnu ? 
kubartu(m) (heavy garment)? O/jB; < kubdrum 
kubaru — ♦ &//?/-« 

kubarum "thick, heavy" OAkk as PN; < kabdru 
kubdrum — ► also gubdrum 
kubasu (a foodstuff) MB; < kabdsu 
kubatu, kubddu "veneration" j/NB, NA; 

"honorific ceremony"; < kabdtu 
kubbu — ♦ quppu II 
kubbu(m) I, Nuzi also hubbu "sewn" O/jB 

< kubbu II 

kubbu II, NB hubbu "to sew" M/NB, NA: 
birma k. "sew" with (= ace.) coloured 
thread; NB "sew" "on"; > kubbu I: 
kabbd'um; mukabbu 

kubbudu — ► kubbutu 

kubbulu(m), kumbulu(m) "crippled" O/jB [AD4] 
of humans, sheep; < kabdlu 

kubburu(m) "very thick" O/jB lex., and in PNs; 

< kabdru; — ♦ kabbaru 

kubbusum "downtrodden" OB; < kabdsu 
kubbusu (or kuppusu) (a cake) NB 
kubbuttu; pi. kubuddti "honorific gift" Am., 

Ug.; < kabdtu 
kubbutu(m), kubbudu, Ass. kabbutu(m) 

1. "very heavy, solid" 2. "very honoured"; 

< kabdtu 

kubbu'u D mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kubdum — ► kubtu 

kubntu — ♦ kibritu; kuprltu 

kubru(m) "thickness" O/jB, M/NA; as 
dimension, also "diameter"; "thickest part" of 
tail, horn, arm; "fattest" of sheep-flock, "mass" 
of army; < kabdru 

kubsu (or klqublpsu) mng. unkn. Ug. in eqlet 

kubsanu (a crested bird) jB; < kubsu 

kubsu(m) occas. f. "headcloth, turban" 
[(TUG.)SAGSU] 1. "turban" worn by man, by 
king, god; NA sa kubsesu "turban-purveyor" 

2. "crest" of bird in kubsi barmat [SIPA. 
TIR.RA.MUSEN] 3. Qatna "cap" of seal 4. "top" 

of part of body, of heart (libbim), lung 

(hasim), k. kimsi "kneecap"?; > kabdsu; 

kubsanu, kubsuhuli 
kubsuhuli "turban-maker" MB(Alal.); < kubsu 

+ Hurr. -uh(u)li 
kubtu(m), Mari kubdum 1. "lump, clod" O/jB, 

NA [IM.DUGUD] of clay; "ingot" of lead, 

copper; Mari "(net) weight" 2. jB "heavy yield, 

tribute"; < kabdtu 
kubu(m) I, qupu "foetus" [N1GIN] esp. ( A )K. as 

kubu(m) II (or kupu(m)) (a building) jB 
kubu III (a drinking vessel) Am.; < Eg. 
kubudda'u(m) ~ "honorific gift"? Mari, Emar, 

< kabdtu 

kubukku(m) f.; du. kubukkdn "strength" 

OB(Susa) ? , jB; of god, man 
kuburrii(m) "thickness, reinforcement" Bab., as 

dimension; j/NB "projection", of gate tower; 

< kabdru 

kubussii(m) (a kind of legal decree) OB(Susa) 

esp. k. kabdsum, k. sakdnum "to promulgate a 

decree"; warki k. "after the decree"; < kabdsu 
kubusu(m) (or kupusu(m)) ~ (a handle)? O/jB 

on door, box 
kubuttu "abundant wealth" j/NB; < kabdtu 
kudadu(m), gudddu(m) "very small, tiny" j/NB 

lex.; as PN (also OAkk, OA ?) 
kudanu(m), kudannu, Ass. kudunu, gen. kudini 

"mule" Bab., M/NA [ANSE.GIR.NUN(.NA); NA 

abbr. GIR; OB ANSE.LA.GU ?] 
kudaru, kudddru (kind of terrain)? NA; rab k. 

(an official) 
kudaru — ► also kudurru I 
kudddru — ♦ kudaru 

kuddilu, lex. also kuddulu ? (a garment) MA 
kuddu (a container) jB lex., of wood, of reed; 

kuddubbu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < Sum. 
kuddulu — ♦ kuddilu 
kuddunu D "to seek sanctuary" jB; <kidinnu 

kudimeru, kudimelardnu (a plant) jB lex., med. 
kudimmu(m), kuttimmu(m) (a herb) Ass., jB 

yielding "salt"; seeds sown across destroyed 

kudin(i) — ► kudanu 
kudkuddu (a plant) jB lex. 
kuduhtas (a prof.) OB(Susa) 
kuduktu I; pi. kudketu (a unit of measure) Nuzi, 

for textiles and wool 
kuduktu II mng. unkn. j/NB 
kudunu — ♦ kudanu 




kuduppanu "(a kind of) pomegranate" M/jB 

kudurranu (a crested bird) M/NB; [NIG.DU-««] 

also as PN; — ► kudurru II ? 
kudurru I, NA kadurru, NB also kudaru; pi. m. 

& f. "carrying frame, (builder's) hod" NA, 

j/NB [NI'G.DU] for hay, bricks, mud; NA 

"(earth-carrying) labour (obligation)"; Nuzi (a 

wooden container); NB k. tikki "neck-yt." mng. 

unci.; < Hurr.?; > kaddru IV ? 
kudurru II; pi. m. & f. "boundary; boundary 

stone" M/NB [NIG.DU] k. kunnu, nasdru, 

nukkuru "to fix, observe, change boundary"; k. 

nasdhu "to remove boundary stone"; 

M/NB(Ass.) "territorial limits"; >kaddrulll; 

— ♦ kudurranu 
kudurru III "eldest son" M/NA, M/NB [NIG.DU; 

BULUG]; usu. in PNs; < Elam. 
kugamlum — ♦ kigamlum 
kug(u)rum "granary-supervisor" OB [KA. 

GUR7]; < Sum. 
kuhdtu — ♦ kuydtu 

kuihku (container for oil) Am.; < Eg. 
kukittu; pi. NA quqinetu ~ "inappropriate 

location"? jB/NA lex., ext. 
kukkadru — ► kukkudru 
kukkallanu, gukkalldnu ~ "of fat-tailed type" jB 

kukkallu(m), gukkallu(m) "fat-tailed sheep" 

Bab., MA [GUKKAL]; < Sum. 
kukkanltu (a garden plant) j/NB; -♦ kukku I 
kukku(m) I, gukku f. "(a kind of) cake" Ass., jB 

[GUG; jB NINDA.KA.DU]; < Sum. 
kukku II, kuku (part of a balance) jB lex. 
kukkum "darkness" O/jB lex.; as desig. of 

nether world; < Sum. 
ku(k)ku(b)bu, NA also kukkupu, quqqubu; pi. 

m. & f. 1. M/NA, M/NB (an offering vessel, 

phps.) "rhyton" for liquids, of metal, stone 

2. jB lex. "pig's stomach" 
ku(k)kudru(m), kukkadru, kidkidru "sheep's 

stomach" O/jB lex., ext. 
kukkupu — ► kukkubbu 
kukkurratum -* kurkurratu 
kukkusu(m), kakkusu, kukkustu(m) (a low 

quality flour) O/jB, also qem k.; k. (sa) buqli 

"malt-flour"; < Sum. 
Kukkuzannum — ♦ kurkuzannu 
kukru -* kukuru 

kuksu (a garden tool) jB lex.; < Sum. 
kuku — ♦ kukku II 
kukubu — ♦ kukkubbu 
kukudru — ► kukkudru 

kukudum -* gugutum 

kukullu — ♦ kakkullu 

kukumnu "three-year-old" Nuzi, of ox; < Hurr.; 

— ► kikamunu 
kukunnu — ► gegunnu 
kukuru(m), kukru (an aromatic tree) [SIM/GIS. 

GUR.GUR; SIM.KU7.KU7] (an aromatic product 

from the tree), also med., mag. 
kukusum (part of body) OB lex. 
kukutu (or kukutu) (a reed artefact) Am. 
kukutum — ► also gugutum 
kula'e (a garment) Nuzi 
kula'utu "delay, procrastination"? Bogh. in k. 

epesu; < kalu V (or = kulutu ?) 
kulbab(an)is "like ants" j/NB; < kulbdbu 
kulbabtu "female ant" Bogh. lex.; < kulbdbu 
kulbabu, Bogh. also kulbibu "ant" jB, NA 

[KISI8/9]; eggs, earth of ants as drug; 

> kulbabtu; kulbdbdnis 
kulbannu — ► kalbdnu 
kulbattu — ♦ kulmittu 
kulbibu — ► kulbdbu 

kuldu (or klqultu) (a copper object) Am. 
kulllanu (a plant) jB lex.; < kulilu I 
kul!l(T)tu, killilu "dragonfly" jB; < kulilu I 
kulilu (a kind of curtain)? jB lex.; < kulilu III ? 
kulilu I, kulilu "dragonfly" jB; mil k. "flood 

bearing dragonfly (corpses)"; >kuMitu; 

kulllum II "small crown, headband" Mari, of 

silver; < kililu dimin. 
kulilu III, kulullulu "fish-man" jB [KU6.LU. 

U18/19.LU]; in myth; "(figure of) fish-man" in 

copper, clay; < Sum.; > kulilu'- 
kulinas mng. unkn. Nuzi, desig. of textile; 

< Hurr. 

kullanum (or qulldnum) (a metal item) Mari 

kulldnu — ► also kullu I 

kullaru I "Kullar-juniper" jB lex.; < PIN Kullar 

kullarum II (a disease) OB mag. 

kullatan "universally" NB(lit.); <kullatul; -* 

kullatu(m) I, Bogh. also killatu "totality, all 
of..." OAkk, Bab.(lit.); absol. "whole 
(world)"; before subst., pron. suff. "all of..."; 

< kalu II; > kullatan 

kullatu(m) II "clay pit" O/jB [KI.GAR], for 

figurine clay etc. 
kullizu(m) "ox-driver; plough-ox" OAkk, Bab. 

1. "ox-driver" [(LU/ERIN.)SA.GU4], lisdn k. 
"ox-driver's slang"; occas. of woman 

2. "plough-ox" [GU4.SA.GU4] 




kullizutum "role of ox-driver" OB [GU4.SA. 
GU4- ; NAM.SA.GU4- ] 

kullu I; pi. kulldni "nut(-kemel)" NA 

kullu II"hoe"jB lex. 

kullu(m) III, Ass. ka"ulu(m) D "to hold" [DIB] 
(stat. NB only) 1. "hold, be holding", in 
the hand; "hold up" roof; "hold on to, hold 
back"; "be in possession of country, property, 
field; "hold ready" offering etc., "have 
available"; NA (ina qdti) k. "consider, take" 
value (as given); "maintain, keep to" cult, 
righteousness; "bear in mind" words, dream; 
"have tenure of office, prebend; "wear" 
garment; of things "contain"; of person, body 
"have, suffer from" illness; of month "bring, be 
characterized by" rain, eclipse 2. resa(m) k. of 
people, things "be at s.o.'s disposal", "be ready, 
be at the service of, serve"; "look after, care for, 
pay attention to" Dtn iter. Dt pass, of D OA of 
silver "be retained" isti kaspim; "be held back, 
restrained" Dtt NA "be restrained"; > mukillu; 
takiltwn II; — » tdkaltu 

kullultu "coronation, crenellation"? jB ext.; 

< kullulu I 

kullulu I "veiled, covered" M/jB of bride; 

< kullulu II 

kullulu(m) II D "to veil, crown" O/jB, M/NA 
face, lips, in distress; MA "crown" king; jB 
stat. of gate "is crowned" with crenellations 
Dt pass, of D; < kililu/kululu denom.; 

> kullulu I, kullultu; — » kutamlalu 
kullumu(m), Ass. kallumu(m) D "to show, 

display" [IGl] 1. "show to s.o." (= 2 ace), 
"make apparent, reveal", "expose" to light 

2. abstr. obj. "show s.o." anger, love, power 

3. "make s.o. experience" trouble, hunger, profit 
4.+ infin., subord. clause "show how to..., 
where..." 5. "instruct, teach" person, horse 
Dtn iter. Dt pass., of thing "be revealed"; of 
person "be informed of DR OB S "reveal" a 
sign, a fact Stn iter. SD — » muskallimu; 

> kallimum; kullumutu; mukallimtu; muskal= 
limu; takllmu, taklimtu 

kullumutu "exhibition, display"? jB in bdb k. 

"gate of k."; < kullumu 
kulmandu — » zermandu 
kulmasitu(m) (a cultic prostitute) Bab. [NU. 

kulmdsum — » kulpdsum 
kulmittu (or kulbattu) (a vessel) NB 
kulpasum, also kulmdsum ? (a divine weapon) 

kultdru — » kustdru 

kultlbu —* kustibum 
kultu — » kuldu; kustu 
kulu — » kalu II; kulu'u 
kulullulu — » kulllu III 

kululu "crown" M/NA, j/NB as mark of royalty; 
"veil"?; "crenellation" of gateway towers; 

> kullulu II; — » kililu 
kulumum — » kalumu 

kulupinnum, kilupinnum mng. unci. OA, phps. 

"sickle", or unit of measurement, for straw 
kuluppu (a worm) jB 
kuluppu, kilippu (a bird) jB 
kulutu "role of a kulu'u"! MB(Susa); — » 

kulu'u(m), kulu(m) (male cultic prostitute) 

OAkk ? , Bab., NA, esp. of Istar, also in PNs; 

> kulutu 

-kum, -ku "to you" (2 m. sg. dat. suff.) 

kum, ku(m)mu(-), ku, kumi-, ikkum, NB also 

akku "instead of NA, NB, occas. jB 1. prep. 

"in place of, "in exchange for", also inalana k. 

2. conj. + subjunct. "instead of doing 

(= pres.); "since, in view of the fact that" 

(+ pret., stat.) 3. adv. "instead", "in return", 

also ina k.; — » kima; kimu 
kumahu (a plant) jB lex. 
kumanu (a surface measure) MA, MB(AlaL), 

Nuzi (= '/6 ikfi; Nuzi '/2 awiharu); Ass. also 

linear measure (= Wpuridu ?); < Hurr.? 
kumaru; pi. f. 1. (a kind of terrain) M/NA, j/NB 

2. (desig. of precious stones) NB; 

< kamdru IV ?; — » qumdru 
kumasu ~ "bush offering refuge"? jB lex. 
kumbulu — » kubbulu 

kumdilhi (a functionary) OB(Susa); < Elam. 
kumi — ► kum 

kumirtu (a priestess) jB; < Aram.; — » kumru 
kumiru mng. unci. Am.; < W.Sem. 
kumma — » ku 

kummaru (a white garment) jB lex. 
kummu(m) I "cella, shrine" [AGRUN] "innermost 

room" of shrine, also of house, palace; in gener. 

"shrine, temple"; also term.-adv. kummis 
kummu II "(the cuneiform sign) KUM" jB 
kummu — » also ku; kum 
kummu — ► kum 

kummulu "very angry" jB; < kamdlu 
kummusu "fearsome"? jB lex.; < kamdsu II 
kumru(m) "priest" O/MA, Mari [OA GUDU4]; 

— » kumirtu 
kumsillu — » kunsillu 




kumteniwa mng. unkn. Nuzi, in topog. desig.; 

< Hurr. 
kumu (a water bird, phps.) "pelican" jB 
kumu(-) — » kum 
kumurru(m) "heaping up" O/jB 1. math. 

[UL.GAR; GAR.GAR] "addition" 2. jB "piling up, 

accumulation" 3. jB lex. "laying out" of dates to 

ripen; < kamdru IV 
kumuru — » gumuru 
kumusa'u mng. unkn. Nuzi 
-kun — » -kunu 
kunaggu — » kunangum 
kunahi (a building) Ug. 
kunangum, kunaggu (a metal drinking vessel) 

OB [wr. KU/GU.NA.(AN.)GI 4 ] 
kunastu mng. unci. jB; < kundsu ? 
kunasu(m), jB also kunsu, Nuzi, Bogh. kunlsu 

f.; pi. freq. m. "emmer" [OAkk AS.AN; Bab. 

AS.AN.NA; j/NB, NA (SE.)AS.A.AN (-» 

kissatu II)]; > kunastu 1 
kunasunu, NA kandsunu "to you" (2 m. pi. dat. 

pron.) M/NA 
*kunatunu "you" (2 m. pi. ace. pron.) MA 
kund'u — » kunum 
kundirasu, kundardsu, kandirsu (a piece of 

apparel) NA 
kundulum (a bronze vessel) OB; — » kandalu 
kungu I (a kind of house) jB lex. 
kungu II, gungu (a kind of rush) jB lex., med. 
kungusakkum (desig. of a servant) Mari 
-kuni "your" (2 m. du. gen. suff.) OAkk 
kunibhu, kunibu (a garden plant)? j/NB, NA 
kuni(n)nu(m) (a basin for liquids) O/jB, of 

stone, metal, bitumened basketry; qanu k. 

"drinking-straw"; < Sum. 
kunisu — » kundsu 
kunkunnu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kunnir (a window) jB lex. 
kunnu "fixed" M/NB, NA; "firmly established" 

of table, heir; "fixed in place" of bolt; 

"confirmed" of statement, "loyal"; astr. 

"correct"; < kdnu D 
kunnu — » also kdnu D; kunu 
kunnu "cared for, cherished" j/NB of person; jB 

lex., of textile "well-finished"; < kanu D 
kunnupu (or kunnubu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kun nut u "care, cherishing" j/NB; < kunnu 
kunsaggu "turning-point, apogee"? jB of 

planet's course; < Sum. 
kunsillu, kumsillu "carder" M/jB 1. "carding- 

comb" or "teasel" for fabric 2. MB as prof. 

desig. "carder", also abbr. kun& 3. lex. (part of 

the body) 
kunsu(m) "ball" of wool jB 
kunsu — » also kundsu 
-kunu, -kun, OA also -knu, NA -kanu before -ni, 

NB after n or m also -gunu 1. "your" (2 m. pi. 

gen. suff.) 2. Ass. also "(to) you" (2 m. pi. 

ace, dat. suff.) 
kunum, kunu' um, MA kund'u "your(s)" (2 m. 

pi. pron. adj.) O/MA; f. as subst. "your 

(affair)" etc.; — » ikkanu 
kunu, kunnu "firmness" M/NB, NA [GIN] in k. 

qdti "fixed procedure"; k. libbi "loyalty"; k. 

kussi "permanence of throne"; < kdnu 
kunukku(m); pi. m. & f. "seal" [(NA4/IM.)KISIB; 

Nuzi also NA4] 1. "(cylinder) seal" 2. "seal 

impression, sealing, bulla" 3. "sealed (tablet)", 

NB ina kandk k. sudti "at the sealing of that 

document" 4. ext. "vertebra" of sheep (and 

associated muscle) [also UZU.KISIB]; med., of 

human k. kisddilesemserim "neck/backbone 

vertebra"; > kandku 
kunusi(m) "to you" (2 m. pi. dat. pron.) O/jB 
-kunusi(m), NB also -kunusu, -kalinusu, after m 

also -gunusu "to you" (2 m. pi. dat. suff.) Bab.; 

M/NB also ace. 
kunuti "you" (2 m. pi. ace, gen. pron.) OA, 

OB; OA also dat.; — » kdtunu 
-kunuti, arch. OB also -kunut "you" (2 m. pi. 

ace. suff.) O/jB; OA dat. 
kunu'um — » kunum 

kunzu (a leather bag) jB, for aromatics 
kunzubu — » kuzzubu 
kupanna mng. unkn. Nuzi 
kupartu "expiation" NB; < Aram. 
kupatinnu, kuptatinnum, ka/uppatinnu, 

kuppitannu "globule, pill" O/jB [NU.KAR.KAR] 

as golden ornament; med., mag., of clay; 

< kapdtu ?; — » kuppittu 

kupatu(m) ~ "com(field)"? OA, j/NB, NA; 

more than one word ? (-» kuba' alum) 
kupfratu pi. tant. ~ "swabbings" jB rit.; 

< kapdru II 

kupiru "bitumen"? NA for building; -» kupru 
kupitu I (a marsh-bird) jB, NA; < kupu 
kupitu II (animal dropping)? jB lex. 
kupkudum (a reed artefact) OB 
kuppatinnu, kuppitannu — » kupatinnu 
kuppatu (a kind of building) Nuzi; < quppu II 

kuppittu; pi. kuppineti jB var. of kupatinnu ? 



kurru(m) I 

kuppu; pi. m. & f. "cistern, water-source" M/jB, 
me kuppdni sa sade "water from mountain 

kuppu(m) I "eel"? O/jB [GU.BI.KU6]; marti k. 
"eel's gall" as drug; also (a bird), (a snake); 

< Sum. 

kuppu II "snow, ice" NA 

kuppupu(m) "very bent" Bab.; as PN; < kapdpu 

kuppurtum — » kupurtum 

kuppusu — ► kubbusu 

kupputtu (a measuring vessel) j/NB; < kupputu 

kupputu "conglomerated" j/NB of parts of liver; 

(desig. of carnelian); < kapdtu 
kupritu(m) (or kubritu(m)) mng. unci. O/MB; 

< kupru ? 

kupru(m), kupuru "bitumen, pitch" Bab., M/NA 

[ESIR/ESIR.UD.(DU.)A] usu. in dry form; for 

building, ship, figurine; > kaparu .III; 

kupritunP; — > kuplru 
kupsu, kuspu, kisblpu "husks, bran" M/NA, 

M/jB [DUy.SE.GIS.i] usu. of sesame; k. dispi 

"honey remnants", i.e. "wax"; Ug. k. passuri 

"table crumbs" 
kupsu — ► also kubsu 
kuptatinnum — > kupatinnu 
kupu ~ "reed thicket" jB; > kupitu I 
kupu — > kubu II 
kupudlu — » kipudlu 
kupulhu (a linen cloth)? NB 
kupursinnum, kurup/bsinnu(m) (desig. of gold) 

OA, Bogh.; < Hitt.? 
kupurtum (or kuppurtum) "anointment" OB 

(Susa); < kaparu II 
kupusu — » kubusu 
kurabdu (a plant) jB lex. 
kuradu (an implement) jB lex. 
kurangu, kuraggu "rice" jB, NA 
kurapanu "neck-protector" NB; < OPers. 
kurartu, glkuralirlstu (a skin complaint, phps.) 

"boil"? jB med.; < kurdru 
kuraru(m), gurdru O/jB 1. "glowing ashes" 

2. (a boil, carbuncle)? [GIR.GIG; occas. GIG. 

GIR]; > kurartu 
kurassu — ► kurustu 
kurastu — > kurartu 
kurbannu — » kirbdnu 
kurbasi (a kind of thistle)? jB lex. 
kurbu f. "blessing" jB; < kardbu II 
kurdillu (a kind of cucumber; a fruit) jB lex. 
kurdinnu (or kurtinnu) (an evil-smelling plant) 

jB lex., NA 
kurdissu (a storage facility for straw) M/NA 
kurduppum -» gurduppum 

kurgarranu (a kind of stone) jB; < kurgarru 
kurgarru (a cultic performer) M/NA, M/NB 

[(LU.)KUR.GAR.RA] freq. with assinnu; bearing 

sword and mace; rab k. "chief k"; NA f. 

[munus.KUR.GAR.RA] = kurgarrdtu ?; < Sum.; 

> kurgarranu, kurgarrutu 
kurgarrutu "function of the kurgarru" NB; as 

prebend; < kurgarru 
kuriallum (a functionary)? OA; -» kurniyallu ? 
kuribinnu (a kind of land)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kuribu (an ethereal spirit) NA/jB freq. d K.; 

"(figure of) a k." of silver etc.; -> kardbu II 
kur(i)giqu (part of a building) jB, rdg. unkn. 

phps. mat(i)giqu 
kuriguru — » kanagurru 
kurillu — » kurullu I 
kuriltu — » kurustu 
kurinnu — > kurrinnu 
kuripinnu (a kind of terrain)? Nuzi 
kurissu; pi. f. ~ "leek" NA; -> karasu 
kuristu — » guristu; kurartu 
kuritu(m) "shin, tibia" Bab. [GiR.PAD.DU/DA. 

LUGUD.DA] of sheep, ox etc.; OB k. kappim 

"wing-bone" (desig. of part of liver ?); < kuru ? 
kurkanu (a medicinal plant) M/NB, NA [U/SIM. 

KUR/KUR4.GI.RIN/RIN.NA] as drug; root of k. 
kurkatta(m) "like a goose" jB; < kurku 
kurkizannu — » kurkuzannu 
kurku(m) "goose" Bab., NA [KUR.GI.MUSEN; 

NB also MUSEN.KUR.GI]; as tribute, offering; 

med. saman k. "goose-fat"; < Sum.; > kurkatta 
kurkudum mng. unkn. OB, as PN 
kurkurranu (desig. of a sheep) jB lex. 
kurkurratu(m), kukkurratum (a vessel) OAkk, 

O/jB; for honey, wine; < kurkurru 
kurkurru jB, NA 1. lex. (a bird) 2. (a vessel), 

of copper 3. astr. (a phenomenon associated 

with stars); > kurkurratu 
kurkuzannu(m), kurkizannu "piglet" O/jB, 

M/NA [SAH/SAH.TUR]; as PN, also Kukku= 

kurmatu — > kurummatu 
kurmittu "butterfly"? jB 
kurmu — » kurummu 

kurniya(l)lu (a functionary) Ug.; -» kuriallum ? 
Kurnugi "The Underworld" Bab. lex.; < Sum. 
kurpisu — ► qurpissu 

ku(r)rinnu; pi. f. (a neck ornament) M/jB, NA 
kurru(m) I occas. f. "(measure of dry capacity:) 

gur, kor" OAkk, Bab., OA [GUR] OB kur 

kittim "normal gur", loc.-adv. kurrum "per gur"; 

k. saqdlu "to weigh the gur"; Bab. as measure 

of ship's capacity; < Sum.; -> kursisakkatum 

kurru II 



kurru II (part of body, phps.) "pelvis" jB; med. 

left, right 
kurru(m) III "tanning fluid" Bab., NA 
kurru — > also kuru III 
kurru(m); st. abs. du. kurridlkurrd "short" OB, 

Bogh., jB as pi. of kuru; < kuru 
kursallum, kursullum (a basket) Bab. of reed; 

also, as an ornament; < Sum. 
kursdnum — ► gusdnu 
kursimtu, kursimtu, kursittum, jB kurs/sindu, 

kursiddu, NA kussimtu ? "scale, plate" O/jB 

1. of snakeskin 2. (a tool) 3. for scale-armour 

4. NA on door ? 
kursimtu — » also kusimu 
kursindu — > kursimtu 
kursinnu(m), Bogh. kursinnu; pi. m. & f. 

"ankle"; of human, sheep; as cut of meat; MB 

"astragalus", as game; lex. (an object) 
kursinnum — > also gusdnu 
kursisakk(at)um; pi. f. "grain-container" OB, of 

1 gur; < Sum.; -> kurru I 
kursissu — ► kurusissu 
kursittum — > kursimtu 
kursu — > kurustu 
kursibtu — > kursiptu 
kursiddu — » kursimtu 
kursimatu -* akusimu 
kursimtu — > kursimtu; kusimu 
kursindu — > kursimtu 
kursiptanu (a plant) jB lex.; < kursiptu 
kursiptu (or kursibtu) "butterfly" jB, NA; k. alpi 

(a flower); k. eqli "nettle"? [GI.ZU.LUM.MA] 

lex., med. 
kursu(m) "fetter" Bab., OA [Nuzi GIS.GiR] of 

copper, for feet; k. purrurumlhepd "to loosen/ 

break bonds"; NB (an ornament) "chain" of 

gold; jB desig. of a star 
kursinnu — > kursinnu 
kursullum — > kursallum 
kurtinnu — » kurdinnu 
kuru(m); f. kuritu(m) "short" OAkk, Bab. 

[LUGUD(.DA)] of things, part of body, time; as 

subst. "short (person), dwarf", also as (f)PN; 

transf. medical complaint libbi kuri "my heart is 

short"; < karu II; > kurltu 1 -, kurru 
kuru I "depression, torpor" jB, NA [U.SA] of 

physical and mental apathy; NA k. ene "weak- 

sightedness"; < karu II 
kuru(m) II f. "kiln, furnace" Ass., OB for metal, 

glass; uqne/abne k. "kiln-made lapis lazuli/ 

stone" i.e. (blue) glass 
kuru(m) III, kurru (part of a reed) jB 
kurum IV (a short reed mat) Bab. lex.; < Sum. 

kurubsinnu — » kupursinnum 

kurubu (a bird) jB lex. 

kurukku, karakku (a bird) M/jB 

kuru(l)lu(m) I, kurillu "sheaf, stook" O/jB, 

M/NA; "(single) sheaf, coll. "sheaves, the 

harvest"; MA, Nuzi (a harvest festival); Mari 

pi. f. "bundles" of vine-prunings; -> k. II 
kurullum II ~ "catastrophe, death-toll" Mari; = 

kurullum IE (a spice)? OAkk, OB 
kurultti — > kurustu 
kuru(m)manu (a vessel, or kind of fruit)? Am., 

of ivory 
kurummatu(m), kurmatu "food allocation, 

ration" [SUK(.gl.A)] for human, deity, animal; 

OB eqel k. "field for subsistence"; "bread 

(ration)", OA silver, tin as "ration"; — > 

kurummu (or kurmu ?) jB, by-form of 

kurummatu ? 
kurumtu (a stone) Ug. 
kuru(n)nu(m) (a kind of beer) Bab.(lit.) 

[KURUN.NAM/NA] offered to deity; drunk by 

men, in ritual; < Sum. 
kuruppu(m) "(vegetable) basket, hamper" Bab.; 

also a reed structure; NB in mdsihu sa k. as 

measuring unit for grain, dates, legumes and 

kurupsinnu — > kupursinnum 
kurusi(s)su(m), kursissu (a rodent) O/jB, esp. 

fond of sesame 
kurussu "strap" M/jB; of leather; also "band" of 

copper; < karasu 
kurussu — > kurustu 
kurus (a spice) jB lex.; < Kass. 
kurusta'u "fatted animal" MB, Nuzi, of sheep; 

< kurustu 

kurustu(m), gurussu, MA kuru/iltu, kuru/assu, 
kursu (fodder for fattening) O/jB, MA; usu. in 
sa k. "animal-fattener" [LU.KU7]; < Sum.; 
> kurustd' u, kurustumma 

kurustumma in k. epesu "to fatten" Nuzi; 

< kurustu 

kurzahhu; Hurr. pi. kurzahhena mng. unkn. 
Nuzi, in topog. desig.; < Hurr. 

kurzidakkum "flour-basket" OB; < Sum. 

kusa, kusi in kusa/i ydmi "algae"? jB, liter, "sea- 
covering"; < W.Sem. 

kusannu — > gusdnu 

kusapu l.jB "crumb, scrap" of bread [PAD] 
2. NA "bread" [NINDA.MES (-» also akalu 1)]; 

< kasdpu I 




kusarikku(m), kusarakku, husarikku, Bogh. 

kusarihlyu "bison" OAkk, Bab.(lit.) [GU4.A. 

LIM; GU4.ALIM] jB also d K.; salme k. "images 

of bison"; astr. (a star) 
kusasu pi. tant. "gums" or "chewed bits"? jB; 

< kasdsu 
kusi — » kusa 

kusibirr(it)u — > kisibirritu 
kusigau — > kusiqu 
kusigu — > husigu 
kusipdnu — > kusipu II 

kusipu I; pi. m. & f. "bread (crumbs)" j/NB; 

< kasdpu I 

kusipu II, ka(s)siplbu (a plant) jB lex., med.; pi. 

(or derivative?) kusipdnu, kassibdn&lu; jB lex. 

desig. of a snake 
kusiqu, kusigau (a garment) jB lex. 
kusitu(m), Bogh. kusitu "robe" [TUG.BAR. 

DUL/DUL5/8]; OA fine (raqqdtum), of Akkad; 

Am. of linen; NB for divine statue; < kasu III 
kusiu (a headband) jB lex.; < kasti III 
kuspu in kusup libbi "heartbreak"? NA; 

< kasdpu I 
kuspu — > also kupsu 
kussalili (a functionary) Nuzi 
kussimtu — > kursimtu 
kusslum — > kussu 

kussu (an ornament) Qatna, of gold, attached to 

kussu(m), OAkk, OA kusslum f. occas. m. 
"chair, stool, throne" [(GIS.)GU.ZA; (GIS.)AS. 
TE; (GIS.)AS.Tl] as piece of household furn- 
iture; "seat" in boat, chariot etc.; OA "saddle" 
on donkey; k. serde, k. sa lyarrani "travelling 
seat, sedan-chair"; Nuzi k. sa eberi "sedan- 
chair"?; k. sapiltum "low chair, stool"; judge's 
"seat"; king's "throne", transf. kussAm kusslam 
isannan "one throne (= dynasty) will rival 
another"; deity's "throne"; NB bit k. "throne 
land, royal estate"?; nid k. (part of liver); 

< Sum.; — > kuzd'u 

kussusu "gnawed (reed)" jB lex.; < kasdsu 

kusu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kusullum (a wooden object) OB 

kusummu (a garment) jB lex. 

kusdnu — » kusdyu 

kusa'u "spillage"? MA; < kussu 

kusayu(m) "of winter"? Bab., of harvest, pig; 

NB of date palm, also kusdnu; < kiisu 
kusi (a plant) jB lex. 
kusibi (a garden herb) NB 
kusillatu (an illness)? jB lex. 
kusimdnu — » akusimu 

kusimu(m), kurslsimtu (a bent stick) O/jB; as 

part of door 
kusippum (or g/kuzippum); pi. f. mng. unkn. 

kusirum (or kuzirum) (a binding)? OB; 

< kasdru ? 
kussu — » kusu 

kussu D "to tilt" NA a bowl for libation; 

> kusa'u 
kussu — ► also kiisu 

kussudu ~ "cripple(d)" jB; < kasddu ? 
kussu lu (or kuzzulu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kussuru(m) "thoroughly knotted" O/jB; 

< kasdru D 

kussusu(m) "(one) crippled by lack of hand"? 
O/jB lex.; < kasdsu I 

kusu(m), kussu(m) "coldness, winter" [EN.TE. 
(EN.)NA; SED7] "cold temperature", "cold 
weather"; med. "chill, shivering"; "winter 
(-time)", OB ina k. k. ibassi "there will be cold 
weather in the winter"; < kasu III; > kusdyu; 

kusu, kussu adj. "winter('s)" j/NB, of sheep, 
vegetable; NB "winter stores"; < kusu 

kusu'u (an animal)? jB lex., equated with mus'u 

kusabku(m), kisab(k)u, kusdbu (a thorny tree, 
shrub) O/jB [GIS.AB.BA] OB for fuel; < Sum. 

kusafyhum — > husahfyu 

kusdnu — > gusdnu 

kusapu; pi. m. & f. "sorcerous materials" jB; 

< kasdpu 
kusarifrhu — » kusarikku 

kusartu "repair, patch" M/NB; < kasdru 
kusaru ~ "reed stalk" Bab. mag.; also lex. (a 

shelter); < kasdru ?; — » kusru I 
kuser(dt)u — » kusiru 
kusgugalu (a drum, liter.) 'skin of great ox' jB 

[KUS.GU4.GAL- ]; < Sum. 
kusharu (a wall) jB lex. 
kusiru(m), kuseru; lex. pi. f.? "success, profit" 

O/jB, NA; st. abs. Id kusir "profitless"; 

< kasdru 
kusitu —*' kusitu 

kuspa'e (an edible item)? Nuzi; < Hurr.; — > 

kusrahhum ~ (leather strap) OB, for chariot; 

kusru I, kuzuru (a plant) j/NB, NA [U.KU.GAG 

(or tus-ru ?)] as drug; — > kusaru; tusru 
kusru II ~ "ingot" NB of silver, copper 
kusrum III (component of a boat) OB 
kussatu(m) (a garment) OA, Bogh. 
kussikku (a clay) jB lex. 




kussu/u mng. unkn. jB lex.; < kasu II ? 
kussudu "chased (off)" jB of bird, person; 

< kasddu D 

kussuku (prof, desig.) OB(Susa); < Elam. 

kustappu — ► gustappu 

kustaru(m), jB freq. kultdru; pi. m. & f. "tent" 
Bab.; bit seri k. sarrutisu "desert house, his 
royal tent"; (Afylamu) sut k. "tent people"; OB 
PIN Kustdrdtum 

kustibum, kultibu "(kind of) shovel" O/jB 

kustu, kultu (a kind of grass) M/jB 

kusu ~ "crab" j/NB(lit.) [KUSU]; < Sum.; -» 

kusu "skin" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kusum — > also qusum 

kusuhannu (a wooden object) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

kusupha, kusuppara (kinds of bread or pastry) 
Nuzi; < Hurr.; — > kuspa'e 

kusurra'um "restitution" OAkk, in sibut k. 
"witnesses to r."; < kasdru 

kusurru mng. unkn. jB 

kutahu; pi. m. & f. ~ "spear, lance" NA 

kutallanu(m) "backward" jB adv. in kutaltdnikka 
"behind you"; OA as PN; < kutallu 

kutallu(m) "back" [GU.tAl; GU.TAR] 1. "back of 
head" of human, animal; jB mukil k. "supporter, 
helper" 2. "back" of lung, ear etc.; "rear" of 
chair, building, army etc.; inalana k. "behind" 
as prep., as adv., st. abs. ina kutal 3. of time, k. 
satti "end of year", ina k. "later" 4. NA, NB 
(sa) k., NB pi. f., also Mari ? "reserve" soldier, 
NB also "spare (ox)"; <Sum.; >kutallutu, 

kutallutu "position as reserve" NB; < kutallu 4 

kutamlalu, katamlalu mng. unci. jB lex.; — ► 
kullulu II 

kutanum, occas. kutinum (a textile) OAkk, OA, 
Mari: or qutdnum ? 

kutasu (a log)? jB lex. 

kutdtu — > kutu 

kutatuphuhlu (a functionary) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kutimmutu "position as goldsmith" NB 
[LU.KU.DIM- ], as prebend; < kutimu 

kutimu(m), ku(t)timmu(m) "goldsmith, silver- 
smith" Bab. [(LU.)KU.DIM; NB usu. KU.DIM]; 

< Sum.; > kutimmutu 

kutkim mng. unkn. MB in skins of A:.; < Kass.? 

kutlalu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kutlanum (a bird) OB 

kutlu(m); pi. f. ~ "rail, fence, side-wall"? Bab., 

MA of oven 
kutma'isu (a container) Ug., of bronze 
kutmanu ~ (a tamarisk)? jB lex. 

kutmu(m) "cover, covering" O/jB [DUL] in k. 

libbi "stomach tissue" of animal; < katdmu 
kutpii "black frit" M/jB [(NA4.)AN.ZAy.GE6] 
kutrannu (or qutrannu) (an object) Nuzi 
kuttenaswe (desig. of cattle) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kuttim (prof, desig.) Nuzi 
kuttimmatu "female charcoal-burner" jB mag. 
kuttimmu "charcoal-burner" jB lex. 
kuttimmu — » also kudimmu; kutimu 
kuttu — » kutu 
kuttumu "covered over" j/NB; of bride "veiled"; 

of ship "with deck"; of land "inaccessible"; 

< katdmu 

kutturu 1. OB(Alal.) (a class of person)? 

2. Nuzi (a wooden object) = kitturru II ? 
kuttutu mng. unkn. jB lex.; phps. = huttutu 
kutu(m), kuttu(m), kutu; pi. m. & f. "jug, can" for 

liquids O/jB, M/NA [(GIS/DUG.)UD+MUNUS+ 

KAB] of wood, clay, copper; transf., elephant's 

kutullu — > kuzullu 
kutultu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kutumdu — » kutumtu 
kutummu(m) "cover(ing)" Bab., OA; for axe; 

of reed, leather for interior of boat; "protection, 

covering garment" for person; "outer sheath" of 

reed stem; < katdmu 
kutumtu, kutumdu - "covered basket"? jB 

< katdmu 

kutuniwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; desig. of yoke-team 

< Hurr. 

kututum; pi. kutu'dtum "security" OA 

< katd'um 
kuwdti — > kudti 
kuwd'um — > ku 

kuyatu, ku'dtu, kuhdtu (a plant) M/jB, as drug; 

Qatna, as ornament in gold, lapis lazuli 
kuzabum "alluring" OB in fPN Kuzdbatum; 

< kazdbu I 
kuzallu(m), OB also guzdlum; pi. f. "shepherd" 

O/MA, O/jB; (warah) K. (3rd month) Ass. 
kuza'u "throne" jB lex.; < Sum.; — ► kussu 
kuzazu jB 1. "wood-wasp" 2. (a goat); 

< gazdzu ? 

kuzbanitu "alluring" M/jB, of goddess; as fPN; 

< kuzbu 

kuzbanu (a bird) jB lex.; < kuzbu 

kuzbu(m) ~ "attractiveness, (sex) appeal" Bab. 

[JJI.LI] "charms" of woman, goddess, za'nat 

kuzbam "is laden with allure"; female genitalia; 

"sexual potency" of male; transf. of field, water, 

temple; < kazdbu I 
kuzippu, guzippu "cloak" M/NA 




kuzippum — ► also kusippum 
kuzirum (cultic person) jB; < kezeru 
kuzirum — ► also kusirum 

kuzubtum "flattery, seduction"? OA, of words; 
< kazabu I 

kuzuru — ► &«.?/•« I 
kuzzalum — ► guzalu 
kuzzisallum (a basket) OB; < Sum. 
kuzzubu(m), kunzubu "very charming, attrac- 
tive" OA, O/jB, of goddess; as fPN; OA of 

kuzullu(m), kutullu(m), guzullu "bundle of speech; jB also desig. of illness; < kazabu I 

reeds" Bab. 

kuzzulu — ► kussulu 


la prep. jB( Ass.), NA, NB 1. spatially "from" a 
place 2. in la qatlle "from" a person 3. Emar 
"to"; < W.Sem.; > lapdni 

la "not, no; without, un-" [NU] A. negation of 
individual words: adj. Id damqu "not good", la 
su "not his own", ptcp. Id mupparku 
"unceasing", subst. Id kittu "injustice", adv. Id 
plqam "not once"; + infin. gen. or st. abs. e.g. 
Id mahdr "irresistible"; + gen. "without", OB 
kasap la kanlkim "silver without a tablet", OA 
la sibe "without witnesses", OAkk la surrdtim 
"no lies"; NA dibbi Id dibbi "unspeakable 
things", NB amdt la amdt "every single word"; 
Ass. Id... Id "neither ... nor" B. negation of 
clause, placed immediately before pred.: 
1. subord. clauses before subjunct. (OA also 
inverted la sa + vb.) 2. condit. clauses (— » 
summa 1) 3. oaths before subjunct. (j/NB pos. 
statements — ► kl 4; summa 2; GAG §185j) 4. in 
interrog. clauses 5. in proh. before pres., stat. 
6. Ass. as negation of main clause, OA also 
— ► ula; la. ..Id... "neither ... nor ..."; before 
subst. for emphasis, e.g. NA la kusdpe takkal 
"she eats no bread at all" 7. OAkk, Bab. rarely 
as strong negation of main clause (— » ul), 
OAkk mandma la illik "no one at all went", NB 
Id dmur "I definitely did not see", OB la tutta 
"you surely will not find" C. in comb.: 1. sa la 
"without", esp. "without agreement of s.o.; 
"except for" 2. — » adi 3; anal 13, alia; ezib; 
ina 7, ilia; laman; summa 4 

la'abu(m), le'ebu ~ "to harass" O/jB G (Hi) of 
demons etc. "afflict" person, lung; jB of 
la'bulli'bu "infect" s.o. D "infect" s.o. with /. 

illness N pass, "be infected"; > li'bu, la'bum, 
la'ibum; tal'abum'- 

la'dmum — ► lemu 

la'asu(m) - "to dirty, defile"? jB lex. G; D; 
> li'su, la'su II, la'isu; lu'astu 

la'atu "to swallow (up)" Bab. G (u/u) of 
persons, animals D ~ G; — » aldtu; ma'ldtu 

la'd'u — » le'u 

lababu(m) "to rage" O/jB G (a/u) of person, 
demon S caus., of fever "make s.o. rage" St OB 
"exert o.s."? N "become furious" of flood, "be 
feverish"? of lips; > libbdtu; labbibu; salbabu; 
salbubu; nalbubu, nalbdbu 

labaku(m) "to be(come) soft" OAkk, O/jB, MA 
G (Hi) of part of body; of bow "be supple"; of 
drugs, in liquid D "make soft, soften up" part of 
body etc.; drugs in liquid Dtn iter, of D S ~ D 
"soften, soak"; > labku; labbuku; lubku; 

labanatu "incense" jB 

labanu(m), NB also le/abenu "to spread, stroke" 
G (///'; NA perf. issibin) 1. "stroke" part of 
body, esp. nose (appa), gesture of submission, 
respect [KIR4.SU.GAL] 2. "spread out" (mud to 
make) bricks, libittam I. "make bricks", agurra 
I. "make baked bricks", also absol.; jB/NA 
"brick over" D MA, jB lex. ~ G 2 "cover, 
reinforce with brickwork" S caus. of G 1 jB 
appa I.; caus. of G 2 "have bricks made", also 
NA "cause to brick over"; > labnu I; libnu; 
labinu, labbinu 1 -; libittu; lubbundu, labbunu; 
nalbanu, nalbattu, nalbanatta 

labdnu — » labidnum 

labaris j/NB 1. in /. aldku of buildings "to 
become old, dilapidated" 2. in /. time "in days to 




G + 

come" (in future), "with the passage of time" 
(in past); < lahdru 

labarmanna ~ "for the future, henceforth" Bogh. 

labaru(m) "to be(come) old, long-lasting" 
G (Hi) [TIL] of persons "live long, live to a 
great age"; of city, food, work "become old"; of 
time "last long"; labdr (dur) Ami "long 
duration; longevity; distant future"; labdr pale 
"long reign"; in PNs lilbir, -lilbur (-* 
bdru III) Gtn iter. jB litabbur dadml "long 
survival of (separate) settlements" D "make 
long-lived, long-lasting" [TIL; also LIBIR.RA], 
of god "give" s.o. "long life", "make" s.o.'s life, 
reign "last long"; of man "hold" e.g. sceptre 
"for a long time", OB kussdm ulahbar "will 
hold the throne for long"; ellipt. "live long" 
Dt "be allowed to live long, reach old age" of 
person, building S 1. caus. "bring to old age, 
allow to last long" reign, priesthood 2. of 
person, building "become old, dilapidated"; 
> labiru, labiris, labirtu, labirutu; labdris; — ♦ 
lubdru; labarmanna 

Labasu, Lapdsu (a disease demon) jB 
[ d DiM.ME.A] as demon, as disease 

Iabasu(m) "to clothe o.s." G (a/a, jB Hi) "put 
on" garment (=acc); stat. "wears, is wearing", 
subdtam la labsdku "I wear no clothing"; 
transf. "is clad in" fear, soreness, radiance etc.; 
Nuzi for D "clothe" s.o. Gt 1. stat. transf. "is 
clad in" sickness, fear etc.; of object "is overlaid 
with" gold etc. 2. OA, OB "provide with 
clothing" 3. liter, "get dressed (in)" [MU4.MU4] 
D "clothe" [MU4.MU4], "provide with clothing" 
esp. as gift; transf. OA "enclose" tablet in 
envelope; MB/MA "face" wall with bricks; NB 
"overlay" object with metal; "wrap" s.o. with 
leprosy Dt "clothe o.s. with, put on" garment 
etc. S "clothe, array" transf. with greenery, fear 
etc.; "overlay, bedeck" with precious metal St 
"clothe o.s. with"; stat. "is clothed with" N ~ G 

">"put on" garment (=acc), also transf. light, 
justice; sfafr'Ts'^clad in"; > labsu, labsutum, 
libsu, lubsu, luhdsu, lubusu, lubustu; labbasu'-, 
lubbusu; lithusu; nalbasu; talbisum, talbustu 

labatu (a kind of wool) jB lex. 

labdtu — ♦ also labtu; lapdtu 

labatu(m), jB labbatu "lioness" OAkk, O/jB as 
epith. of goddess; in fPN Si-ldbat; < lahu 

labatu, lapitu (a plant) jB lex., comm. 

labd'u — ♦ lawum II 

labbdndtu — ♦ kalhdndtu 

labbdnu — » alappdnu 

labbasu (prof, desig.) NB; < labasu ? 

labbasute — ♦ lubbusu 

labbatu — ♦ labatu 

labbibu "very furious" jB of weapon; < labdbu 

labbinu (a fly) jB lex.; < labdnu ? 

labbis — ♦ labis 

labbu 1. ~ "weak"? OB of oxen 2. (desig. of low 

quality dates) j/NB [GIS.GISIMMAR.BUR ?] 
labbu — ♦ also labu 
labbuku "softened, steeped" MA of aromatics; 

< labdku D 

labbunu; pi. f. (a stand or pedestal)? M/NA for 
statues; in bit ( d )l. (a religious building); also in 
PN; < labdnu 

labbusu — ♦ lubbusu 

labenu — ♦ labdnu 

labertu — * labirtu 

labiru — » labiru 

laberutu — ♦ labirutu 

Iabianum, labdnu, NA liblpdnu "neck( tendons)" 
O/jB, M/NA [SA.GU] of human, animal 

labinu(m), NB lebinu "brick-maker" Bab. esp. 
Idbin lihitti(m); < labdnu 

labiris "of old" OB in istu I., ina I. "for a long 
time"; < labiru 

labirtum, labertum OB 1. "long-standing 
property" esp. of fields 2. "long-standing, old 
debt" [LIBIR] 3. "earlier time"; < labiru 

labiru(m), laberu(m), jB also labru; NB f. also 
labistu "old" [LIBIR(.RA); TIL] of objects, food, 
drink etc.; of building; "former, previous, long- 
standing" of field, person, king etc.; "old- 
established" of customs, measures; of tablet, in 
col. as subst. kima labirisu "according to its 
original" [LIBIR.RA.BI.GIM]; as subst. "former 
time", kima I., ina I. "(as) in the past"; 

< labdru; > labiris, labirtu, labirutu 
labirutu, laleberutu "old age" M/jB(Ass.), 

Bogh., NA of person, building /. aldku "to 
grow old, become dilapidated"; Bogh. ki I. "as 
of old"; < labiru 

labis, labbis "like a lion" M/jB; < labu 

labistu — ♦ labiru 

labisu (a plant) jB lex. 

labittu — ♦ labnu I; libittu 

labitu in /. ilabbi fig. etym. of guard, "makes the 
round" NA; < lawum II 

labiu — ♦ lamu 

labku; NA f. labaktu "soft" M/NB, NA 1. Nuzi 
"supple" of bow 2. MB "moist" of plaster; NB 
in subst. use "moistening" of soil 3. NB (a type 
of beer) 4. NA "tender" of meat; < labdku 

labnis "as (if using) throwsticks"? jB(Ass.); 

< labnu II 

labnu I 



labnu I; f. labittu "(spread) flat" MA, jB of face, 

nose; "moulded" of bricks MA; (a type of 

basket) jB lex.; < labdnu 
labnu II, lihnu "throwstick" jB lex.; > labnis 
labru — ♦ labiru 
labsum "foreigner"? OB lex. 
labsu "clothed" jB esp. in labis kite "linen- 
wearer" (a temple official); Nuzi "worn" of 

clothes; < labasu 
labsutum "clothed state" OB in labsussa 

"clothed" of woman; < labsu 
labtu(m), also pi. labdtu "(oven-)parched grain" 

O/jB, NA [NA. SE.SA.A] 
labu, lehu "to howl, whine, squeal, cry out" jB 

G (ulu, also Hi) of dog, pig etc.; of sick person 

"cry out", of baby; of wind in stomach; of 

house "creak"; zubbi labe (a type of fly) jB lex. 

Gtn iter, of invalid; > labd 
labu — ♦ also lawum II 
labu(m), OAkk, OA lab'um, jB also labbu 

"lion"; also transf. as desig. of god, king, 

demon; > labatu; labis 
labu — ♦ also li'bu 

labu adj. "howling, bleating" jB lex.; < labu 
lab'um — ♦ labu 
la'bum adj. "suffering from li'bu disease" OB 

lex.; < la'dbu 
la'hu — ♦ also li'bu 
labubi(t)tu (a plant) j/NB 
labunu — » labbunu 
labussu — » lubustu 
ladinnu, ladnu, ladunu (an aromatic, phps.) 

"ladanum resin" j/NB, NA 
ladiru — ♦ aladiru 

ladiru "fearless" MB/MA for Id ddiru 
ladnu — ♦ ladinnu 
ladu(m), NA luddu "to bend down" O/jB, NA 

G (u) of wrestler; tree; path; of part of exta; t$A 

"bow" in shame ? 
ladunu — ♦ ladinnu 
la' e hum — ♦ la'ibum 
lagabbis "like a lump" jB; < lagabbu 
lagabbu(m) "lump, clod" OA, O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
lagagu "to cry out" jB lex. only G; D 
lagallum, laga(r)ru(m) — ♦ lagaru 
lagarturru "apprentice lagaru priest" NB; 

< Sum. 
lagaru(m), lagarru, lagallum (a priest) Bab., 

Susa; < Sum. 
laga(s)takkas (desig. of horses) M/NB; < Kass. 
laga'u, lagu "scale, dirt, scum" jB on lips, ears, 

scalp; in bitumen oven 

laginu (an agricultural occupation) jB lex., also 

lagin isitti "rich, important" 
lagu mng. unkn. jB lex. in absu lagu (a kind of 

lagu — ♦ laga'u 
lahabu, lehebu ~ "to rumble, growl" MA, jB 

G (('/(') of patient's belly, horse, wolf Stn 

"cause to growl continuously" 

lahddu — » lahdtu 
lahagu (a plant) jB lex., med. 
lahamu — ♦ lahmu 
lahamu(m) I, lehemu "to be hairy" O/jB G stat. 

only sdrta lalehim "is covered in hair" D, S lex. 

only; > lahmu, lahimu; luhhumu 
lahamu II G unattested D j/NB "to brew" beer 

from malt or dates 
lahanatu, lahandu —* lahantu 
lahangiddu (a slender flask) jB lex.; < Sum. 
lahannu(m); pi. m. & f. (a flask) Bab., M/NA 

[DUG.LA.JJA.AN] of pottery, stone, metal; 

< Sum.; — ♦ lahidnum 

lahantu, lahanatu, lahandu (a bird) jB lex.; of 

girl in song 
laharum, laharitum (desig. of a garment) OB 
laharuhsum, laharussu, laharuskalu "quiver 

(on chariot)" O/jB 
lahasu(m) "to whisper" O/jB G not attested 

Gt jB "pray in a whisper" D "whisper" Dtn 

Mari iter. Dt jB "whisper to o.s."; > lihsu; 

lahatu (or lahdd/tu) mng. unkn. jB lex. D; S 
lahhinu — ♦ alahhinu 

lahhinutu (a female official) M/NA; < lahhinu 
Lahhum (a month) Mari, OB(Susa) 
lahianum (a vessel) OB = lahannuT, 

> lahiydndtu 
lahimu "hairy" jB lex.; < lahamu I 
lahi(y)anatu(m) pi. tant. (a kind of shell) O/jB; 

< lahidnum 

lahmu(m), lahamu 1. 'hairy' jB lex.; OB as PN 
2. (a mythical being) OAkk, Bab. guardians of 
sea, sky, earth, apsu; "(statue, image of) /."; 

< lahamu I 

lahru(m) m. & f. "sheep", mostly f. "ewe" 

OAkk, Bab., NA [(UDU.)Ug]; lit. "flocks", also 

deified Lahar 
lahsatu f. pi. (implements)? NB of iron 
lahsu — ♦ lashu 
lahtangiddu (a narrow beer vessel) jB lex.; 

lahtanu(m); pi. f. (a beer vat) OA, O/jB 

[LAHTAN]; < Sum. 
lahtu "pit" jB lex. 

lahu I 


lam an 

lahu I "jaw(s)" M/jB 

lahu II "dry wood" jB lex.; < Sum. 

lahu "young shoot" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 

la'ibum, la'ibum "suffering from li'hu disease" 

OAkk as PN; < la'dbu 
la'ir(i)anu, lawirdnu(m) "standing water" O/jB; 

— » awirdnum 
la 'is "like a small child" jB; < la'u 
la'isu(m) "oppressive, merciless" O/jB of 

goddess, death; < la'dsu 
Id'ium — » li'il 
lakadu(m) "to run" O/jB G (;'/;') of person, 

animal; > lakittu 
lakanum (or laqdnum) (a type of sheep)? OA, 

also as PN 
lakbum (or lakpwn, laqblpwn) (a vessel) OB 

lakittu "(a type of) boat" jB lex. (liter. 

'runner'?); < lakddu 
lakku (or laqqu) (a vessel) Qatna of silver 
lakpum — » lakbum 
laku(m) I "weak" of person, "suckling" of 

animal, child; also as fPN Lakitu(m); of date 

palm; < laku II; — » Idu 
laku(m) II "to be(come) weak" OA, O/jB G (;'/;') 

of person, foundation D "weaken" s.o.; > laku I 
laku III "crooked" jB lex.; < Sum. 
laku — » leku 
lalagu — » lallangu 
lala'is "like kids" jB; < laliu 
lalanu "indigent, powerless" jB lex.; > luldnW 
lalanu "flourishing" jB of person; "luxuriant" of 

garden; < laid I 
lala'u mng. unkn. jB 
lald'u — » laliu 
lalenu, Idlenna in ina I. "above (in document), 

supra" NB; < Aram. 
lalgar "cosmic (underground) water, apsu" jB 
lalikku — » liligu 1 
laliu(m), lali'u, lalu(m), lald'ufm) "kid, young 

goat" O/jB, MA [MAS.TUR]; also OA, OB 

Laliya as PN; > lala'is 
la(l)langu, lalagu (a leguminous vegetable) jB 

lallaratu pi. tant. "lamentation" jB; < lallaru 
lallaris "like a mourner" jB; < lallaru 
lallaris "like honey" jB; < lallaru 
lallartu(m), lallaritu "female mourner" O/jB; 

also as desig. of bird, insect; of squeaky shoe ?; 

< lallaru 
lallaru(m) "(professional) mourner" O/jB; also 

(a bird); desig. of owl, cricket etc.; > lallaratu; 

lallartu; lallaris 

lallaru "white honey" jB; also transf., of lips; 
> lallaris 

lallasu mng. unkn. OB lex. 

Lallubu(m), Lanlubu, jB also Lullubii (a month) 
O/jB; 6th month, OB(Susa); 7th month, jB 
astr.; OB fPN at Susa Lallubitu 

lalsagakku "midwife" jB lex.; < Sum. 

lalu(m) I "plenty, exuberance" OAkk, Bab., NA 
[la] 1. "plenty, wealth; abundance" of luxury, 
vegetation 2. "exuberance, (sexual) charms, 
attractions" of woman, goddess, rarely also 
man; of god, man "prime of life" etc.; OB also 
pi. f. as PN; /. malii "to be full of charms", /. 
sebu "to be satisfied, sated with attractions" of 
woman, life, palace etc. 3. "desire" for, to 
do; "longing" for god; > lalanu; lalutu; 
lulu I; lullu H 

lalu II "to bind"? jB lex. 

lalu — » also laliu 

lalutu(m) "vigour, prime of life" OB as PN, jB 
of man's middle age; < lalu I 

lama, M/jB also lam; before pron. suff. Idmi/u- 
"before (in time); in front of OAkk, Bab., OA 
1. prep, "before" person; "before" an event, 
lama esidim "before reaping", lam libbiya 
"before I wish"; > elldmu- 2. adv. OAkk, OB 
before pret. "not yet"? 3. conj. "before" + 

lamadu(m) "to learn" G (a/a; imper. limad) [ZU] 
"learn, come to know" a fact, a matter (esp. 
with obj. timum, awdtum); "learn" how to do; "comprehend, understand"; OA 
"recognize, acknowledge" a claim, obligation; 
OA, O/jB "know (sexually)" Gtn iter, 
"(repeatedly) ascertain"; OA "repeatedly 
study" tablet, MB(Shechem) "study" (as 
apprentice) Gt 1. "learn thoroughly, com- 
pletely", esp. stat. 2. recipr. OB "get to know 
one another" D 1. "inform" s.o. of (= 2 
ace.) 2. "teach" s.o. a fact, a craft etc. 3. OA 
"charge" s.o. with an expense S M/jB, NA 
"have" s.o. "learn" N of command, plan, 
demon "be comprehended, fathomed"; > lamdu; 
limittum; lummudu; mulammidu; talmldu 

lam(a)hussu f. (a ceremonial garment) Bab., 
Am., Bogh. [TUG.NIG.LAM]; < Sum. 

lamamahhu "human-headed bull colossus" 
jB(Ass.) [ d LAMMA.MAH]; < Sum. 

lamamu I "to chew" jB G (aJu) of animal, 
person D ~ G ? "masticate" alum 

lamamu II, lemimu "to test"? MB, NA in glass 

laman "not yet" jB lex.; < Id + -man 




lamdnu — » leminu 

lamaqartu, lamaqurtu (a container of standard 
capacity) NA for fish 

lamassannu ~ "fortunate, blessed" MB of 
correspondent's superior; < lamassu 

lamassatu(m) "tutelary goddess" O/jB 
[ d LAMMA]; also "(image of) tutelary goddess", 
e.g. /. Istar "figurine of Istar"; /. ini "pupil" of 
the eye; OAkk, OA, OB also fPN; < lamassu 

lamassu(m) f. "(female) tutelary deity" 
[ d LAMMA]; freq. in PNs; as source of good 
fortune, /. rasu "to have personal god, i.e. good 
fortune"; OB lex. awil I. "lucky man"; OB 
Mardukma lamassaka "Marduk is your 
personal deity"; /. mdti "tutelary deity of land"; 
"(image of, figurine of) /. deity"; in NA palaces 
(a type of sphinx) also [MUNUS. d LAMMA]; 
aban I. (a precious stone); > lamassannu, 

lamastu(m), NA also lamassu (a demoness) 
[ d DIM.ME] attacking esp. new-bom and suck- 
lings; also in aban /., sam(mi) I. (kinds of 
stone, plant) 

lamattu "ant" jB lex. 

lamatu in sa la-mat-su "one with no true claim" 
jB; also lex. (an interj.); < Id + awdtu 

lamdu "experienced" jB; of virgin Id lamittu; 

< lamddu 
lamhussu — » lamahussu 
Idmi — ► lama 

la'mis "like ashes" jB; < lamu 

lammu I, lummu (a tree) M/jB, NA; < Sum. 

lammu II jB 1. (desig. of the underworld) 

2. mul /. (a star); < Sum. 
lammudu — » lummudu 
lammunum — » lummunu 
lamnis — » lemnis 
lamnu — » lemnu 

lamsisu, lamsisu (a brewing vat) jB; < Sum. 
lamsatanu "fly-bitten"? MB as horse's name; 

< lamsu 

lamsu, lamsatu(m), nams(at)u (a big fly) O/jB 
[NIM.SAHAR.RA]; also med., "fly(-bite)", esp. 
lamsat hildti; > lamsatanu 

lamu (a branch) jB lex. 

lamu — » also lawum I.II 

lamu, lamu "glowing ashes" Bab. esp. with 
belulbullu "to (be) extinguish^ ed)"; > la'mis 

lamu — ► lama 

lamu, limit, NA Idhiu M/NB, Nuzi, NA adj. 

1. Nuzi of witness "walking round" land 

2. "surrounding" (with obj.); < lawum II ptcp. 
lamu — » lamu 

lamutanu, lamutu, lautdnu m. & f.; f. latdnu, 
mostly pi. "slave(s), retainer(s)" NB 

lamuttu — » lemuttu 

lamutu — » lamutanu 

lanihu — » anihu 

Lanlubu — » Lallubu 

lanu(m) "form, stature" Bab., NA [ALAN] 
"outward form" of human; "height, size" of 
person, deity, image, tree, ark; mag. "(image of) 
human form" 

lanu — » also kardnu 4 

lanuqanu (part of a statue)? MB 

lapan(i) "in front of j/NB spatially; with vb.s of 
fleeing, fearing etc. "from before"; taking, 
stealing "from" s.o.; attitude "towards, with 
regard to" s.o.; occas. commanded, engendered 
"by" s.o.; < la + pdnu I 

lapanu(m) "to be(come) poor" G (;'/;', occas. 
ulu) [UKU] of persons D "make poor, 
impoverish"; > lapnu; lupnu; lappanu; 

lapapu(m) "to wrap around" Bab. G (pres. 
ilappap) med., mag. with wrappings (lippi) etc. 
D - G ?; > lippu 

Lapdsu — » Lahdsu 

lapatu(m), labdtu "to touch, take hold of 
G (a/u) [TAG] 1. "touch" person, part of body; 
also with sexual connotation; transf. OA 
"touch" s.o.'s ear, in court; "involve, call in" 
palace (officials); "undertake" job (liptu) 

2. "(wrongly) lay hands on" property etc. 

3. "attack (with violence), grasp violently" o.'s 
throat (in oath-taking); with knife, sword, whip 
etc. 4. OB "levy, call up" troops 5. OA, OB 
math, "inscribe, enter (on tablet)" 6. "affect 
with, harm with" fire, damp, pest, disease etc. 
7. "apply" to (= 2 ace), "smear, 
anoint" with (= ina) e.g. bitumen, oil, 
blood etc. 8. stat., of omen etc. "is 
unfavourable" 9. of omen "affect" s.o., "be 
applicable to" s.o. 10. MB of sun "touch" the 
sky, "rise" Gtn [TAG.MES] iter, of G 6, 7 
Gt [TAG.TAG] 1. - G 5 OA "write down, enter 
(on tablet)" 2. ~ G 7 "smear" with 
(= 2 ace), ellipt. "infect" weapon (with poison) 
D [TAG.TAG; TAG.MES] 1. ~ G "grasp" throat 
(~ G 3), "touch" part of body "roughly", "play" 
stringed instrument, "make contact with" dirt, 
pollution, genitals 2. "have bad effect on", 
"upset" situation, omen 3. OA, OB "delay", 
stat. "is delayed"; ellipt. "tarry, make a stop" 

4. OA "write" message, answer, tablet etc. to 
s.o. 5. "sprinkle, fumigate" with liquid, incense 




etc. 6. NA ~ G 6 of eclipse "affect" land Dtn 
iter, of D 4 "repeatedly write" tablets Dt pass, 
of D3 OB "be delayed" S [HUL.MES; 
TAG.TAG] "ruin, destroy, plunder" land, city, 
building; gods, people, images; cult; "pound 
up" in mortar St 1 [pUL(.MES)] pass, of S St 2 
caus. of pass. OB "allow to be touched" 
N pass, of G [TAG.TAG] of work "be under- 
taken"; of possession "have hands laid on, be 
appropriated"; OA "be entered, recorded" as 
(=acc.) surety; "be affected" by weevils, by 
fire, by injury; of salt "be applied" to fish; 
> laptu I; laptanu; liptdnu; liptu, lipittu; lupputu; 
mulappitu, talpittu; nalpatu, nalpattu; salputtu, 

lapitu — ► labatu 

lapiaptu(m) "thirst"? OB lex., jB, NA 

lapnu(m); f. lapuntu, laputtu "poor; pauper" 
[Oku; NIG.NU.TUKU] as adj. (opp. = saru I) 
and subst.; NB as fPN; < lapdnu; > lappanu 

lappanu "very poor" jB; < lapnu 

lappanu — » alappdnu 

laptanu "tainted" jB with blood etc.; < laptu I 

laptanu "turnip-coloured" jB lex. of stone; 

< laptu II 

laptu(m) I; f. lapittu "touched, affected" Bab., 
NA [TAG] of limb "injured"; animal, wood 
"affected" by disease, insects; of omen 
"unfavourable"; of lyre "struck, played"; 

< lapatu 

laptu(m) II, liptu "turnip" Bab., NA 
[LU.UB.SAR] also lex., med. lapat armanni (a 
plant); > laptanu; — » labtu 

lapu — ► liapum 

laputtu(m), luputtu ~ "lieutenant; overseer" 
OAkk, Bab., OA [NU.BANDA/BAN.DA] a milit- 
ary officer; also as epith. of deities, rulers; 

laqahu "to take" Am.; < W.Sem.; = lequ II 

laqalaqa — » laqlaqqu 

laqdnum — ► lakanum 

laqatu(m) "to gather up, glean" G (a/u, NA pres. 
ilaqqut) of humans, animals "pick up, collect" 
clods, seeds, flour, animals; human tears; of 
bees "gather" honey; "take away by force, 
subdue" enemies, descendants etc. D ~ G 
"gather together hastily" commodities, troops 
etc.; "plunder, strip" house Dtn iter, (or pi. 
obj.?) S caus. of G "cause to collect, gather up" 
N pass, of G "be taken away by force, 
destroyed"; > laqtu; liqtu; laqitu, Idqittu; 
laqqatum; luquttum; malqatu 

laqa'u "to suffer" NA; < Aram. 

laqd'u — » also lequ II 

laqbum — » lakbum 

Ld-qepu — ► qipu 1 

laqianu "buyer" MA; < lequ II 

laqittu(m) "female collector" OB of grain; of 

clods; < laqdtu 
laqitu(m) in /. kilurbdni(m) "clod-collector" O/jB 

[lO.LAG.RI.RI.GA]; < laqdtu 
laqlaqqatu — » laqlaqtu 
laqlaqqu, laqalaqa, raqraqqu "stork" jB [RAG. 

RAG.MUSEN; A.RAG.MUSEN]; also desig. of 

laqlaqtu, laqlaqqatu (a skin complaint) jB med., 

on head 
laqpum — ► lakbum 

laqqatum "gatherer" OAkk as PN; < laqdtu 
laqqiqu (a stone) jB lex. 
laqqum mng. unkn. OB lex., desig. of person 
laqqu — » also lakku 
laqtu "gathered, gleaned" jB of seed; transf. 

"destroyed"; < laqdtu 
laqtum ? mng. unkn. OB 
laqu — ► lequ II 
laqu — ► llqu I 
laradu — » lardu 
larandu (a big cat) jB 
lardu, laradu (a grass, Nardus) j/NB, NA 

[U.KI.KAL.m.RI/RI(.IN)] in field, as drug, as 

soap; — » herinum 
larindu — ► lurmum 
laripu (a linen garment) NB 
larsinum, larsinnu f. "hoof O/jB of animal; of 

pig, as drug; OB lex. sa larsindtim "club- 
laru(m) "branch, twig" O/jB, MA [PA] of plant; 

as ornamental design; ext., in sheep "branch" of 

rib, of vein 
larum — » leru 

larussu mng. unkn. jB in larus tdmti "sea /." 
lasamu(m) "to run" Bab., M/NA G («/«) [KAS4] 

of god, human; of animal, bird; "gallop"; "serve 

as a runner" NA, of army service Gtn 

[KAS4.KAS4] iter., of demons, animals S caus. 

OB lex.; > lasmu; lismu; lassamu, lussumu; 

lasimu(m) 1. "swift" of horses, knees (birkd) jB 

2. "runner, courier" Bab., NA [OB LU.KAS4.E; 

later (LU.)KAS4] as official; also as PN; d L. (a 

deity); < lasdmu 
lasmu(m) "speedy" M/NA, jB [KAS4] of animal; 

of feet; < lasdmu 




lasqum, lasqu (a kind of pastureland)? Mari, 
MB, MB(Ass.) 

lassamu "speedy, nimble" NA of feet; < lasdmu 

lashu, lahsii "gum(s)" jB; /. saplu "lower g." 

lasi — » lassu I 

laslasu "valueless" NA of words; < lassu II 

lasqu — ► lasqum 

lassu I, NA also lasuli "(there) is not, are not" 
Ass., occas. Bab.; OA klma emdru lassuni "as 
there are no donkeys", 2 f. stat. lassudti; NA 
niqittaka lu lassu "may you have no anxiety", 
summa ibassi summa lassu "whether there is 
or not", absol. lassu "no!"; <ld + isu 

lassu(m) II "absent; alien"? OA, O/jB; > lassutu; 

lassutu (response that there is not) MA; 
< lassu II 

lasu (part of body) jB lex. 

lasu — > lassu I; la'su I 

lasu I "to knead" Bab. G («) [SILA M (=SID)] 
dough, clay etc.; > llsu 

lasu II "to lick"? jB lex.; > melestu 

la'su I, lasu (a copper ore) jB lex. 

la'su II "polluted" jB; < la'dsu 

lataku(m) "to try out, test" G (a/u) food, drink; 
animal, person; opinion, mathematical exercise; 
"question" s.o.; "be circumspect"; jB mag. 
saman I. (a type of oil) D ~ G "test"; 

> latku; litku, litiktu; maltakum, maltaktu 
latdnu — ► lamutdnu 

latd'u — ► letu II 

latku(m) "tested, checked" jB, NA of textile, 
metal, drug; < latdku 

lattu (a container of standard capacity) NA for 

latu — ► letu 

latu — ► lltu II 

latu(m) "to confine, keep in check" Bab., NA 
G (w) with bridle, stock; of animal "wrap itself 
round"; of god "encircle" world; of ring 
"enclose" enemy; "bind up" weapons D ~ G 
"encircle, enclose" world, enemy; > lltu I, lltutu; 

la'u — > kardnuA 

la'u(m) "small child; baby(ish)" OA, O/jB 
[LU.TUR] as adj. and subst.; OB as PN, and 
fPN La'ltum; of reed; > la' is; — ► laku I 

la"upum I "wrapped in cloth" OA of textiles; 

la"upum II D "to wrap in cloth" OA; 

> la"upum I 
lautdnu — ► lamutdnu 
lawa'um — ► lawum II 

Idwirdnu — > Id'iridnu 

lawitum "encirclement, siege" OB in dl lawltika 
"city you are besieging"; < lawum II 

lawum I, lamu "besieged" OB of land; Nuzi 
"fenced" of threshing floor; < lawum II 

lawum II, lamu, OAkk, OA lawa'um, M/NA 
labd'u, labu "to surround; besiege" G (///; NA 
perf. assibi) [NIGIN; NIGIN] 1. "surround, en- 
circle" with (= ace, also ina), with 
wall, ornament, mag. with lime, flour, astr. with 
halo (tarbdsa) 2. "encircle, besiege" city, 
enemy etc. 3. "wrap up" in cloth, string etc. 

4. "go round" in survey; in cult; of animals 

5. Nuzi of witness "walk round (the land of)" 
s.o. 6- NB "keep company" with (= itti) 1. of 
part of liver, weather, incense "turn round, veer 
round" Gtn iter, of demon "continually 
encircle" s.o.; of part of liver "repeatedly be 
wound round" Gt jB "be wound round (each 
other)", stat. (tilmi) "is surrounded" 
D "surround"; OA "wrap" S [Nuzi NIGIN 
(.MES)] "encircle" building with brickwork, 
wall, ornament; "cause to besiege"; "make" s.o. 
"walk round", Nuzi "survey" (field); NB 
"bring by circuitous route" N 1. "be besieged" 
2. OA "embrace one another"; > lawum I, 
labltu, lawitum; lamu; liwitum, Umu II, limutu; 
muselwu; nalbetu; nalbdn; talmitu 

lazdnu — > lezenu 

lazazu "to endure, persist" jB G (pres. ilazzaz) 

[zal(.ZAL)] of rains; illness Gtn ~ G; > lazzu, 

lazzis; luzzuzum; lezu II 

lazzis "persistently" jB [ZAL-/i]; < lazzu 

lazzu "enduring, persistent" M/NB, NA 

[ZAL.ZAL] of rain, injury, illness; < lazazu; 

> lazzis 

le — > kardnu 4 

le'dmu — > lemu 

le'd'um — ► le'ii 

lebenu — ► labdnu 

leberutu — > labirutu 

lebinu — ► Idbinu 

lebu — ► labA 

lebu — ► libu; li'bu 

le'ebu — ► la'dbu 

lehebu — > lahdbu 

lehemu "to consume" Am., j/NB G (///) food or 

lehemu — > also lahdmu I 
le'is jB in la le'is "like an incompetent"; < le'u 
leku, lequ "to go" G jB lex. 




leku(in), Idku "to lick (up)" O/jB G (pres. ile/dk) 
of person, animal D of cow "lick" hide; 

> maldku V 
lememu — » lamdmu II 

lemenu(m), Ass. lamdnu(m) "to be(come) bad" 
G (/'//; stat. lemun; NA pret. also ilmun) [yUL] 
"become" (stat. "is") "unsatisfactory", "unfav- 
ourable", "unlucky"; of heart, person "be 
malevolent", "become angry" towards (= dat.) 
Gtn of heart "repeatedly become angry" Gt stat. 
"is very angry, malevolent" D 1. "make" 
"unfavourable" e.g. word, fate 2. "do evil, treat" 
s.o. "badly" 3. "trouble, burden" s.o.'s heart, 
o.s. Dtn OB "repeatedly trouble" s.o.'s heart 
Dt "become angry with one another" 
St "become hostile to one another" SD jB 
"make difficult"; > lemnu, lemnis, lemuttu, 
lemuttanu; lemmenu; lumnu, lumndnu, 
lumnatta; lummunu, lummuttum; nelmenu 

lemmenu "very bad" jB; < lemenu 

lemmu — » lemu 

lemnis, OA, OB lamnis "badly" Bab., OA; esp. 
/. epeldsu(m) "to treat badly"; < lemnu 

lemnu(m), OAkk, O/MA also lamnu(m); f. 
Ie/amuttu(m) "bad" [yUL] person, demon, 
animal; illness, curse etc.; day, wind, word, 
action; of taste or smell; as subst. (pi. also 
lemnu) "evil person, enemy"; mimma lemnu 
"all that is evil", also as demon [N1G.HUL]; 

< lemenu; > lemuttu, lemnis 

lemu(m) I "to consume" O/jB, Mari G (e/e) food 

and drink 
lemu(m) II "to be unwilling" OB, Bogh. G stat. 

only lemi/u "is unwilling"; > lemu; — » mud'um 
lemu, lemmu "disobedient (one)" M/jB; 

< lemu II 

lemu — » lamu; leu 

lemu(m), OAkk la'dmum, NA le dmu'- "to 
consume, eat and drink" G (e; OAkk pres. 
tala"am) of human, of lamb; jB akla u sikara 
Id Hem "should not consume bread or beer" 

lemuntu — » lemuttu 

lemuttanu "scoundrel" NB; < lemuttu 

lemuttu(m), lemuntu(m), Ass. usu. lamuttu(m) 
"evil, wickedness" [yUL- ; MUNUS.yUL] often 
pi. le/amne/dtu (OB also lenneti), of bad 
intentions, words, actions; OA /. aldkum "to 
intend, plot harm"; "misfortune" of weather, 
flood etc.; Bab. bel I. "adversary"; OB lex. sa I. 
"evildoer"; issur I. (a bird, owl); < lemnu; 

> lemuttanu 
lennetu — » lemuttu 

lepu — » llbu; lipium; llpu 

lequ I "adopted" jB lex.; < lequ II 

lequ(m) II, laqu(m), OAkk, Ass. laqd'u(m) "to 
take, take over" G (e/e) [TI; SU.TI; SU.BA.AN. 
Tl(.MES)] 1. "take hold of weapon, earth etc., 
"take delivery of animal 2. "be in receipt of, 
take over" goods, money, ground, slave, bribe, 
document 3. "receive" share, ration, bequest 
4. "take away with o.s., take off gift, person; 
vent, "bring, fetch" 5. "take away, carry off 
booty, captives etc. 6. idioms: "adopt" child, 
brother; "take" as wife, for slave; qdtlqdtdti PN 
I. "stand surety for PN"; of planet kakkaba leqdt 
"contains, absorbs star"; parsa/l I. "perform 
ritual(s)"; of part(s) of body sdra leqe/d 
"suffers from draught; from wind" 7. "accept" 
abstr. obj., prayer, wish; judgement; name; 
office, function; math, "take" number etc.; — » 
setutu 8. OB "get to know" 9. Am. also G 
pass, forms 10. Ug. in sa laqe isdti "fire tongs" 
Gtn iter, of G D Ass. ~ G pi. obj. 
S caus.; esp. of G 7 "cause to take office, 
appoint" s.o. N pass, of G 1-5 Ntn iter. OA; 
> leqii I; lequ; Idqidnu; liqutu; luqu; luqutum; 
melqetu; — » laqdtyu 

lequ — » also leku 

lequ "foster father" O/jB; < lequ II 

leru, llru , OA Idr(um) (a gold paste) j/NB, OA, 
NA measured by weight 

lesu — » Usu 

letu I "split, divided" jB lex. of wood, reed; 
< letu II 

letu(m) II, latu, MA(Ug.) latd'ul "to split" 
Bab., MA ? G (e/e) part of body; stat. of parts 
of liver "are split"; "divide" into portions 
D "shatter" skull, legs, mountain, stone N OB 
"be divided" ana Una "in two"; > letu I; lutu 

letu(m), lltu f. "cheek; side" Bab., MA [TE] 
1. "cheek" /. mahdsu(m) "to slap"; sdrat I. 
'cheek-hair', i.e. "beard"; /. nadu(m) 'to drop 
o.'s cheek' i.e. "give o.'s attention" to, also "be 
careless" 2. transf. "side" of parts of entrails; of 
building, wall, gate 3. M/jB as prep, ina I. 
"beside", ana I. "to" s.o.'s "presence", adi I. 
"up to" s.o., istu I. "from" s.o.; > ellet 1 ; — » 
lltu I 1 

letu — » also lltu I 

letu -► lutu 2 

letu — » lltu II 

le'u(m), OAkk, OA le'd'um, MA la'd'u "to be 
able, powerful" G (///, e/e) (-► GAG §106t) 
[ZU; in PNs also DA, A.gAl] 1. after (occas. 
before) infin. "be able" to do, eberam ul 
il'u "they were unable to cross"; before subst. 




"be competent to do, master"; absol. "be able", 
also with second vb.; NA, NB(Ass.) of king, 
god ki sa Ha' 'uni "as he chooses" 2. "be (more) 
powerful" than s.o. (= ace), ina dinim 
ile"isunuti "he defeated them in the lawsuit"; 
"gain power over" s.o. (= ace.) R Mari Gtn 
iter, of G 1 OB Gt OA "be competent, capable" 
with respect to S OB of gods "give power 
to, empower"; >le"u, lets, le'utu; lltu I, lltdnti; 
tele' u, telltu I, teliitu'- 

le'u(m), leyu, lu "board" [GIS.ZU; GIS.DA; GIS.LE. 
Us(.UM)] 1. "(writing-)board" of wood infilled 
with wax; DN nds I. "holding a writing-board", 
/. sa baldti "b. of life" 2. "(wooden) board" of 
door, chariot, plough; "sheet, plaque" of metal 

le'u(m), OAkk Id'ium, OB also leyum, NB also 
lemu; MA f. Id'ittu "powerful, competent" 
[A.GAL; in PNs also DA, ZU] of deity, king; of 
worker, doctor "competent"; + gen. "skilled in", soldiers le'ut qabli "skilled in battle"; in 
PNs, of deity, father, brother; Id I. "weak, 
powerless"; <le'u;> lets, le'utu 

le'utu(m), OB also leyutum "competence, skill, 
power" Bab., NA [A.gAl- ; ZU- ] "power" of 
god, king; "victory" in lawsuit; "skill" of 
craftsman, scribe; Id I. "incompetence"; < leu 

leyu — » leu 

leyum — » le'G 

leyutum —* le'utu 

lezenu, Ass. lazdnu "to ridicule, jeer (at)" Bab., 
NA G (ili) person; "speak" word 
"slanderously" D ~ G; < aluzinnu denom.? 

lezu I "persistent" MB of injury; < lezu II 

lezu II "to continue, be persistent" jB G (u/u); 
> lezu I; — » lazdzu 

liapum, lapu mng. unkn. G; D 

lidru — ► tidlu 

lidtu — ► lltu II 

li'atu "saliva"? Bogh. lex. 

libanu — ► labidnum 

libaru(m), lipdru, lupdru, lipir (a fruit (tree)) 
OA, O/jB, Elam, Bogh. [GIS.MI.PAR/PAR4] 

libaru-susi 'let them catch sixty' (a plant) jB 
lex.; — ► bdru I 

libbanu "inside" Mari, M/jB [SA-n«] adv. 
"within", of region, halo, lung, also ana /.; + 
pron. suff. libbdnussu "within it"; < libbu + 

libbatu(m) pi. tant. "rage, fury", esp. /. malu "to 
be filled with anger, angry" against s.o. 
(= gen.), libbdtini Id imalla "let him not be 
angry with us"; < labdbu 

libbdtu — ► narbdtu 2 

libbilibbi — ► libbu B 3; llpu 2 

libbu(m) "inner body; heart" [sA] A. 1. "inner 
body, internal organs" of human, animal 
"womb", sa l.-sa "foetus"; sit libbi "offspring" 
of father 2. "heart" of human; of animal, in 
extispicy, as meat portion; (parts — ► duru I 3, 
papdnu 2, resu) 3. /. Ini "iris"? 4. as seat of 
emotions, thought, memory "mind, mood, 
spirit"; joyful, angry, sorrowful; of loyalty — ► 
gamdru II Gt, D; peaceful, fearful; ina I. basu 
"to be in" s.o.'s "thoughts", ina I. sakdnu "to 
take to heart" 5. as seat of will, summa I. "if it is 
wish of s.o., kl I. "according to wish" of s.o., 
asar 1. "where" s.o. "wishes"; mutu libbisa "a 
husband of her choosing"; Id I. ili(mma) 
"against god's will; alas", OB ul libbi "I don't 
want to"; NB ina hud libbisu "of his own free 
will" 6. OA pi. "attitude" towards s.o. 
7. "courage", /. naddnum, I. sakdnu "to 
encourage", /. nasdhu(m) "discourage" 

B. transf. 1. "content" of letter, statement 
2. "interior" of city, palace, sea etc., "pith" of 
reed 3. "heart" (= various parts) of date palm, 
NB also lib(bi) libbi 4. (an ornament) of metal, 
stone 5. NA akal I. (a pastry)? 6. OB "weft" 

C. in prep, expressions 1. ina I. (after sa 
without ina) [sA.BA for ina libbi(sa/su)]; sa 
libbi(salsu) "in(side), within" of space, time; 
"from among"; "from out of; OA "incumbent 
on"; NA, NB "by means of, "in exchange for"; 
NB oath "by" DN; NA "at the time of s.o. 
2. loc.-adv. (usu. libbu) "from out of, 
belonging to" group, larger quantity; NB "in the 
same way as, just like" 3. ana I. "into, 
towards"; "as addition to"; "against, in 
opposition to"; "on account of, because of; NB 
"(in exchange) for" 4. ultulistulissu I. "from 
(out of)"; of time "since" 5. adi I. "until"; "as 
far as" D. adv. etc. 1. ina I. "in there, therein" 
2. "from out of it/them" 3. NB ina libbi Id 
"because of the fact that" 4. ana l.(-ma) "to the 
interior"; > libbanu 

libbu -► libbu C 2 

libbuhu — ► ellabbuhhu 

libbursu (part of a house) Nuzi 

libittu(m), Am. also labittu; j/NB st. constr. also 

libnat "mudbrick" [SIG4]; coll. "mudbrick(s)"; 

also of metal, dung, "block" of pressed figs; 

"brickwork" (often libnatu), "mudbrick 

building"; < labdnu 
libitu — ► liwitum 
liblibbi — ► libbu B 3; llpu 2 
libnat(u) — ► libittu 




libnu, lipnu in libin appi "stroking of the nose" 

M/jB, gesture of submission; < labdnu 
libnu — » also labnu II 
libsu(m) "raiment" OB(poet.); < labdsu 
libu, llleblpu adj. mng. unkn. Bogh., jB of hide 
li'bu(m), lllebu, la'bu(m), labu (a serious disease 

with associated fever) O/jB [DIH]; also /. (sibit) 

sadi; as demon; ext. (a spot affected by /. 

disease); < la'dbu 
lidanu "chick, young bird" M/NB of ducks etc.; 

MA, jB "child (of a slave girl)"; < lidu 
licldtu — » littu I 
liddananu (a plant) jB lex. 
liddatu — » littu I 
liddu — » lidu 
lidis "day after tomorrow" NA in ina I., illldis; — » 

allltis; ullltis 
lldu(m), liddu "child, offspring" O/jB of humans; 

< walddum; > liddnu 
ligimu(m), nigimmu, nagimu "kernel, sprout" 

O/jB of palm tree, barley; transf. of humans, 

animals; jB illigimiya "in my youth"; < Sum. 
liginnu(m) f. "(type of) tablet" Bab., NA 

[(IM.)GfD.DA] Mari in administrative context; 

j/NB, NA "school exercise tablet", /. qabu "to 

recite text"; < Sum. 
ligittu "crooked furrow" jB lex.; < Sum. 
lignu (or liknu) (a wooden container)? NA 
lihburu (a garden herb) NB 
lihmu "muddy water" Bogh. lex.; — » luhdmum 
lihsu "whisper(ing)" jB, NA as prayer, malicious 

rumour; < lahdsu 
Likkase (a month) OB(Alal.) 
liknu — » lignu 

liktirik (a garment) OB(Susa) 
lila "in the evening" M/jB; < Ilium 
llldtu — » lllidtum 
lildu — » lisdum 

lilen in in lilen "in the evening" Mari; < Ilium 
liliatum, llldtu(m) pi. tant. "evening" OAkk, Bab. 

[KIN.SIG]; also "evening (meal)"; llliattam, 

lllatan "in the evening"; warah LlldtimlLillidtim 

(1st month) Mari; < Ilium 
lilibu (part of horse-trappings) jB lex., of leather 
liligu 1. also lalikku "colocynth" jB 

[UKUS.LI.LI.Gl] 2. (a bird) jB [LI.LI.GI.MUSEN]; 

lilissu(m); pi. m. & f. "kettledrum" Bab., NA 

[LILIZ; also LI.LI.iz] of bronze, esp. rit.; < Sum. 
lilium, lilu; f. lilitu(m), and ardat lili (storm 

demons) O/jB [lilu = LIL.LA.EN.NA/NU; LU.LIL. 


ardat lili = KI.SIKIL.LIL.lA; KI.SIKIL.UD.DA. 

KAR.RA]; singly, pi. (lilu), in pair {lilu lilltu), 
and as triad; OB ina sit lilim "at the rising of the 
/."; < Sum.; — » kiskilili; wardatum 

lillanitu (a plant) jB lex.; < lilliannum 

lilldnu — » lilliannum 

lillatu — » lillu I 

lilliannum, lilldnu; pi. f. "stalk with ripe ears" 
O/jB [SE.LILLAN]; > lillanitu 

Lillidtum — » lllidtum 

lillidu(m); f. lillittu(m) "offspring" 1. of humans, 
coll. "children, offspring"; of animals 2. as age 
category, of sheep "(recently sexually) mature" 
[SILA4.GUB; f. KIR] 1 .GUB], of pigs; < walddum 

lillu(m)I; f. lillatu "idiot" OAkk, OA, O/jB 
[(LU/MUNUS.)LIL] also as PN; Nuzi, of horse; 

> lillatu 

Lillu(m) II Bab. 1. (a demon) 2. (a god) 

lillutu "idiocy" M/jB in /. mluku "to reduce to 

idiocy, incapacitate"; < lillu I 
lilum (desig. of a sheep)? Mari 
lilu — » lilium 

lilum "evening, night" OB; > Ilia, lilen, lllidtum 
11m; nom. llmu, NA also li'mu; also Pre-Sarg.; pi. 

llml "thousand" [LIM] OA 10 lime; OB, Alal. 

occas. abbr. to //; NA adu (1) li'misu "1,000 

times", also jB ana lima; NA rab 1 llm "captain 

of 1,000" 
lima — » lumd 
limittum; pi. limddtum ~ "thing(s) notified, 

promised item(s)" OB in pi. of gifts; < lamddu 
limltu — » liwltum 
llmu(m) I, limmu "eponym (of year)" Ass.; also 

"eponymate", ina sane limmisu "in his second 

eponymate"; OA bit I. "office of the eponym 

llmu II "environs"? NB of town; < lawum II 
llmu III, li'mu "family, tribe" jB lex. 
llmu — » also llm 
li'mu — » llm; llmu III 

limutu ~ "encirclement"? jB lex.; < lawum II 
lipdnu — » labidnum 
lipdru — » libdru 
llpi llpi — » llpu 2 
lipiltu — » lipistu 
lipir — » libdru 

lipiskigu (an internal disease) Ug.; < Sum. 
lipissatu "female genitalia" jB 
lipistu(m), lipiltu O/jB, NA [(UZU.)NU] 

"male genitalia" 2. "sperm" of human; jB lex. 

transf. "offspring" 3. (a sperm-like secretion) in 

body of human, sheep 4. (a part of the exta) 

5. (a plant) 




lipittu(m) 1. ~ "work-levy" OA 2. (a disease)? 

M/jB; < lapdtu G 4.6 
lipium, lipu(m), llpum, lepu "(animal) fat; 

tallow" Bab., NA [(UZU.)i.UDU] in sacrificial 

animal; as ingredient, commodity; material of 

figurine; /. magarri "axle-grease"; /. ameluti 

"human fat"; of plants; — » lupu 
lip llpi — » llpu 2 
lipnu — » libnu 
lippu "wrapping" M/NA, jB, of cloth; med. 

"tampon; wad" of wool; < lapdpu 
liptanu "warty" MB, name of horse; < liptu 
liptu(m); pi. f. [(NfG.)TAG] 1. "undertaking, job", 

"offering", in PNs "creation" of DN 2. in /. 

qdtill "handiwork", (ritual) "undertaking" 

3. "attack" of illness; /. ilim, I. Erra "plague" 

4. lipit napistim "throat-grasping", i.e. treaty (— » 
lapdtu G 3) 5. "mole, wart" on human, animal, 
entrails; < lapdtu; > liptanu 

liptu — » also laptu II 

lipu — » lipium 

lipu(m), lepu "descendant, scion" [NUNUZ] 
1. MB /. rebu "great-great-grandson"; jB la lip 
sarri "not of royal descent"; pi. "descendants"{i) llpi, lib(bi)libbi [SA.BAL.BAL] "great- 
grandson", "descendant" of king, scribal family; 
of Samas, as son of Sin; < elepu 

llpu — » also libit; lipium 

liqtu(m) "gathered material; selection" Bab., 
M/NA desig. of quality of gold, textiles, OB 
oil; "gleanings" of grain, usu. pi. f.; liqit supri 
"nail parings"; "(textual) excerpts", pi. m. & f.; 
MA rab liqtdni (an official); OB as PN 
"Foundling"; Nuzi for — » liqutu; < laqdtu 

liqu(m) I, Idqu in /. pi, also aliq pi, eldq pi 
"palate" O/jB 

liqu II "steering paddle"? NB; < Aram. 

liqutu(m) "adopted child" O/jB; < lequ II 

lirisa (a prof.) OB(Elam) 

liru — » leru 

lisakku — » lisakku 

lismu(m) "running, race" O/jB, NA esp. in cult; 
sa I. "runner"; < lasdmu; — » lisnu 

lisnu mng. uncert. NA = lismu ? 

lissusu (a plant) MA; seed of /. 

lisakku (or lisakku) mng. unkn. jB in mdmlt I. 
"oath by /." 

lisanu(m) f. "tongue, language" [(UZU.)EME] 
1. "tongue" of human, animal (pi. m.); as 
instrument of prayer, malice; /. sakdnu "to 
engage in discussion" 2. "language"; jB, NA 
bel I. "one who knows a (foreign) language" 
3. "speech, statement"; sa I. "informer, 

informant"; Nuzi "judicial deposition"; jB 

"synonym list" 4. transf. "tongue (of flame)"; 

"blade" of implement 5. M/jB, NA /. kalbi 

"hound's-tongue, Cynoglossum" [u.EME.UR. 

GI7], NB mul /. k. (a star) 
lisdum, lildu "cream" O/jB 
listdhu — » siltdhu 
lisu, NA lesu "dough" M/NB, NA [NIG. 

SILAh(=§ID).gA] of emmer; ina I. kuppuru "to 

cleanse with dough"; figurines of d.; Am., 

Bogh. "(fruit) paste"; < lasu I 
li'su "desecration" NA; < la'dsu 
litanu "victorious" MB in PN; < lltu I 
litbusu "clothed; clothing"? jB lex.; < labdsu Gt 
liti, litum (desig. of kind of silver) OA 
litiktu(m) "test" OA, O/jB; esp. (a measuring 

vessel); < latdku 
litis mng. unkn. NA 

litku "test, means of testing" jB; < latdku 
littu(m) I, liddatu; pi. liddtu "descendant, 

progeny" OAkk, M/jB, NA of god; king etc.; 

< walddum 

littu(m)II; pi. littetu(m) "stool" Bab., M/NA 

littu(m) III ~ "old age" Bab.; > littatu 

littu — » also lltu I.II 

littu (a net) jB lex.; < Sum. 

littutu "(extreme) old age" j/NB, NA /. aldku, 
kasddu, sebu "to live to, reach, be satisfied with 
extreme old age"; < littu III 

litum — » liti 

litu(m) I, littu, Bogh. also letu; M/jB pi. lltdtu 
"power, victory" [NfG.E] 1. "sphere of 
authority", OA commercial, OB administrative 
"province"; Mari "(army) corps" (or letu ?) 

2. "power, strength" from deity, esp. in PNs 

3. "victory", /. sakdnu "to establish victory" 
over (= eli); lltdt sarrutlya "my royal victories"; 
ina I. "victoriously, in triumph"; < le'u; > lltdnu 

litu(m) II, littu; pi. lidtu, latu "cow" [AB; GU4.AB; 

NB also Ab.GAL; pi. (GU4.)AB.yi.A, AB.GU4. 

yi.A etc.]; pi. also "cattle" (coll.); < IV um I 
lltu — » also letu 
littu mng. unci. jB 
littu -» also lltu I-III 
lltu(m) I, littu "hostage" O/jB, NA; liter. 

'confined', Bogh. pi. litutu; as subst., pi. lltu; 

< latu; > litutu 

lltu II, littu, letu; pi. littetu (a garment or cloth) 
M/NA, M/NB as bed covering; white 

lltu III, littu "sketch, drawing" NA 

litutu "role as hostage" M/jB(Ass.) ana I. sabdtu 
"to take as hostage"; < lltu I 

Il'um I 



Il'um I, lu(m) "bull" O/jB offered, slain, eaten; 
also as wooden figure; heavenly "bull"; lex. 
also = lion; > litu II 

Il'um II (a word for food) OB 

liwd — ► luma 

Iiwitum, M/NB limitu, M/NA libltu 1. OA 
"packaging, wrapping" 2. "circumference, rim" 
of eye, armour, chariot 3. "limits, extent, area" 
of field, building 4. jB ina I. umimma "within 
the compass of one day" 5. "enclosure" round 
field, garden; igdr I. "enclosure wall" 
6. "environs" of town, palace, canal; M/jB 
kings, lands in "surrounding area" 7. NA 
"entourage" of king; < lawum II 

Iu, in prec. lu-, li-, Ass. also la- "let it be; or" [HE] 
A. ptcl. expressing wish 1. + pret. = prec. (only 
OA before I pers. pi., — ► i) "let me, you, him" 
etc. do; with interrog. force "should I, 
he ...?" etc., concessive "even if...", potential 
"should he ..., then ..." 2. occas. + perf. 3. + 2 
pers. pres., lu tahassas "you should think" 4. + 
stat. and forms of izuzzum, edu II etc. 5. in 
nominal clauses, atta lu mutima "may you be 
my husband", NA hannute lu ina pdnika "may 
these be before you" 6. M/NA lu la in proh., + 
pres., + stat. 7. in unfulfilled condit. clauses, + 
pret. or stat., lu Ide "had I known" 8. in 
concessive clauses, + pret., perf., stat., lu 
tattadnd "even though you have given" B. ptcl. 
expressing affirmation 1. lu + pret. "verily", 
usu. in roy. inscr. 2. in oaths, asseverations (— ► 
GAG §185), + subjunct. (OAkk, OA); + 
indie; + subst. C. "or", freq. u lu; (u) lu ... (u) 
lii "either ... or" [HE ... HE]; between substs. 
and clauses D. Am. "if; > luman; lume 

lu — ► kardnu 4; le'u; Il'um I 

luddu — ► ladu 

luamum "to harangue" s.o. OA G («) Dtn 
"repeatedly harangue"? 

lu'astu(m) "dirty straw" Bab. lex.; < la' dm 

lu'dtu — ► lu"u I 

lubadu (or lubdtu) (a disease) jB 

lubalakkum ~ "man on duty" OB lex.; < Sum. 

lubdnu — ► lupdnu 

lubartum "garment" OB; < lubdru 

lubaru(m), O/MA luberu(m) "garment" 
[TUG.HI.A] freq. of linen; for god, for kalu 
priest: med., mag. "piece of cloth, rag"; bit I. 
"clothes chest" jB lex.; > lubartum; — ► labdru 

lubasu(m) "clothing" OA, O/jB; < labdsu 

lubdtu — ► lubadu 

lubbatum mng. unkn. OB 

lubbdtu — ► narbdtu 2 

lubbundu "brickwork" NB of lintel; < labdnu 

lubbunu "incense"? NB NA labbusu, pi. labbasute "clothed" 

j/NB, NA of unshorn sheep; "uniformed" of 

soldiers; < labdsu D 
luberu — ► lubdru 
lubkanu (oil used for lubrication)? jB lex.; 

< lubku 

lubku(m) "salve, lubricant" O/jB; napsalti I. 
"softening ointment"; NB pi. f. lubketi; 

< labdku 

lubru I (a kind of date palm) jB 

Iubru II (prof, desig.) Nuzi 

lubsu "clothing" jB; also "covering" of young 
reed; < labdsu 

lubultu — ► lubustu 

luburu mng. unkn. jB lex. in bit I. (a woolsack)? 

lubustu(m), later lubultu, NA lalubussu 
"clothing, garment" [SIK.BA; later TUG.HI.A] 
1. gener. "dress, outfit", "clothing allocation, 
ration" 2. specific "garment"; coll. "clothes", /. 
birmile "multicoloured clothing" 3. j/NB 
"(ceremony of) clothing (the images)", pi. 
lubusdletu 4. transf. sheep's "coat", door's 
"covering", footstool's "cover"; < labdsu; — ► 

lubusu(m) "garment", also "dress, outfit" 
(~ lubustu 1 ); NB = lubustu 3; < labdsu 

luddu mng. unkn. jB; — ► duqdu 

ludu(m) (desig. of afield) O/MB 

ludu — ► also lutu 

luduttu — ► lu'tu 

lugalara(us)su (a royal retainer) jB lex.; < Sum. 

lugsu — ► luksu 

Iugu (a door) jB lex. 

luhamu(m) "mud" OB incant. 

luhhu (part of entrails)? jB 

luhhum — ► also lu'u 

luhhumu "with long-haired coat" jB lex., of ox; 

< lahdmu I 
luhmu — ► luhummu 

Iuhsu(m) (a temple functionary) Mari, jB 

[]; <Sum. 
luhummu(m), lex. also luhmu "silt, mud" O/jB 
luhumu — ► lummu 
luhusinum (an object) OA 
lu"itu — ► lu"u 1 

lukanu in ina lukdnumma mng. unkn. NB 
lukkuku D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
lukkusu (or lukkusu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
luksu (or lugsu) - "conifer needles"? jB 





luksu (a garment) jB lex.? 

Iuku (a tree) Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 

lukurgallu "chief Iukur-priestess" jB lex.; 

lulanu "weakling" jB lex.; < lulu II or laldnu ? 
luliddnltu — ► luluddnitu 
lulimitu (a siege-instrument)? jB 
lulimmu — ► lullmu 

lulimtu (ajewel)? jB of elmesu stone, of gold 
lulimu(m), lulimmu "red deer, stag" Bab., NA 

[LU.LIM]; also a constellation [MUL.LU.LIM]; 

transf. of ruler, e.g. /. ersu = "wise prince" 
lulitum, lullitum mng. unkn. OB 
Iulftu "arrowhead" NB of iron, bronze; < Aram. 
luliu — ► lulu II 

lullakku (a beer vat) jB lex.; < Sum. 
lullitum — ► lulitum 
IuIIu(m) 1 "primeval man" O/jB [LU.U18/19.LU] 

created by gods; desig. of Ut-napisti; < Sum. 
lullu II D "to enrich, endow with plenty" M/NB, 

NA, land with luxuries, trees with fruit; < lain I 

denom.; > lullu III 
lullu III "luxurious, beautiful" M/jB; < lullu II 
lullu IV "false"? jB 
Lullubu —* Lallubu 
lullubutu (a plant) jB lex. 
lulluintum, lulluntu (a travel and battle garment) 

OAkk, Mari, jB 
lulmu "earring" jB; < Sum. 
lulu(m) I "plenty, luxury, splendour"? j/NB /. 

maliilmullu, sumallu "to be laden/load, fill with 

abundance, splendour" divine image, temple, 

ship; < laid I 
lulu(m) II, Ass. luliu(m) f. "slag"? Ass., O/jB 

[KU.GAN; KU.Am] of metals; NA of glass; 

< Sum.?; > lulanu 1 
lulu f. mng. unkn. OB 
luludanitu, luliddnitu (a stone) M/jB 
luludanu (a prof, desig.) jB lex. 
lulumtu, luluntu, luluttu (a plant) jB 
lulutu (an animal)? Am. in descr. of vessel 
lulutu — ► also alulutum 

luma, lima, liwd ptcl. mng. unkn. Bogh., jB lex. 
lumahhu 1. (a purification priest) jB [LU.MAH] 

2. also lummdhu - "chief, ruler" jB lex.; < Sum. 
lumakku — ► lummakku 
luman O/jB modal adv. 1. in /. Id "were it not 

for", /. Id kdti ... "but for you ..." 2. + vb. "if 

only ...!" 3. Bogh. I. ... I. ... "were it that ... or 

that ..." in unreal clause; < lu + -man 
lumasu, lumassu "constellation" j/NB [LU. 

MAS(- )]; also mul/mul/ • forming zodiac 

lume mng. unci. Ug.; phps. "would that ..." or 

"if perhaps ..."; — *lu 
lummdhu —* lumahhu 2 
lu(m)makku (a minor priest) O/jB lex. 
lummu(m) I (a small drinking-vessel) O/jB, NA 

[UTUL.TUR]; < Sum. 
lummu II D "to dissolve"? jB alum, wax, honey 
lummu — ► also lammu I 
lummu, luhumu (a spider or snail) jB [MUL.DA. 

lummudu; Ass. lammudu, pi. lammaduti 1. NA 

"taught" of words 2. jB lex. in Id I. "uninitiated" 

of calf (sexually), "untried" of plough; 

< lamddu 

lummunu(m), OA lammunum "very bad" OA, 
O/jB of man "very unfortunate, oppressed"; of 
road, fate; OA of copper, < lemenu D mng. unkn. jB comm. stat. of eyes 
lummuttum "misfortune" OB; < lemenu 
lumnanu "evilly inclined" jB; < lumnu + -an + -i 
lumnatta "evilly" jB [HUL-at-ta]; < lumnu 
lumnu(m) "evil, misery" [HUL] of evil action, 
thought towards s.o.; bel I. "adversary"; s.o.'s 
"evil plight"; /. amdru "to experience ill 
fortune"; /. libbi(m) [SA.yuL] "sorrow, misery", 
astr. "eclipsed state"; (a name of the planet 
Mars) [MUL.HUL]; < lemenu; > lumnatta; 
lupanu, lubdnu(m) (a terebinth) OAkk, jB 
lupdru — ► libdru 

lupnu(m) "poverty" O/jB; < lapdnu 
luppu(m); pi. m. & f. 1. O/jB. (a leather bag) 
[KUS.LU.UB] 2.jB lex. (a part of the scales); 
luppunum "very poor" OB lex.; < lapdnu 
lupputu; also f. lupputtu in subst. use "tainted, 
soiled" jB [SU.lAl], esp. of dirty bandages; 

< lapdtu 

Iupu mng. unkn. j/NB; (a fish), or = lipium ? 

luputtu — ► laputtu 

Iuqu ~ "(state of) hostage"? Am.; < lequ II 

luquma mng. unkn. NB 

luquttum "activity of gleaning"? OB; < laqdtu 

luqutum; pi. luqudtum "goods" OA, usu. in 
transit; < lequ II 

lurimd'u etc. — ► Iurmum 

lurmu(m) "ostrich" Bab., NA [ga/gA.nUh. 
MUSEN; GA.NA.MUSEN] pel I. "ostrich egg"; sa 
pel I. "ostrich-egg vessel" 

Iurmum, MA lurimd'u, lurinnu, lurinu; f. 
lurimtu(m), NB lularindu "pomegranate", as 
fruit; as tree, NB gapnu sa I. "branch of p."; as 
wood for tool; as decorative element, of 




camelian, silver; NB f. as fPN; var. of -♦ 

lurpianum, lurpdnu, lurpddu (a mineral)? O/jB 
lurrakkum; f. lurrakkitum (a culinary 

profession) Mari, OB lex. 
lursu (prof, desig.) OB(Susa) 
luru(m) "man with feminine voice"? O/jB 
lusan, OB lusanu (a musical instrument, or part 

lussumu "very fleet" NB as PN; < lasdmu 
lusanu — ♦ lusan 
lusmu mng. unkn. MA in bit I. 
lusii "grease" jB lex. 
luttu -* luttu 
lutu "twig" j/NB of apple, poplar etc., in 

ceremonies; < letu II 
lutu(m), lu'tu "debility; (a disease)" O/jB 

lu'tu, luduttu (a wooden implement) jB lex. 

lu'tu-* also lutu 

luttu(m), luttu(m) (a cup or bowl) O/jB, NA; 

lutu(m) 1. Bab. [GfR.ZU] (a dagger) 2.jB lex., 
also ludu, letu (a sharp part of a reed) 

lu'u(m), lufrtium "throat, oesophagus" O/jB of 
human, bird; blocked 

lu"u I; f. lu'utu, lu"itu "sullied, dirty" j/NB of 
person, hands, in ritual context; of street; f. pi. 
lu 'dtu in subst. use; < lu 'u II 

lu"u(m) II D "to sully, make dirty" Bab., esp. in 

cult Dt pass, of D; > lu"u I; malU II; tal'itu 
lu"umu adj. mng. unkn. jB 

luzzuzum mng. unkn. OB lex., desig. of man; 
< lazdzu 


-ma, also -me, -mu ptcl. and conj. {-me Am.; 
NA, NB rarely after e or im; NA before -ni (-* 
ayyakameni, matimeni); -mu NB, occas. jB, 
esp. after u) 1. to stress single words esp. pred. 
of nominal clause 2. "and" between main 
clauses or infin.s, NA rare (-♦ GAG §§123a, 
126, 158-60) 

ma "what!" ptcl. introducing and continuing dir. 
speech; "indeed", esp. expressing indignation; 
M/NA "this means:"; -♦ magana; muk I 

-ma interrog. ptcl. O/jB (-♦ GAG § 123b) 

ma'ddu -* mddu 

ma' 'altu -* mayyaltu 

ma" dlu — ♦ mayydlu 

ma'dru -* wdrum 

ma'assu — ♦ mddu 

ma"assu -* mayyaltu 

ma'attu -* mddu 

ma' da —* mddu 

madadu(m) I "to measure (out)" G (a/u) [Aga] 
"measure out, pay" grain, other dry and liquid 
commodities; "survey" field; border Gtn iter, of 
G Gt stat. "is balanced, equal" D = G; 
"measure" building, person; NA bird ene 
maddudu (NB ina birit irii muddudu) 'measure 
between the eyes', i.e., "give s.o. strict orders" 
S caus. of G "have measure out, pay" N of 
produce "be measured out"; fields "be 
measured, surveyed"; > middatu; mddidu, 
mddidutu; mindu II; namaddu I, namdattum, 
muddu 1 - 

madadu II NB G (///) ~ "to escape" (from = 
ace.); "avoid" ( = ace); < Aram. 

madagallum (a type of boat) OB; < Sum. 

madakku, maddku "(wooden) mortar" jB lex. 

kak m. "pestle"; (part of a loom); < dakdku I 
madaktu "(military) camp; expeditionary force" 

j/NB, NA m. sakanu, nadti "to make, pitch 

camp"; NB ana m. aldku "to take the field", 

(V0) dlik m. "conscript"; PIN Madaktu (in 

Elam); <ddku 
maddku -* madakku 
madallu(m) (or matallu(m)) 1. O/jB (a precious 

stone) 2. OAkk(Sum.) (a copper object) 
madalu "to preserve in salt" NA G (///), meat; 

> madlu; midlu; muddulu 
madananu —* madnanu 
Madanu(m), Manddnu DN "the Divine Judge" 

Bab. [ d DI.KUD] jB; also = Marduk, Enlil; 

< didnum 

madarum I ~ "chief, noble" Mari; > maddrutum 
madaru(m) II mng. unkn. O/jB om., med. 

G (i/i?) stat. (a condition of eyes) D stat. (a 

condition of exta); > midru W 
madarutum (status of a madarum) Mari; 

< madarum I 
madattu -* maddattu 

madbares "into the steppe" jB; < madbaru 

madbaru(m), mud(a)buru "steppe, desert" Mari, 
M/NB, NA; NA in PN; < W.Sem.? 

maddanum, manddnu (a bread basket) OB, jB 
lex.; < naddnu II 

ma(d)dattu(m), mandattu "payment, obligation" 
Ass., M/NB; OA (an allotment, a quota); Ass., 
Bogh., Ug. "tribute"; MB "delivery quota" of 
textiles; NB (compensatory payment to make 
up for lost work-time); NB(Nippur) "supple- 
mentary payment, commission"; < naddnu II 

maddatu —* middatu 




maddu — » mddu 

maddu in m. kussi(m) (part of the liver) OB; = 

mandu II 
madgaltu "observation tower, border post" MA, 

Bogh.; bel m. "commander of the border post"; 

< dagdlu 

madgalu "observation"? NA; < dagdlu 
madidu, mandidu "measuring official (for grain 

etc.)" M/NB, NA [HJ.(l.)AG]; NB as family 

name; < madddu I 
*madidutu, mandidutu "office of the measuring 

official" NB [LU.MAN.DI.DI- ]; < madddu I 
madis, M/NB also ma' dis "greatly, very" Bab., 

OA; OB m. umi "for many days"; < mddu 
madiya "pregnant"? NB; < Aram. 
madla'um, madlu(m) "bucket" OAkk, Bab.; 

< dalu II 

madlu "salted" NA; < maddlu 
madid — » madla'um 

madnanu, MB also madananu l.jB lex. 
"strength" 2. MB (type or part of chariot); 

< dandnu II 
madu — » medu 

madu(m), later also ma' du, mandu, NA maddu; 
f. mattu(m), ma'attu, NA also ma'assu "many, 
numerous, significant" [pi.A(.MES); MES]; f. pi. 
abstr. "much, many things"; m. pi. in lex. 
"plural" (sign, forms); ace. as adv. "very"; 

< mddu; > madis, ma' du, mddutu 
mddu — ► ma' du; mandu I 

madu(m), ma'ddu, OAkk, Bab. also middu(m) 
"to be(come) many, numerous" G (i; Hi) [yi.A] 
OAkk, OB in PNs; jB eli ... m. "become more 
than"; NA ina muhhi ... m. "become too many 
for" Gtn iter, of G S "make numerous, 
increase"; "make more numerous"; "do too 
much" N "become very much, become 
increased"; > mddu, madis, ma' du, mddutu; 
mu'uddu; nam'adum, namattu; sum'uttu; 

ma' du — » mddu 

ma'du, mddu "(large) quantity, wealth, 
abundance" j/NB; NB (a)ki made "very much"; 

< mddu + -i 
ma'du — ► also mandu I 
madussu (a plank)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

madutu "numerousness" Am. in ki(ma) maduti 
"very much"; < mddu 

magagu, maqdqu "to spread, stick out, protrude" 
M/NA, M/jB G (a/u) of beggar "hold out" the 
hand; "have cramps, spasms"; stat. "is tense"; 
of animals "cover, mate" Gtn iter, of G "have 
repeated cramps" D = G of limbs "stiffen, 
project", of penis "be erect"; NA "impale"? 

N lex. (nam(a)gugu) "suffer cramp"; 

> mangu II; mungu; mangdgu; namungatu; — ► 

magal "very (much), greatly" Bab., M/NA(lit.) 

magal la tu "parchment scroll" NB; < Aram. 
magallatu-karra "maker of parchment scrolls" 

NB; < Aram. + OPers. 
magallum (a big boat) Mari; < Sum. 
magana - "now; please" OB; < ma + gana ?; = 

magannu I (or makannu), magdnu "gift" Nuzi 

etc. also in PN; as Aram. lw. NA ina m., im- 

magdni "gratuitously, in vain", NB ana m. 

"gratis"; < Indo-Iran.; > magannutu I 
magannu II (a location)? MB(Alal.); > magan= 

nutu II 
magannutu I (or makannutu) "gift" MB(Alal.), 

Nuzi; < magannu I 
magannutu II mng. unkn. MB(Alal.); 

< magannu II 
magdnu — » magannu I 
magardnis — ► maqranis 
magarranu (a type of horse) MB 
magarru(m), Nuzi also mugarru "wheel" Bab., 

NA [GIS.UMBIN]; also "waggon, chariot"; 

< qardru ?; — ► mugerru 

maga(r)rum "travel provisions on a ship" OB 
[MA.GAR.RA]; < Sum. 

magaru(m) "to consent, agree" G (OA, OB, 
occas. jB a/u, later ulu, NA pret. immagur) 
[SE(.GA); AS] 1. stat. "is in agreement"; 
"allows, permits"; "is agreeable (to), convenient 
(for), suits (s.o.)"; hemerology, of day, time "is 
favourable" 2. "agree with" (s.o. = ace.) 3. after 
neg. "not consent" (to = ace. or ana), "disagree 
with"; NA and NB in hendiad. "refuse, be 
unwilling to" 4. OB of woman "be submissive, 
compliant, yield to (s.o.)" 5. of deity "hear, 
answer" a prayer, "grant" a request, also in 
PNs, PINs and names of buildings Gtn iter, of 
G Gt recipr. "agree with one another, settle on"; 
stat. "are in (mutual) agreement" [SE.SE.GA] 
D OA "bring to agreement, make agree"; jB 
"reconcile" Dt ? prob. Gtn S 1. OB "cause to 
agree" 2. "make ( agreeable" St OB "bring 
into harmony, reconcile" people, feelings 
N 1. OB "consent (to" 2. "agree" (with 
s.o. = isti, itti PN) 3. "reach, make an 
agreement" 4. "have (o.'s request) granted" 
5. Bogh. "receive, accept gladly" a present Ntn 
iter, of N OA, jB "be repeatedly acceptable"; 

> magru, mdgiru; migru; mitgdru, mitguru, 
mitgurtu; mundagru; tamgertum, tamgurtu 




magattu; pi. magatdta "scraper (for bricks)" 

NB; < Aram. 
maggalum — » mangdlu 
maggdrum — » maqqdrum 
maggu "tight, taut" MA, reins; < magagu 
magiku "provider" jB lex. 
magillu(m), magllu(m) OAkk, jB 1. (type of 

boat), barge 2. lex. (name of a mythical being) 
maginnu; pi. f. maginndta "(wide-brimmed 

Greek hat)" NB 
magirtum, migirtu "challenge, insult"; < gidru 
magiru(m) "submissive, compliant" Bab., OB 

also in PN [SE.GA]; Id m. "unobliging, 

uncooperative, unwilling"; < magdru 
maglsu (a type of boat) jB lex. 
Magmaru (a month) Ug.; < Ug. 
magrdnis — » maqranis 
magrftu(m) "spite(ful act), malice, abuse" Bab.; 

< geru 

magru 1. MA "willing" 2. M/NB "friendly, 
favourable", in PN [SE.GA]; of water, month; 

< magdru 

magru "insulting" O/jB lex.; < geru 
magsaru(m) Bab. 1. "superior strength" 2. (a 

battleaxe); also (part of the liver)?; < gasdru 
magu(m) mng. unkn., (a metal)? lex., OAkk ? 
magullaya (desig. of a group of villagers) NB; 

< magulu ? 

magulu (a big raft) jB [GIS.MA.GU.LA] to 
transport bull colossi ; < Sum. 

magurgurru "ark" M/jB; < Sum. 

magusu "magus, Magian" NB; < OPers. 

magzazu "shearing blade"? jB lex.; < gazdzu 

mahabbum (or mahappum) ( by a canal)? 

mahadum — » mahhatum 

mahahu(m) "to soak, steep (in liquid); dissolve 
in liquid" O/jB, M/NA G (a/u) [DIR] of earth, 
clay, excrement; clay figurines in urine; of 
plants; stat. of fog; "cause" eyes "to swell" 
(through rubbing) Gtn iter, of G D = G ? 
N pass, of G; > mihhu I, mihhatu 

mahalu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mahan (a type of wooden chest) Am.; < Eg. 

mahappum — ► mahabbum 

mahari "tomorrow" Am.; < W.Sem. 

maharis — » mahris 

maharis 1. OAkk "in order to receive" 2. jB "in 
order to confront"; < maharu + -is 

maharu — ► mahru I 

maharu(m) "to face, confront; oppose; receive" 
G (a/u, pret. NB also inhur, Ass. also ihhur) 
[IGI] 1. "oppose"; "face" (an enemy = ace.); 

"set o.s. against" wind; "dam up, impound" a 
river; of obstacle "obstruct, stand in s.o.'s way" 

2. "appeal to" (s.o. = ace.) judge, king, deity, 
also in PN 3. "receive, accept" goods, money, 
interest, ransom, tribute, present, also in PN; 
ana slmi, ana kaspi m. "buy", esp. naddnu u m. 
"do business"; "receive" defamation, slander, 
calumny; "answer" 7 a prayer, "receive" s.o.; 
"meet with" misfortune 4. "take upon o.s." bad 
omen, trouble etc. 5. "correspond, equal" in 
size, rank; also in PN; "please"; OB stat. inam 
m. "pleases the eye", NA ina pan PN mahir; 
"become attractive, pleasing" (for = ace.) 6.jB 
"compare with, equal"? Gtn iter, of G 
Gt recipr. of G — ► N, "attack each other"; astr., 
celestial bodies "enter conjunction" or "enter 
opposition"; O/jB of length, breadth etc. 
"become equal to each other", OB math. 
[IB.SA]; of horns of the moon "become 
proportionate, symmetric"; om., of signs 
"harmonize, agree"; "become square" D 1. as 
G 2 "appeal to" 2. "send, travel upstream" 

3. M/jB "drive against the wind" 4. "place, lay 
down opposite" 5. OA, jB "present, offer" 

6. OB(Susa) "make demands on, require"? 

7. "mix" ingredient into liquid glass Dtn iter, of 
D 5 "present again and again"; astr. "rise again 
and again"? S caus. of G [GABA.Rl] 1. "cause 
s.o. to meet (with)" trouble 2. "face" wind 
3. "receive" goods, money etc., "present" 
offerings [GABA.Rl] 4.jB "recite, recount" 
5. jB, NA "make equal" 6. NA "make 
proportionate (to)" good deed Stn OA "let 
receive again and again" St l.jB "oppose, 
confront" ( or s.o. = ace.) 2. "compare o.s. 
to, put o.s. on the same level with" 3. jB "equate 
with, put in the same category with" 4. "make, 
be equal (with one another)" height, depth 
5. math, "square" a number or length [NIGIN; 
IB.sA; MB UR.KA.E] N 1. pass, of G "be 
opposed"; of goods etc. "be accepted, received"; 
of prayers "be answered"; "be confronted" 
(with = ace.) 2. recipr. "meet one another, 
collide"; of interest "become equal to each 
other"; > mahru I; mehru I, mehru, mehrutu, 
mehertu, mehratum, mehretu; muhru; maharis; 
mahiru, mahiris, mahirtu; mdhiru, mdhirtu, 
mdhirdnu; mahhiru; muhhuru, muhhuris, 
muhhurtu; muhurrd'um; mihhuru; mithdru, 
mithdris, mithartu; mithurtu; namharu, 
namhartu, namharu; sumhurtu; tamharu, 
tamhdris, tamhartu, tamhiru 

maharu "tomorrow" MB(Ta'annak); < W.Sem. 




mahasu(m) "to beat; weave" G (a/a; NA perf. 
-» GAG §96h) [SiG; RA] 1. "beat" human 
being, animal, limb; idiomatic expressions OA 
qdtam m. "refuse to accept", Nuzi put PN m. 
"vouch for, guarantee"; "put in (fetters); 
wound, smite"; pan, pandt PN m. "defeat 
utterly"; of deity, demon "strike, inflict" with a 
disease 2. "drive in" object; "play, beat" musical 
instrument, toy; OA "smash, divide" silver, 
"cut" prices; "ram" a boat; "beat down" crops; 
"cut" reeds 3. "weave" textile 4. with 2 ace. 
mayydri m., ser'a(m) m. "plough" a field; 
"apply" colour, stamp to 5. qaqqad, res 
eqli m. "plough a (fallow) field"; "sprinkle" 
with liquid; qaqqada(m) m. "undertake work, 
process"; Nuzi of land "border on, abut"; OA 
"bring down" price Gtn iter, of G Gt (pret. 
imtahas, MB onwards imt/dahhes) "beat each 
other, fight" D [SiG.SlG] "beat, belabour; 
wound"; of animal tail "twitch"; Am. "cover" 
with gold; NA "slaughter"; "mark out" border 
with posts; of pain "hurt, stab" S "cause to 
beat"; NA "sow discord" St 1. lex. of part of 
the liver "become detached"? 2. pass, of S "let 
o.s. be beaten" N [RA] "be beaten (up); 
wounded; smashed; slaughtered"; of vegetation 
"be beaten down"; of peg "be driven in"; NB = 
Gt "fight"; > mahsu; mehsu, mihistu; mahisdtu; 
mdhisu, mdhisdnu, mdhistu, mahis-pututu; 
muhhusu; mithusu, mithusutu; mundahsu, 
mundahsutu; musamhisu, musamhisutu; 
namhasu, namhastu; tamhusu, tamhlsu 

mdhdt — » mahl 

mahatum — » mahhatum 

mahatum (a relative, phps.) "aunt" OA; 

maha'um (a relative, phps.) "uncle" OA; 

> mahatum 

mahazis "into the city" jB; < mdhdzu 

mahazu(m) (or mdhazu), occas. mahzu 'place 

of taking' [KI.SU.PES5] 1. "shrine, cultic 

centre"; "(market) town"; OAkk also a PIN; 

Nuzi "quay" 2. jB ~ "spring, basin"; < ahdzu; 

> mahazis 

mahdalu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < haddlu I 

mahdu/u mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mahhadum — * mahhatum 

mahhaltu(m) "sieve" O/jB [GI.MA.AN.SIM. 

NIG.AR.RA]; < nahdlu I 
mahhalu (a basket or box)? O/jB, MA; 

< nahdlu I ? 
mahhatum (or ma(h)hadltum) (an object of 

reed) OAkk 
inahhiru "willingly receiving"? jB; < mahdru 

mahhltu — » mahhutu 

mahhu "exalted" jB; < Sum. 

mahhu(m), muhhu(m) "ecstatic, prophet" OAkk, 

Bab., NA [LU.GUB.BA]; also OB (a bird); 

mahhuris — » muhhuris 
ma(h)hurtum — * muhhurtu 
mahhuru(m) OA for -* muhhuru; Mahhur-ill 

(4th month); < mahdru 
mahhutis "like a female ecstatic" jB; < mahhutu 
mahhutis in m. aldku "to become frenzied, 

ecstatic" jB; < mahhu 
mahhutu(m), muhhutum, mahhltu "female 

ecstatic, prophetess" OAkk, 6/jB [MUNUS. 

GUB.BA]; < mahhu 
mahl, mdhdt, mdrd "one-twelfth of a shekel" 

NB; < Aram. 
mahilumma mng. unkn. Nuzi in m. epesu 
mahiranu, NB also mahirnu "the one who 

received, recipient" MA, NB; < mdhiru + -an 
mahiris "at the market" jB; < mahlru 
mahirnu — * mahiranu 
mahirtu (a bone of the leg) Bogh., jB 
mahirtu(m) "market price, current value, 

exchange rate" Mari; < mahlru 
mahirtu(m), OB also mehirtum 1. OAkk 

"recipient (f.)" 2. O/jB, NA "(boat) moving 

upstream"; ana m. "upstream; wrong way"; 

"passer-by coming in o.'s direction (f.)" 3.jB 

lex. (a kind of door); < mdhiru 
mahiru(m), maklrum; pi. m. & f. [KI.LAM; 

GAN.BA] 1. Bab., NA "exchange rate, market 

price", OB bit m. - "shop"; NB m. nabu "to 

announce the exchange rate (valid for a sale)", 

m. epesu "to complete a transaction", tuppi sa 

m., kunuk m. "exchange-rate document" 2.jB, 

NA "trade" 3. OA, O/MB "market", rabi m. 

"market-overseer", Bab., OA, NA bob m. 

"market gate", also desig. of city quarter; 

< mahdru 
mahiru(m) "opponent, antagonist, enemy; one 

who faces; recipient" [GABA.RI]; < mahdru; 

> mahirtu, mahiranu 
mahisanu "the one who struck" MA; < mdhisu 
mahisatu pi. tant. (a wooden calculator, phps.) 

"abacus" j/NB; < mahdsu 
mahis-pututu "guaranty" NB; < mahdsu; -» 

putu 1 
mahisu(m); f. mdhistu, mdhistu 1. Bab., NA 

"beater, striker" [lu.GIS.PAN.tag.GA] (a 

person who brands and castrates 7 animals for 

slaughtering); Nuzi, NB mdhis puti "guarantor, 

bondsman", mahis-pututu "warranty"; Mari 




mdhis qaqqadim "accuser" 2. Bab. "weaver" 
3. jB "hunter", NA/NB "archer"; < mahdsu 

mahitu "whip" OB, M/NA 

mahlasu(m), mahlisu (a bronze scraper)? Mari, 
MA; < haldsu 

mahnaqu (a sling, noose)? lex.; < handqu 

mahra, mahvi "in front"; "before"; "earlier" Bab.; 

< mahru II 

mahrasu(m) ~ "(battering) ram" O/jB; (a 
wooden piece of equipment) NA; < hardsu 

mahrasu, lex. once marhasu (a post for 
fastening things to) jB; < hardsu II 

mahratu(m) pi. tant. "front part, forepart; first 
instalment; bow (of boat)" O/jB; < mahru II 

mahri — » mahra 

mahris, jB maharis "in front of OAkk, jB; 

< mahru II 

mahrltu, mahrlum — » mahru I 

mahru(m) I l.jB "( that can be faced, 
withstood" 2. "received"; < mahdru 

mahru(m) II "front" [IGI] 1. subst., of place: 
"front, presence"; of time: "past (time)" 2. in 
prep, expressions (-* GAG §115j): (ina) 
mahar "before (s.o.), in the presence of (s.o.)"; 
ana mahar "before (s.o.), into the presence of 
(s.o.)"; adi m. "up to, in the direction of jB, 
NA(roy. inscr.); istu m. "from (s.o.)"; 
> mahra, mahrdtu, mahris, mahru I 

mahru(m) I, mahrlum; f. mahrltu(m); MB also 
mahar u, j/NB also muhru [IGI] 1. "first; 
former, earlier, previous, older" 2. "next, 
future" 3. Mari in adv. use mahru/emma 
"promptly"; < mahru II + -1 

inahrum II (a type of spade) OB; < heru II 

mahsu — » mehsu 

inahsutu (a wooden object) NA lex.; < hesu ? 

mahsu(m) "beaten, smitten" O/MA, O/jB of 
people "beaten"; of nails, posts "driven in"; of 
metal "hammered"?; "woven"; of a boat 
"rammed"; < mahdsu 

mahsalum, mahsulu (a pestle)? OA, MB; 

< hasalu 

mahtutum mng. unkn. OB; < hatu III ? 
mahu(ni) "to rave" O/jB G (Hi, orig. ulu ?) Gtn 

iter, of G N "become frenzied"; > mahhu, 

mahhutis, mahhutu, mahhutis 
mahum "to set out, depart"? OB G (pret. imuh) 
mahziramu pi. "requirements" Am.; < W.Sem. 
ma'irltu — » marltu 
ma'isu (a kind of sheep)? MA 
ma'itu; pi. ma'ltdtu "garden"? MB(Alal.), NB 
maka — » ammaka 

makaddu, makkadu, maqaddu, manqudu l.jB 

lex. (a wooden stick or spatula)? 2. MB(Alal.) 

(a copper object); < kadddu 
makahu (or maqahu) "enclosure"? Nuzi 
makaku "to extend, spread (out)" j/NB G (alu) 

irtu m. "expand (the chest)", qdtu m. "stretch 

out o.'s hand; raise o.'s hand against (= ana)"l 

D = G ?; — * magdgu 
makallu, mangallu (topog. term) Nuzi 
makallu "anchorage, berth" j/NB; also ~ 

"irrigation dyke"?; < kalu V 
makaltu(m), NA mdkassu; pi. mdkaldtu(m), OB 

also mdkaltdtum "wooden dish" O/jB, M/NA 

[(GIS/DUG.)DILIM.GAL]; < akdlu 
makalu — » mangdlu 
makalum (a knife) Mari; < akdlu 
makalu(m), makalu "meal, food" Bab., NA; 

< akdlu 
makanaktu — » maknaktu 
makannu — ♦ magannu I 
makannutu — * magannutu I 

makanu(m) ~ "emplacement"? O/jB; < kanu ? 

makarru (a type of boat) NB; < Sum. 

makaru(m) I, mekeru, megeru "to irrigate, 
water" Bab., NA, with 2 ace. G (OB alu, later 
Hi) fields; heart with wine D = G Dt pass, 
"become flooded" S "let (water) irrigate (the 
fields), provide irrigation" N pass, of G "be 
irrigated"; > makrum I; mikru I; mekiru; 
namkaru; tamklru 

makaru(m) II "to do business, use for 
commerce"? OA, Ug., j/NB G jB; OA "plan 
ahead, make dispositions freely, have 
entirely at o.'s disposal" D NB "buy (with 
silver)"? St = G ?; > makkdrum, mdkiru; 
makkuru, namkiiru; mustamkiru; tamkdru, 
tamkdrutu, tamkdrdnu, tamkdrasse 

mdkassu — » mdkaltu 

makasu(m) "to levy customs or rental dues" 
O/jB, M/NA, Ug. G (Hi, OB mostly ulu) 
N pass, of G; > maksum; miksu, mikiltu'-; 

makasu, makassu "slaughtering block" jB; 

< kdsu 

makasu mng. unkn. jB lex. Gt 

makdtu — » makutu 

makdadu (a scraper)? jB lex.; < kadddu 

makdaru mng. unkn. MA; < kaddru II ? 

makdu (a wooden bucket)? jB lex. 

makiltu — » makistu 

makilu(m) (or maqilu(m)) (a type of weapon) 

OAkk, jB 
maklrum — ♦ mahlru 



malafou(m) I 

mdkiru — » makkarum 

makisu(m) "tax-collector" O/jB, M/NA 1. OB 

"collector (of tenancy dues)" [EN7.KU6/GIR] 

2. "collector of taxes, customs dues" [LU.NIG. 

KUD.DA]; < makdsu 
makistu, makiltu (a type of conifer) jB lex. 
makittu — » makkltu 
makiu — » mekum 
rnakka — ► ammaka 
makkadu — » makaddu 
makkaltu — » makkastu 
makkannu (a container) jB lex. 
makkannu, manga(n)num (a cripple) O/jB lex. 
makkanu "(originating) from Makkan, in 

Makkan style" jB lex. 
makkaranis "as with a donkey-goad" jB; 

< makkaru + -an + -is 

makkaru "donkey-goad" jB lex.; > makkaranis 
makkarum, mdkiru(m) "merchant, dealer" OA, 

jB; < makdru II 
"makkastu, makkaltu "wood-cutting" MB; 

< nakasu 

makkasu 1. M/jB (a knife) 2. MA, M/NB, Am. 
(a bowl) 3. NB "cut (dates of good quality)"; 

< nakasu 

makkasu (a prof, or occupation) jB lex. 
makkitu(m), makittu "(processional) boat" Bab. 

[GIS.MA.GID.DA]; OB sa m., pi. sut m. 

"bargee"; < Sum. 
makku, meqiu (a pole)? jB lex.; -» makutu II ? 
makkuru(m), ma(k)kurru jB also f. "property, 

possessions )" [NIG.GA]; < makdru II 
makkiiru — ► also makuru 
makkutu (a type of boat) jB lex.; < Sum. 
makkutu — » also makutu II 
maklalu, muklalu, (or maluqlalu) (a type of 

garment) M/NA, Bogh. 
maklutu "anchorage, berth" jB; < kalu V 
maknaktu, makanaktu "seal" NB; < kandku 
maknakum, makndkum "sealed container, 

room" OA; < kandku 
makraku "bandage" lex.; < kardku 
makrasu, (sa) makratti (a type of table) Nuzi 
makris (a part of a chariot) OA 
niakrum I "irrigated" OB; < makdru I 
makru II "advice"? jB lex. 
makru III "red spot" jB lex. 
rnakru(m) "red" OA, Mari, jB; name for planet 

Mars; Mari of copper 
maksum "taxed" OB, of donkey; < makdsu 
maksu(m) "(medical) bandage; fetter, shackles" 

O/jB; < kasu III 

maksutu 1. j/NB "binding; bandage" 2. NB (a 
religious ceremony) 3. NA (a wooden stand)?; 

< kasu III 

maksaru(m); pi. m. & f. 1. OB (a mathematical 
procedure) 2. jB "snaffle" for horse 3. NB 
"bundle" of straw etc.; < kasdru 

maku I, mdku(m); NA pi. makiute ~ "destitute, 
poor"? Bab., NA; NA also "missing"; 

> makutu; — ► aku I; maku II. in 

maku(m) II, mdkum "want, lack, need" O/jB; 

< maku III infin.; — ► ammaki 

maku(m) III "to be absent, missing" OB, jB, NA 

G; S "cause to go missing"; > maku I ? , II 
maku 111 IV (or maqum) "to spy" Mari G; 

> mdkum 

maku — ► also meku V 

maku — ► maku I.II 

-maku suff. indicating unreality or potentiality 
Am., Bogh., occas. jB; < Hurr.? 

makum (or maqum) ~ "reconnoitrer, scout" 
Mari; < makum IV 

makuhu(m) (a type of textile) OA, Nuzi, Ug. 

makurru — » makkuru; makuru 

makuru(m), makurru, makkuru, maqurru f. 
"(processional) boat" O/jB [GIS.MA.GURs] 
"boat"; mag. "(model of a) boat"; "gibbous 
moon"; (a constellation); OB math, (biconvex 
figure); < Sum. 

makutu I (a type of bread)? OB 

makutu(m) II, makkutu; pi. makdtu "staff, pole, 
post" Bab. (pole for a well, shaduf 7 ); NB 
[DIM.ME ?] "pillar, punt pole"; (a bread or 
cake); jB (a bone); -> makku 

makutu "destitution"? NA/jB; < maku I 

mala I, mali, mal, mallalu, NB malu- "as much 
as" 1. prep, before pron. suff. and subst. "as 
much as, equivalent to"; before infin. "as much 
as necessary to"; ana mala, ammala "in 
accordance with" 2. malali sa OB "everything 
that"; NB "just as much as", "such as ( is" 
3. rel. pron. "as much as; everything that" and 
sim. (-» GAG §§48j, 168f-h), mimma mala 
"everything that"; NB mamma mala "everyone 
who"; < malu III st. constr.; -> ammal; ammar 

mala II, mali, MA malla "once; one" 1. Ass. 
"once" 2. OB, MA, Nuzi, jB before units of 
measure "one"; > malama; malani; malmala,' 

mala — ► malu I 4 

malddu — ► walddum 

malahu(m) I, malahhu "sailor; shipwright" 
[(LU.)MA.LA{j4/5] jB lisdn m. "sailors' jargon"; 
NB as family name; ze m. "excrement m." (a 
plant); < Sum.; > maldhutu 

malahum II 



malahum II (a container)? OA 

malahu III "god" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 

malahu IV "to tear out" M/jB, NA G (a/u) 

D "reduce ( to fibres, shred"; astr. 

"flicker" N "be torn out"; > malhu 1 ; milhu, 

milihtu; muluhh.ii; — » mald'u 
malahutu "sailor's trade" NB [LU.MA.LAH4- ]; 

< malahu I 
mala'is "in abundance, fully" OB; < malu III 
malakis "in order to advise" jB; < maldku II 
malaku(m) 1 1. O/jB (a cut of meat) 2. jB lex. (a 

bush)?; < leku ? 
malaku(m) II "to discuss; advise" G (;'/;') 

[GALGA] "advise (s.o.," with 2 ace; Am. 

"look after, mind" with ana Gtn iter, of G 

Gt "discuss (with others), confer (about; 

consider, ponder" D Mari "advise, exhort" 

N "be advised; consider; discuss (with 

others)"; > milku, miliktum, malkumll; 

malakis; mallakum; mdliku, mdliktu; mitluku, 

mitluktu; mumtalkum, mundalkutu; tamldku; 

malaku III "to rule (over s.o.)" Ug.; < W.Sem.; 

> namlaktum; — > malku I 
malaku(in) I "walk, way; course" OAkk, Bab., 

NA "access road, walkway; march, route; stage 

(of march); river-bed"; NB mdlak Sin "lunar 

orbit"; < alaku 
malakum II "messenger" OB; < W.Sem. 
malallu — > ma'lalum 
malallu(m), mallu (a type of freight boat) O/jB 

[(GIS.)MA.LAL]; < Sum. 
malallu — ► also manalalu 
malaltu(m), OB also malahum (a post or beam) 

O/jB [DIM.TUR.TUR]; < aldlu U 
malalu — > ma'lalum 
malalu(m) I "to eat o.'s fill; pillage, loot; 

consurne" O/jB G (a/u) St NB "carry off from 

everywhere"?; > millatum 
malalu II (a part of the body ) jB 
ma'lalum, mdlalu(m), malallu, ma(l)lalu ~ 

"wooden mortar"? O/jB; < aldlu II ? 
malani ~ "on an equal basis" OB(lit.); < malu III 
malama "once again" MA; < mala II 
malamalis — > malmalis 
malani "once" NA; < mala II 
mal'anum "entirely, totally" OA; < malu HI 
nialasu, maldsu "to pluck (out), tear out" jB 

G (a/u, Hi) D; > mullusum 
maldsu — > maldsu 
malatu mng. unkn. O/MB, jB lex. G; Gt of 

entrails; > miltu 

malatu "the entire offerings (for a period)"? NB; 

— > malitu 
ma'latu, malldtu, mal'dtu "root of the tongue" 

jB; <aldtu (ma'latu, malldtu), la'dtu (mal'dtu) 
malatu — > malutu; mullutu 
mala'u "to tear out"? jB G; = malahu IV ? 
mald'um — > also malu IV 
malbasu — > nalbasu 

maldadu ~ "curtain"? jB, in boat; NA; < sadddu 
maldahu — > masdahu 
maldara, maldaris — > masdara 
maldaru — > masdaru 
maldu — > masdu I; waldum 
malemmu — ^ melemmu 
mal'etum "possibility, option"? OA; < le'u 
malgu, malgdtum "from Malgum" O/jB, of 

vessel, song, musical instrument; < PIN 
malgutu (topog. term) NA 
malhu (desig. of a stringed instrument) jB lex.; 

< malahu IV ? 

mali — > mala I.II < ~ 

malia — > malu I 

malihum — > malku I 

maliktu(m) "adviser, counsellor (f.)" O/jB; 

< mdliku 
maliku — > malku I 

maliku(m) "adviser, counsellor" [(LU.)GALGA; 
LU.AD.GI4.GI4]; Mari also of worshipped ances- 
tors; < maldku II; > mdliktu 

malikutu(m), malkutu "rulership, rule" Bab.; 

< malku I 

malilis "like a pipe 7 " jB; < malilu 

malilu (a wind instrument, phps.) "pipe" jB 

[GI.GID (-> also ebbiibu)]; > malilis 
mdlittu — ► walittum 
malitu; pi. malatu. 1. jB (a lament) 2. j/NB (a 

ritual vessel); < malu I f.; — > malatu 
malium — > malu I 

Malkanum (2nd ? month) Mari; < malku I 
malkatu(m) "ruler (f.), queen" OAkk, M/jB; 
< malku I 

malkittu — > maskittu 
malku(m) I, maliku(m) "prince, king" not OA ?; 

also a demon, spirit ?, OB also malihum; 

> malkatu, Malkanum, malikutw, — > malaku III 
malkum II "advice" OA m. sabdtum "to take a 

decision"; < maldku II 
malkutu — > malikutu 
malla — > mala I.II 
mallahtu, mullahtu (a type of saline grass) jB 

mallakum "adviser" early OB in PN; 

< maldku II 



mallalu -* ma' latum 

mallatu "bowl, dish" jB 

mallatu -* ma'ldtu 

mallittu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mallu —* mala I 

mallu —* malallu 

mallutu "balancing payment, final instalment"? 
MA; < malu IV D 

malmala "singly, once"? jB lex.; < mala II 

malmalis, mammalls, malamalis "corre- 
spondingly, equally" Bab.; m. zazu "to share 
equally"?; < malmala 

malmallu — ♦ mulmullu 

malmalu (a type of beer) jB lex. 

marqatu(m) (tool for gathering dates) O/jB; 

< laqdtu 
malqetu — ♦ melqetu 
malsutu —* mass&tu 
maltakal — ♦ mastakal 

maltaktu(m) "test, check" O/jB; bilat maltakti 
"(officially) assayed talent"; OB "sand-clock"; 

< maltakum 

maltakum, mastaku "test, check" OB; <latdku; 

> maltaktu 
maltltu — ♦ mastltu 
maltu(m) (a type of bowl) OAkk, O/jB and in 

Sum. texts 
maltu — ♦ martu; mastd 
maltum — ♦ mayyaltu 
maltutu — ♦ mastutu 
maltaru — ♦ maltaru 
maltltu —* mestltu 
maltu — * mestu 
malu — ► mala I 
malu(m) I, *malium, OA mal'um; f. malltu "full, 

complete, sated" [SA5] 1. of objects and 

measurements 2. of gramm. forms 3. of time 

4. malia, mala me "dropsical" [A.GAL.LA.TI.LA] 

5. OB maliam "totally, entirely"; < malu IV 
malu II, often pi. "matted, dirty (body) hair" 


malu(m) III "abundance, fullness" Bab. [SA5] 
male irti "success"; NB m. sabdtu "to reach 
(healthy) fullness"; < malu IV infin. 

malu(m) IV, OAkk, O/MA mald'um "to 
be(come) full; fill up (with = ace.)" G (a/a) 
[SA5] of canal, land "fill up with" water, earth 
etc., also people; also of containers, human and 
animal organs, the human body; stat. "is full of 
radiance, fertility etc. Gtn iter, of G D [SA5] 
"fill (up)" (with = ace); "inlay"; qdtum-, ana 
qdt PN m. "hand over, entrust"; "put s.o. (or under s.o."; of time "fulfil, reach 

fullness"; of measurement "do in full"; "pay in 
full"; mulld naddnu "pay the full amount"; 
"nock" a bow; OB(Susa) "enlarge, add" Dtn 
iter, of D Dt pass, of D S "cause to become 
full" (of = ace.) and = D St "deliver in full; 
complement; provide (with = ace.)" SD poet, 
for D N NB pass, for Dt; > malu I.III, mala I, 
maldm, mald'is, mal'dnum; malltu, maldtu; 
mllu, mllutum; milltu; mulu; muld'u; mullu I, 
mallutu; nemltf; tamllu, tamlltu 

mal'u — ♦ maid I 

maluktu — ♦ amaluktu 

malutu(m), maluttu, maldtu "ring, clasp, 
fastening (device); stocks, pillory" O/jB lex.; 

< Idtu 

mamilutum mng. unkn. OB(Susa) 
maminu(m) "why?; what?!" Am., Bogh; 

< W.Sem. ma + mlnu I ? 
mamis "like water" NB; < mdmu 
mamitu(m); pi. mdmdtu "oath; curse" [NAM. 

ERIM/RIM; SAG.BA] leg. "(asseverative) oath" 
of vassals and subjects; "(promissory) oath"; 
om., mag., med. "(broken) oath"; "curse" 
following the breaking of an oath; as a demon; 
qdt m. (a disease); < wamd'um; — ♦ tamltu 

mamlu, lex. once meamlu adj. ~ "impetuous, 
fierce"? j/NB; < wamdlum ? 

mamlutu ~ "impetuosity" MB; < mamlu 

mamma —* mamman 

mamma — ► mammannu- 

mammalis —* malmalis 

mamman, mamma(m), OB occas. manman, NB 
also mammu, mammdma, Nuzi mammamma 
"somebody, who(so)ever", with neg. "no- 
body"; OAkk -♦ mammdna, NA — ♦ memeni; 

< man-man/ma; -* mammannu-; mandma 
mammana, occas. mammdnan "who(so)ever" 

OAkk and occas. later for mamman; OAkk 

with neg. "nobody" 
mamma(n)nu-, mamma-, NA mummu(n)nu- 

with poss. suff. "whosoever, anyone of s.o. 

NA, NB; -♦ mamman 
Mammitu(m) (name of a goddess); OAkk, Bab. 

warah M. (a winter month); < mammu; -* 

mammu(m), mammu, mdmu, meammu "tiara" 

O/jB; — ♦ mednum 
mammu — ♦ also mamman 
mammu(m), mummu "frost, ice" O/jB; also (a 

copper mineral); < Sum.; > Mammltu 
mammu — ♦ also mammu 
mamsdru — ♦ namsdru 
mamu, mdwu pi. "water" OB, M/jB(poet.); 

> mdmis; —* mil I 


manu(m) IV 

mamu — ♦ mammu 

man —* mannu I 

-man suff. indicating unreality after stressed 
word O/jB, esp. in condit. clauses (-♦ GAG 
§§152d, 170h); OA -♦ -min; -* laman; luman; 
summaman; uldman; ulldman 

Mana (a month) OB(N.Mes.) 


manahtu "resting-place" NA; < ndhu 

manahtu(m); MA pi. also mdnehdtu "weariness, 
fatigue; toil, work" Ass., O/jB 1. gener., m. 
amdru "to suffer hardship" 2. "(expenditure of) 
labour and materials; equipment for work"; m. 
sakdnu "to invest labour"; m. apdlu, also 
naddnu, mullu "to pay expenses, compensate 
for expended labour"; m. lequ "to recover costs 
of labour" 3. pi. "proceeds (of labour); 
earnings" 4. "cultivated field, orchard" 
5. MB(Alal.) "vassal service"; < andhu I 

inanahu ~ manahtu Susa, j/NB; Susa "earn- 
ings"; j/NB "hard labour"; < andhu I 

manakuttu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

manal(al)u, malalld "official in charge of 
weighing" jB lex.; < Sum. 

manama, Ass. manndma, manamma "some- 
body; who(so)ever"; m. Id "no-one"; m. (sa) 
"whoever"; — ♦ mamman 

manan mng. unkn. OB in ana m., phps "why?" 
or "although" 

manantu (a type of storage building) jB lex. 

mananu pi. tant. "nerves"? jB 

manat(um) 1. OB(Susa) (a mathematical vari- 
-able) 2. NB "accounting"; < manu IV 

mand'um — ♦ manu II.IV; menu 

manda — ♦ minde; Ummdn-manda 

manddnu — ♦ Maddnu; madddnum 

mandattu —* maddattu 

mandetu "(result of) reconnoitring, report, 
information" NB; m. sapdru "to report"; 

< Aram. 
mandidu —* mddidu 
mandidiitu —* mddidutu 

mandittu (a wooden object) jB; < naddnu II ? 
manditu 1. j/NB "surprise (attack)"? 2. NB 
"(metal) attachment" for furniture etc.; 

< nadu III 
mandu — ♦ mddu 

mandu I, ma' du, mddu (a pole)? jB lex.; -♦ 

mandu II "emplacement" OB, Bogh.; in mandl 

kusst (a part of the liver); < nadu III; -♦ 

maddu; nldu 
mdnehdtu —* manahtu 

mangagu "fibres of the date palm" j/NB; 

< magdgu 
mangallu — ♦ makallu 

mangalu, makalu, OB maggalum mng. unkn. 

Bab., assoc. with door; < nagdlu ? 
manga(n)ndm -* makkannu 
mangaru(m) I (a large basket) OB [GI.GUR. 

mangaru II, also mangdsu (< *nagdsu ?) ~ 

"advice"? JB lex.; < nagdru II ? 
mangu I, mannagu (a type of bean)? j/NB [TE] 
mangu II (a skin disease) jB; < magdgu 
manhalu "entrance, entering" NB; < Aram. 
mani "how much, many?" Am.; < W.Sem. 
manidtum —* minltu 
maninnu (a type of necklace) Qatna, Alal., Am.; 

< Sanskr.? 

manitu m. & f. "(gentle) wind, breeze" jB 

manman —* mamman 

mannagu —* mangu I 

manndma —* mandma 

mannasam adv. mng. unkn. OA 

manniki "(so) be if Mari; < Hurr. 

mannu(m) I, OAkk, NA also man, NA also 

ma"u "who?"; in PN; with pron. suff.; indir. 

questions; m. sa "who(so)ever; everyone 

who", "each, every (single) person"; m. 

sandmma "anyone else"; — ♦ attamqnnu; 

attimannu; mamman 
mannu II "what?" Am.; < W.Sem. 
mannumme, mannumma "who(so)ever" MB 

(Alal.), Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug.; with neg. 

"nobody"; Ug. "everybody"; — ♦ mlnumme 
manqudu -* makaddu 
mansu —* massd; massu I 3 
mansartu — ♦ massartu 
mantaru "fibre, bast" NB; < Aram. 
manu(m) I "counted" Bab.; Id m. "countless"; 

< manu IV 

manu(m) II, OAkk, OA mand'um "mina (c. 480 
grams)" [MA.NA; MB, NA also abbr. MA] of 
metal; wool; dates etc.; NA m. sa PINIsarri 
"(standard) mina of PIN/the king"; "a mina- 
weight"; jB man selahru "small mina (= '/3 
shekel)"; NB astr. m. = four hours; < manu IV 

manu III, manu (a kind of wood) jB lex., syn. 
of eru II; <Sum.? 

manu(m) IV, OAkk, OA mand'um "to count, 
calculate; recite" G (u/u, later often ;'//) [SID] 
1. "count, enumerate, list"; "calculate; wait (a 
number of days); charge; debit" 2. "count as 
(= ana or -is), count among (= itti)"; "change 
into" 3. inalana qdte m., or loc.-adv. qdtu- + 
pron. suff. m. "deliver, surrender s.o. (to)" 



4. "recite" hymn, incantation Gtn iter, of G D = 
G Dt pass, of D S "cause to count; cause to 
deliver" N pass, "be counted, calculated; 
delivered"; > manu I.II, mdnu, mandtum, 
manutu; minu II, mindnu'-, minitu, minutu I; 

manu — » also menu; munu I 

manu in ana la mdni "countless" NA/jB of 
booty; prisoners; < manu IV 

manu — » also manu III 

manu "to supply (with food)" j/NB, NA G; 
> mu'untu, ma' 'uttu 

inanunum mng. unkn. OB; < Sum.? 

manutu "count(ing), standard" NB [SlD] in (ina) 
m. sa PIN; < manu IV; — » minutu I 

manzaltu — » mazzaztu 

manzassu, manzastum — » mazzaztu 

Manzat — » Manziat 

manzattuhlu, mazzattuhlu "policeman" Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; > manzattuhlutu 
manzattuhlutu "the office of policeman" Nuzi; 

< manzattuhlu 

manza'tum (a wooden implement) Early Man 

manzazanu — » mazzazdnum 

manzazdnutum — » mazzazdnutum 

manzaz pdnu(t)tu — » mazziz pdnuttu 

manzaztum — » mazzaztu 

manzazu — » mazzizu; nanzdzu 

manzdzu — » mazzdzu 

manzes, manziase jB(NA) 1. (a stone) 2. (a 

metal container)?; < Urar.? 
Manziat, Manzat, also Manzit "rainbow" OAkk, 

Bab., NA [ d TlR.AN.NA] also DN; occas. in PN; 

astr. (a stellar nebula)? 
manzu, ma(z)zu (a type of drum) jB 

[MEZE(ABxME.EN); ME.ZE]; < Sum. 

mapru (a (silver) vessel) Am. 

maqaddu — » makaddu 

maqahu — » makahu 

inaqaltanu (a priest)? NA; < W.Sem.? 

maqalutu — » maqlutu 

maqdqu — » magdgu 

maqarratu "bale (of straw)" NA, NB; 

< qardru ? 

maqartu (desig. of vessel) NA, NB; phps. 
"cooling" vessel; < Aram. 

maqartu — » also waqrum 

maqdru — > waqdrum 

maqatu(m) "to fall" [SUB] G (u/u; perf. NA 
ittuqut) 1. liter, "fall, drop"; of soldier in battle 
"die"; "fall down (before s.o.); plunge; 
collapse"; "pounce on, rush at"; "fall into s.o.'s 
hands" 2. transf. "fall into (the heart); catch (the 

eye)"; j/NB, NA inapt m. "fall from the mouth 
= be declared solemnly" 3. of event "befall", 
with ana or dat. "happen to s.o."; of illness, 
misfortune "attack, strike s.o."; of inheritance 
"fall to s.o."; "invade, raid" a country 4. of 
person, information "come, appear, arrive"; of 
thought "occur to, come to mind" 5. "run away, 
desert, defect" (to = ana pan) 6. of tax, etc. "be 
abandoned", of glow "fade; of flesh, charms 
"waste away" Gtn iter, of G D "declare as 
falling due"; ~ "cause to waste away" S "cause 
to fall, cause s.o.'s downfall, ruin or s.o., 
wreck"; "cause to fall to s.o."; "cause to be 
dropped"; OA "assign, forward"; > maqtu, 
maqittu, maqtam, maqtis, maqtutum; mdqittu; 
miqtu, miqittu; muquttu; muqqutum; 
musamqittu, sumquttu 

maqatu, maqdtutu; pi. maqdtdti (a garment) NA 

maqilu — * makilu 

maqittu "dilapidation, disrepair" jB(roy. inscr.); 

< maqtu 

maqittu "missile" jB lex.; < maqatu 

maqlalu — * maklalu 

maqlalu 'small thing', syn. for "vulva" jB lex.; 

< qaldlu I 

maqlu l.jB, NA "burn(ing), combustion", esp. 

in ritual 2. jB lex. "roasting oven"; < qalu II 
maqlutu(m), NA also maqalutu "burn(ing), 

conflagration" O/jB, NA [GIBIL]; "burnt 

offering"; < qalu II 
maqqabu, maqqibu "hammer" Am., Ug.; 

< W.Sem. 

maqqadu, muqqadu, muqadu "(right of) 

pasture" Ug.; < Ug.; -» ndqidu 
maqqaha du. "tongs" Ug.; < Ug. 
maqqarum, maggdrum "chisel" OB; < naqdru ? 
maqqatum pi. (a plant) OB 
maqqibu — * maqqabu 
maqqitu(m) "libation; vessel for libation" Bab. 

[BAL- ]; < naqu 
maqqii(m), Bogh. meqqu; NB pi. maqqanu 

"libation (vessel)" Bab., M/NA; < naqu 
maqranis, mag(a)rdnis "on threshing floors" jB; 

< maqrdnu 

maqranu(m) "threshing floor" OB; (a month) 
Mari, OB(Esn., Chagar Bazar); < qardnu; 
> maqranis 

maqrattu(m) "threshing floor" OB(Susa), Nuzi; 

< qardnu 

maqtam "suddenly" Mari; < maqtu 
maqtarum "censer" OB; < qatdru II 
maqtis "suddenly"? jB; < maqtu i 

maqtu(m) "fallen" Bab., NA [SUB]; of person, 
animal "fallen, defected, deserted"; of fruit, 




architecture "dropped, collapsed"; "sudden"; 

< maqatu; > maqtam, maqtis, maqittu, 

maqtutum "collapsed state" Mari; < maqtu 
maqum — » makum IV 
inaqum — ♦ mdkum 
inaqu mng. unkn. NA G (u) 
maqurru — * makuru 
mar — ♦ ammar 
mara — ♦ mdhi 
marahu(m) "to allow to become spoiled"? OB, 

jB lex. G grain D lex. N of grain "be spoiled"; 

> marhum; merhu II; murhu'- 
mara'is — ♦ maru II G 

maraku(m) "length; full extent" O/jB; < ardku 

maraqqum — ♦ marrdqum 

maraqu(m) "to rub smooth; grind 
(down)" Bab., NA G (a/u) 1. "rub 
smooth; scrape off; "polish" beam; "whet, 
sharpen" tooth; transf. "wipe out" city 
2. "grind"; "pulverize" drug; cuneiform tablet 
D = G "grind"; NB "clear o.s." of claims Dtt 
NA "be pulverized, ground down" N pass, of 
G "be scraped, rubbed away"; > marqu; mirqu, 
miriqtu I; murqu I ? , II; murruqu, murruqunu, 
mumarriqdnu; tamrlqdtu 

mararu(m) I "to be(come) bitter" G {Hi) [SES] 
of substances, food etc.; transf. of person "be 
bitter"; of punishment, weapon "be heavy, 
bitter, prevail" Gtn iter, of G [SES.MES] 
D "make bitter"; stat. "is embittered" NB; 
"scrutinize closely" Dt pass, of D S "make 
bitter" weapons in battle; > marru I, martu, 
marratu; murru, murrdnu^; murdru, murdritu; 
marraru; marruru; murrurtu; tamrirum, 

mararu(m) II "to break up (by digging)" O/jB 
G {a/u) also transf. "overturn" N pass, of G 

mararu III ~ "to go away, depart" Am., Ug. 
G {u/u) S "chase away"; < Ug. 

marasu "to mix; mash" jB, NA G 1. {a/u) "mix" 

2. (;// < Aram.) "crush" D in comm.; 

> marsu I; mersu 

marasu(m) "to be(come) ill; be(come) arduous, 
difficult" G {a/a, NB u/u; stat. marus, Ass. 
maris) [GIG] 1. stat. of person, animal "is/was 
ill", "suffers" (from = ace), (in = ace.); 
"become ill" 2. "worry; care for", stat. "is 
distressed, grieved, worried" often with libbu as 
subj.; "worry" (about = ana or dat.) 

3. "displease" (s.o. = eli) 4. "be(come) diffi- 
cult, oppressive, unpleasant", stat. of work etc. 
"is oppressive"; "become annoying" Gtn iter. 

of G "fall ill repeatedly"; with libbu "worry 
incessantly" D "offend, hurt; worry s.o."; OB 
as S "do in an offensive manner, make ( 
hurtful" S caus. of G "cause to suffer; make ill"; 
"infect" a place; "expose to an eclipse (of the 
moon)"; "hurt, offend"; "do in an offensive 
manner"; "torment; affect s.o. badly, give s.o. a 
hard time"; stat. jB of terrain "is very difficult"; 
"cause to displease" (s.o. = eli) St 1 "be hurt, 
troubled" St 2 "exert o.s., take trouble" SD Am. 
with libbum "distress o.s."; > marsu, marsis, 
marustu, marsutu; marrdsu; mursu; namrasu, 
namrasis; sumrusu 

marasu — ♦ marsu 2 

marasu — ► wardsum 

mdrat banutu -* maru 3 

maratu "in Marad style"? Mari; < PIN 

mar ' atum — ► martu 

maratu "to scratch; scrape off M/NA, M/jB 
G {a/u); also ~ "overuse, make excessive use 
(of)" D = G N "be scratched"; > mertu 

mard'um -* maru II 

mar bani, mar banutu — ♦ maru 3 

marbiqatum (a piece of jewellery)? Mari; 

< W.Sem. 

marda(n)nu (a porridge or pudding)? jB lex. 
mardatu(m), M/NA mardutu "rug, tapestry" 

Ass., O/MB; > mardatuhulu 
mardatuh(u)lu ~ "rug weaver"? MB(AlaL), 

Nuzi; < mardatu + Hurr. -uh(u)lu 
marditu M/NA, M/NB(Ass.) 1. "bed" of river 

2. "stage" of march, bit m. "road-house"; 

< redu I; — ► merditu 
mardu "successor" jB; < redu I 
mardutu — ► mardatu 

marganum, margalunnu, also margulu (a 
resinous bush; also its resin) O/jB; — ♦ arganum 

margirdnu — ♦ mergindnu 

margu(m) 1. OB (an animal, phps.) "bear"; 
> margutu^ 2. OB (a topog. desig.); -* sagu III 

margulu, margunnu — ► marganum 

margusu(m) (a resinous bush) O/jB also as a 

margutu (an animal)? jB lex.; < margu 1 ? 

marha(l)lu(m) (a variety of carnelian)? O/jB, 
Qatna, Am. 

marhanu (a tree)? jB lex. 

marhasu, NB also warhasu 1. M/NB, NA 
"rinse, lavage" [ra]; med., mag. 2. j/NB 
"drain(pipe)" of chariots, terraces; < rahdsu I 

marhasu — ► also mahrasu; marhusu 

marhitu(m) "mate, wife" O/jB; < rehu 




marhum mng. unkn. OB describing a feature of 

the liver; < mar aim 
marhusu(m), marhasu(m) 'of Marhasi' 

1. OAkk(Sum.), O/jB (a stone) "marcasite" 

2. Mari (a wood) 3. Ug. "marcasite (bowl)" for 
oil; < PIN 

mariakltum mng. unkn. OB 

marinum, marinnu (a leather article) O/jB; 

< Sum.? 

marismara, marismalu (a plant) jB 
maritu(m), jB also ma'iritu "( from Mari" 

Mari; jB lex.; — » meritu 
mari(y)annu, maryannu (a caste of warriors) 

MB( Alal.), Bogh., Ug.; < Sanskr. 
markabtu "chariot" Ug.; < W.Sem.; — » narkabtu 
markastu "compress, poultice"? jB med.; 

< rakasu 

markasu "bond, tie; rope" Bab. [DUR] 

1. "(ship's) painter", NB pi. maskasdtu 

2. "closure" of door 3. "bond" of brickwork 
4. transf. of goddess, palace; jB PIN markas 
same u erseti "PIN, the bond of heaven and 
earth"; < rakasu 

markutum (a wooden object) Mari 
marmahhu(m), arma(h)hu (a fruit tree) O/jB 
marmahhutu "office of the pasisu priest" jB 
marma(r)ru "strong" jB lex. 
marmenu (a drink) NA 
marnu'atum (a farinaceous food) OA 
marqantu (a weapon) jB 
marqltu(m) I "refuge" O/jB; < raqu 
marqltu II "vegetation" jB lex.; < wardqum 
marqu "ground, pulverized" Nuzi, jB/NA, salt, 

glass; < mardqu 
marraqum, maraqqum (a prof.) OB lex. 
marram "very bitter" jB; < mararu I 
marrasu "sickly" jB; < mardsu 
marratu(m) "bitter thing" 1. lex. and in Sum. 

texts (desig. of a date palm) 2. j/NB, NA "the 

sea" (incl. southern marshes), NB (the 

Mediterranean) 3. "rainbow" [IM.SES-fum] 

4. lex. (a chain)? 5. (a bird); < marru I 
marru(m) I "bitter" [SES] of food and drink; of 

the mouth; transf. of wind, weapons; pi. 

marrutu (a type of onion); < mararu I 
marru(m) II "shovel, spade" Bab. [(GIS/ 

URUDU.)MAR] also as symbol of Marduk and 

Nabu; < Sum. 
marruru(m) 1. OA "bitter flour" 2. MA "closely 

scrutinized"; < mararu I D 
marrutu — » marru I 
marsattu(m): MA pi. marsandtu "a (soaking) 

vat" OAkk, MA, NB ? ; < rasdnu 

marsu I "mixed" jB lex.; < mardsu 

marsum II (part of the equipment of a chariot)? 

OA; — » marsu 1 
marsadu (a copper object or mineral) jB lex.; 

< rasddu 

marsa'u "awl"? Am.', jB lex. 

marsis "bitterly, sadly; laboriously" j/NB [GIG- 

is]; < marsu 
marsu(m); f. -» marustu, Bab. later also 

marultu, OA maristum "sick; troublesome" 

[GIG; TU.RA] of lament "bitter"; "difficult, 

severe"; of terrain "difficult"; < mardsu; 

> marsis, marsutu 
marsutu(m) in marsussu 1. OB "in his trouble" 

2. jB "in his illness"; < marsu 
mdr-sarrutu —» mdru 1 
marse'urru — » se'urru 
marsidatum pi. (a stone) Mari; < rasddu 
mar sipri, mar siprutu — » mdru 4 
marsltu(m) "property, possessions, livestock" 

O/jB, Nuzi, Ug.; < rasu I 
marsu(m) 1. "leather strap" Ass., Mari, M/jB, of 

bag, sandal, harness (— » marsum II); Mari pi. 

f., attached to net 2. lex. (a bed), also marasu 

(— » mums) 3. Bogh. (a garment) 
marsu — » also warsum 
martakal —» mastakal 
martatum "Martu woman"? OAkk 
martianni "men, warriors" Nuzi; < Sanskr.? 
martu(m), Bogh. mertu "gall bladder; bile" [ZI; 

also ES ?] also transf., e.g. NB to drink m. 

before s.o. = to despise s.o.; aban m. "gall 

stone"; < marru I 
martu, mertu, maltu, NB mastu (a tree) Bab. 

[GIS.MA.NU.TUR.TUR]; a pole, part of a cart; 

< retu II ? 

martu(m), OAkk, OA(lit.) mar'atum, pi. 
marudtum; OA mer'aletum, pi. meru(w)dtum, 
merdtum; jB also mertu, NB also mastu 
"daughter; girl" [DUMU.MUNUS]; NA m. rabitu 
"eldest daughter"; m. sarri "princess"; transf. to 
express a relationship, e.g. in PN "daughter" 
(of a deity); jB m. ildni (a priestess); m. banutu 
— » mdru 3; lex. m. Istar (an animal); m. same 
(sulphur); jB m. re'i "locust"; m. eqli (a plant); 
mdrat palhi (plant name); m.lmarti uppi (part 
of a palm tree); NA m. lipe, ndre (figurine)?; 
NB m. it sandti "n years old"; m. sanat "one 
year old"; < mdru; > martutu 

marturru "small vehicle" jB; < Sum. 

martutu "(adoptive) daughterhood" Nuzi 
[DUMU.MUNUS- ]; < martu 

maru(m) I 


maru(m) I, Ass. mar'u(m) "fattened, fat" 
[NIGA(=SE)]; "slow", jB gramm. of Sum. 
verbal forms (opp. — » hamtu); < maru II 

marii(m) II, OAkk, Ass. mard'um "to fatten; do 
slowly" G (Hi) animals, organs; OAkk mard'is 
"in order to fatten" Gtn iter, of G "delay 
repeatedly" S "supply with fodder, fatten" 
St "give in abundance" N NA unci.; > maru I; 
miru II; mdru, mdrutum; musamru; imru I; 
namrd'um, uamridtum, namrltu 1 ; samru 

marum III "to examine"? Mari G 

maru(m), OAkk, Ass. mar'u(m), OA mostly 
mer'um, jB also mem, Nuzi also nam "son, 
descendant; boy" [DUMU; later often A, in col. 
PES.GAL] 1. m. sehrulrabu "younger/elder 
son"; Nuzi "adopted son"; mar mdri(m) 
"grandson"; mar ahi(m), ahdti(m) "nephew"; 
mar sarri(m) "prince", NA "crown prince", 
mdr-sarrutu "status of crown prince" 2. of 
social or geographical origin: "member of, 
belonging to", in mar dli(m) "citizen", mar PIN; 
mar biti(m) "member of the house(hold), house 
slave", NB "household administrator"; OB mar 
bit tuppim "government scribe"; mar ekallim; 
mar mdti(m) "native (of a region)" 3. of 
membership of class or prof.: mar awllim "free 
man", OB mar muskenim; mar bdrim "diviner" 
etc.; M/NA [A/DUMU.SIG/SIG5] phps. mar 
damqi "nobleman", usu. as charioteer ; NB mar 
bant "free man", mar banutu "status of a free 

j man", with MUNUS = mdrat banutu ? 4. "who 
has to do with" ( and sim. in OB m. 
abullim 'porter' (i.e. court official)?; NB m. 
amel sisi "(horse) groom", m. zeri "field 
labourer"; mar sipri(m) [LU.A.KIN; LU.KIN. 
GI4.A] "delegate, envoy", mar siprutu "role as 
envoy; exchange of envoys" 5. "boy, young 
friend, darling", Ug. addressing subordinates 
6. as desig. of age or size, e.g. m. satti 
"yearling, one-year-old"; of animals "kid, lamb, 
chick" etc. l.m. libitti (plant name); > martu, 
martutu; mdrutu 

mdru — » also dm I 

maru(m) "animal fattener" O/jB, Nuzi 
[(LU.)NIGA(=SE)]; bit mart "fattening shed"; 
< maru II; > mdrutum 

maru "to buy"? NB G (///'); < Aram.? 

mdru — » also wdrum 

maru — » maru I; mdru 

maruktu — » amaluktu 

marustu, marustu(m), j/NB also marultu "evil, 
distress" [NIG.GIG] m. amaru "to experience 
trouble"; ina marustim "reluctantly"; < marsu 

marustu — » marustu; warsum 

marutu(m), OA mer'uttum, MA mar'uttu, 
mdruttu "status of son" [DUMU- ] ina m. 
nasdhu "to disinherit"; "status of adopted son 
(or daughter)", ana m. lequlsakdnu "to adopt", 
ana m. naddnu "to put up for adoption"; 

< mdru 

marutum "fattening (technique)" OB; < mdru 

maryannu — » mariyannu 

marza'u, marzihu, marzu (a priest)? Am., Ug.; 
— » marsa' u 

masabbu(m), masappu(m) (a basket) Bab., Ug., 
NA [(GI.)MA.SA.AB]; also (a cultic object) 

masablu'urraku "street-sweeper's basket" jB 
lex.; < Sum. 

masahum OA D "to treat with contempt"; stat. 
of metal "is of inferior quality"; > massuhum 

masaku(m), masdku "to be(come) bad, worsen" 
Ass., O/jB G; D "make bad" S "consider 
as bad" N "be made bad", "turn out bad"; "be 
blamed"; > masku; masiktu; muskum'-; 
mussuku; musukku 

masappu — » masabbu 

mdsartu — » mdsartu 

masarum (or maslzdrum) ~ "to obstruct, 
impede"? OA G (a/u); stat. "is not available"? 
N ? pass, of G; > masirum'-; musdrum'- 

masdru — » also masdru 

masatu "washbasin" jB lex.; < mesu II 

masd'u — » mesu II 

masdara, maldara, maslldaris, mesdaris "con- 
tinuously, always" Am., jB; < masdaru 

masdaru, maldaru 1. MA "duration; perman- 
ence" 2. jB lex. (a knife)?; < saddru 

masennu — » masennu 

mashartum (a vessel for oil) OA, OB; 

< saharu; — » mashatum 

masharu(m) (a vessel)? OAkk(Sum.), jB lex., 

NB; < saharu 
masharutum mng. unci. Mari; < saharu 
mashastum unci. OB; < sahdsu ? 
mashatum (a beaker) OB, scribal error for — » 

mashartum ? 
masiktu(m), Bogh. etc. masiktu "badness, bad 

feelings, reputation" O/jB, MA; MB(Alal.) bel 

masikti "criminal"; < masku 
masirum — » masirum 
maslru ~ "clay, mud" (as wall plaster)? jB, NA; 

< seru ? 
masiu — » mesu I 
maskannu — » musukkannu 
maskartum — » maskartum 
maskiltu — » baskiltu 




masku(m), masku "bad, evil" O/jB; OB as PN 

"Ugly"; < masdku; > masiktu 
maslahtu(m), masrahtu (a libation vessel) Bab. 

[DUG.A.SU]; < salahu I 
maslahu(m), masrahu (a libation tube) O/jB; 

med. "urethra"; < salahu I 
maslaqtu (a cooking pot) jB lex.; < saldqu I 
masla'tu "infection, epidemic" M/jB; <sald'u I 
masla'u "pitcher, jug" jB lex.; < sald'u I 
masmakannu — » musukkannu 
masmas (a plant) jB 
masnaqtu "inspection" j/NB; < sandqu I 
masradum (a pack-saddle) OA; < sarddu 
masrahtu — » maslahtu 
masrahu — » maslahu 
massaku(m) 1. OB ~ "tow-rope" for boat 2. NA 

mng. unkn., textile item in pairs; < nasdku 
massaku — » also mastaku 
massaru "saw" jB; bel m. (epith. of Ninsar); 

< nasdru 

massatum "princess, queen" OA; < massu 

massis (horse trappings)? MB; < Kass. 

massitu — » mastitu 

massu (a conscript labourer) Alal., Am. 

massum — » also massum 

massu(m), OA massu 'um, jB also massu, 

malensu; f. massutum "leader, expert" Bab. 

(lit.), O/MA [MAS.SU]; < Sum.; > massatum; 

massutu II 
massu — » also massu I 3 
massuhum ~ "inferior quality" OA of metal; 

< masdhu D 
massusu mng. unkn. NB 
massutu "washing" MA; < mesu II D 
massutum — » also massu 

massutu, malsiitu 1. MB "call"? 2. j/NB "read- 
ing out, lecture"; < sasu 

massu' um —tmassu 

masu — » mesu I 

masu — » mesu 

mas'um — » mesu I 

ma'su mng. unkn. jB 

masuktu "mortar" jB; < sdku 

masussu (topog. term)? MB 

maswatu (a type of tree) Ug.; < Ug.? 

masadu (a melting pot) Ug., jB; < sddu U 

masallu; pi. f. "sleeping place, shelter" for 
shepherds etc. M/jB; NA, of tomb; < saldlu; — » 

masarritum (a vessel) Mari; < masarru 

masarru(m) (a vessel) O/jB, NA; < sardru I 

masaru(m), also phps. maz/sdru Bab. G (alu) ~ 
"to stride about"? D (<misru denom.?) 
"enclose, mark boundaries (of)"; "limit" time 
N (phps. different word ?) ~ "become com- 
pact"?; > masirum'-; musdrum'-; namsdru 

masd'um ■ 

> also masarum 
• masA 

masen — » masi 

mashatu(m) (a kind of flour) Bab., M/NA 
[zl.MAD/MA.AD.GA]; < sahdtu I 

masi, also (+ subjunct. -n(ip.) masin, masen 
"(but) since, in view of NA in issu m. "since", 
"as if'?; Id m. "correspondingly, accordingly" 
(— » also masu G 6.7); < masu 

masihu "middle"? NB; < Aram.? 

masilu (a musician, phps.) "cymbalist" Ug.; 

masirum (or mas/zirum) in annakam m. (a 
variety of tin) OA; < masarum or masdru ? 

masiru (a shipping due) NB; < Aram.? 

masitu "(that which is) sufficient" jB; < masu 

maslalum (or maslalum) mng. unkn. OB in PN; 

< saldlu 

masrahtu (an emblem) jB lex.; < masrahu 

masrahu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "socle for (divine) 
symbols" 2. "socle" of the gall bladder, phps. 
"bile-duct"? [SUR]; < sardhu U 

massartu(m), Am. also mansartu "observation, 
guard" [EN.NUN/NU.UN] OA rabi massar(d)tim 
"captain of the guards"; sa m., bel m. "guard, 
watchman", NB bit m, "guardroom"; m. 
nasdru(m) "to stand guard", also astr. 
"observe"; "watch" of the night, st. abs. 
massarat "at first watch"; "cultic watch"; m. 
hasim 'guard of the lungs' (= "bronchia"?); 
"depot, warehouse"; "safe custody; proper 
care"; < nasdru; > massarutu 

massaru(m), NA massuru "guard, watchman" 
[(LU.)EN.NUN; (LU.)EN.NU(.UN)] in comb., e.g. 
Am. m. sarri "king's guard"; m. abullim 
"gatekeeper"; m. qisdtim/qisti "forest guard"; m. 
eqlim "field guard"; of deities and divine images 
m. sulmi(m) u baldti(m) "guardian of health and 
life"; m. tidi 'guardian of clay' (= a worm); 

< nasdru 

massarutu(m) "safekeeping" O/jB; < massartu 
massum, mass/zzum ? OB 1. (a garment) 

2. (rash, eczema)? 
massuru — » massaru 

masu(m), OAkk, Ass. masd'um "to correspond, 
comply with (; be sufficient, suffice" 
G (('/(') 1. after mala, NA (am)mar (of field 
etc.) "be as much as it amounts to, is worth"; 
"be worth as much as s.o. else"; mala, ammar 
libbi- m. "achieve wishes"; after infin. "be able 




to" 2. with ana ordat. "reach" o.'s goal; stat. "is 
sufficient" 3. with ace. "reach" a number or a 
time 4. OA "take responsibility for" 5. with 
klma "become equal to" 6. kl masi "how much 
(does it correspond to)?", math, also after prep. 
(— » masi) 7. absol. masi "it is enough!", also in 
PN; OA before laqd'um and sabdtum "be 
ready, in a position to take" D "make available, 
provide" (— » wussum), OB qdtam m. "make 
o.s. available, get involved" Dt OA "be made 
available" S caus. of G "cause to/let 
correspond"; "cause to suffice"; jB "prepare 
(properly)"? drug mixture; NA "be able to" Stn 
unci. St 1. "set about doing" 2. stat. "is 
within reach, available"; > masi, masitu; 
misitum; mustamsu 
masu(m) "to churn, make butter"? O/jB G; 

> namdsu; namusu ? 
masu — » also widsum 
masullultu — » sulultu I 

masaddu, meseddu, Nuzi masandu; NA pi. f. 
"(yoke-)shaft" M/NB; jB astr. "shaft (of the 
waggon-star = Ursa Major)"; < sadddu 

masadu(m) "to beat; full (cloth, wool)"? Bab., 
OA [SA] G (//(', OA alu) OA "full"? textiles; jB 
"massage"; of demons etc. "strike" with 
disease; "crush, press in"? foetus, organs 
D "massage"? N pass, of G "be stricken, have a 
stroke"; > masdu II; misdu, misittu 

masahu(m) I "to measure" land, buildings 
M/NB G (alu) "measure, mete out" 
commodities; also Mari "count" people ? Gtn 
"measure out to each" D = G N "be measured"; 

> mashu 111; masihu; mishu I, misihtu; 
mdsihum, mdsihdnu; mumassihu; namsdhu; 
tamsihu; — » masd'u 

masahu II ~ "to flash, shine, glow" [SUR] jB 
G (u/u) of star, meteor; > mishu II 

masdku — » masdku . 

masallu(m) (a groove, channel, conduit)? OB, 
jB lex.; < saldlu II ?; — » musldlu 

masallu (a boat) jB lex.; < Sum. 

mas'altu "questioning, interrogation" j/NB; also 
(a type of commentary); < sdlu I 

masalu(m), MB also meselu "to equal" G (O/jB 
u/u, jB also a/a, MB Hi) stat. "is equal" (to = 
ana); "become equal" (to = ana, -is or dat.); 
MB "become equal", i.e. "smooth", of the sea; 
"be(come) halved, bisected" of time, grain; the 
moon D "make equal, proportionate"; with ana 
"equalize in value", "equal s.o."; "make 
similar, match"; "reproduce, copy" Dt "find o.'s 
match" S "make equal" St "place on a 
level" (with = ace.) N "attain the equivalent 

condition"?; > maslu; mislu, mislanu, misla; 
musdlu; mussulu, mussultu; tamsilu, tamsiltu; 

mas'alu (an oracle)? Ug.; < sdlu I 

masandu — » masaddu 

masanum (an object of precious metal) OAkk 
and in Sum. texts; — » massdnu, musdnum ? 

masanum — » mesenu 

masarru "dream" jB lex. 

masartu, NB mdsartu "inspection, (military) 
review" M/NA, NB; NA ekal m. "Review 
Palace, arsenal"; < asdru 

masaru(m) "to drag (across the ground)" OA, 
O/jB G (alu) garments; Nuzi leg. "drag (the 
hem of a garment)" to confirm the validity of an 
agreement; "teasel" fabric; "drive" a vehicle Gtn 
of animal "drag" tail "to and fro"; "drag s.o. to 
death" with animals; OA "delay, draw out" 
action, treatment D, Dtn, Dt — » wasdrum 
S caus. of G; > masru; misertu; masirum; 
masiru; tamsdru; namsartu 

ma'saru "tithe" Ug.; < Ug. 

masasu(m) "to wipe off; clean" O/jB G (alu) 
D "clean"? Dt pass, of D N pass, of G; 
> massu; mdsistu; masistu 1 

masatu "to itch" jB G stat.; > mastu 

mas'atu (a plant with thorns) jB 

masa'u(m) "to take away by force, rob" G (alu, 
jB once Hi) [KAR] from s.o. = ace; "abduct 
s.o."; "loot, pillage, ransack" country, building; 
stat. "is robbed" Gtn iter, of G D — » mussu'u 
S "let s.o. be robbed, cause to be robbed" N "be 
taken away by force"; "be looted, ransacked"; 
"be stolen"; >mas'u; mise'tu; massi'u; 
massutu V 

masd'u — » also masu II 

masdahu, maldahu "procession (street)" j/NB; 

< saddhu 

masdu I, maldu ~ "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
mas' enum — » mesenu 

masdu I, maldu ~ "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
masdu II "dressed"? f. pi., of hair jB lex.; 

< masadu 
masdu (a stone) jB 
maseltu — » meseltu 

masennu, masenu, Nuzi, NA masennu (an 
administrator, a manager) Nuzi, NA, NB 
[(LU.)AGRIG ? (-» abarakku)] 

mas' enum — » mesenu 

mas'ertum mng. unci. OA 

mdserum — » masirum 

masgabaru, masgabu (types of sacrificial goat) 
jB lex.; < Sum. 




masgallu "billy goat" jB lex., NB; -» dassu 
masgallu "pertaining to a billy goat" Nuzi 
masgasu(m), maskasu{m) (a battle mace)? O/jB; 

< sagdsu 
masgibillu — » masgizillu 
masgikidu — » askikitu 

masgizillu, masgibillu (a sacrificial goat) jB 

[mAS.GI.IZI.LA/lAl]; < Sum. 
masgubbu "sexually mature goat" jB lex.; 

mashaltappu (a priest performing sacrifices)? 

jB;*< Sum.? 
mashaltu "(type of) sieve" jB; < sahdlu 
mashalu(m) "(type of) sieve" O/jB, M/NA; 

< sahdlu 

mashantu, mashandu (a waistband, sash)? jB; 

< sahdnu 

mashatu "stairs, ladder" M/jB; MB PIN Mashat- 

sarri; < sahdtu I 
mashu I "measured, surveyed" NB; < masdhu I 
mashu(m) II 1. OAkk(Sum.) (a beer mug) 

2. Qatna, Am. (a bead)?; < masdhu I 
mashu III "god" M/jB; < Kass. 
mashudu (a class of people)? jB lex. 
mashulduppu "scapegoat, kid as expiatory 

sacrifice" jB [mAS.HUL.DUB(.BA)]; < Sum.; -► 

mashurannu (a garment) Ug. 
mashuru, gen. mashiri (a textile) MA; 

< sahdru ? 
masidnu — » massdnu 

masihanu "the one who surveyed" MB; 

< masdhu I 

masihu; pi. also f. (a measure of capacity, varies 

from 30 to 54 qu, - 1 pan) NB; < masdhu I 
masihum "surveyor" OB lex.; < masdhu I 
masiktu — » masiktu 
masirru (a wooden vessel) jB lex. 
masiru (a wheeled vehicle) MA, M/jB; 

< masdru 

masirum, mdserum "a teaseller of cloth" OB 

lex.; < masdru 
masis "in oblivion, forgotten" OB; < masu I 
masis "on both sides" jB; < masu 
masistu modal ptcl. jB; < masdsu ? 
masistu f. "polisher" jB lex.; < masdsu 
masitu, massitu "twin sister" jB; < masu 
masitu — » also masu I 1 
maskabum; pi. f. "camp" Mari; < W.Sem. 
maskadu (an illness of the joints, arthritis 7 ) jB 
maskadu — » also askadu 
maskakatu(m) pi. tant. "harrow" O/jB [GIS. 

GAN.UR]; < sakdku 

maskantu "ingredients, materials" jB; < sakdnu 
maskantu — » also maskattu 
maskanu(m) 'place of putting' 1. "threshing 
floor" [KISLAH; MAS.gAn] OB; pi. also f. 

2. "place, site, settlement"; OB PIN Maskan-RN 
etc.; om. of parts of the liver, of the moon 

3. "fetter, shackles, chain"; OB as mark of a 
slave 4. NB "security, pledge", also bit m.\ m. 
sakdnu "to pawn, pledge"; m. sabdtu "to take as 
pledge" 5. Ass., Urar. ( tl5 g)m. "tent"; < sakdnu; 
— » maskantu; maskattu 

maskanum "deposit" OA; < sakdnu 
maskanutu "state of pledge" NB ana m. sakdnu 

"to pledge"; ana m. sabdtu "to take as pledge"; 

< maskanu 4 
maskartum, maskartum (a piece of jewellery) 

OAkk, OB 
maskartum ~* also masqartum 
maskasu ~* markasu 
maskasu — » masgasu 
maskattu(m), NA maskantu "depot; account" 

except OB; OAkk "depot"; O/MA "account", 

m. sakdnu(m) "to open an account"; M/NB 

"depot; stores", PIN Maskandti; NA maskanti 

M^nfsubstitute lapis lazuli"?; < maskanu 
maskenu — » muskenu 

maskirtum (a drinking vessel) Mari; < sakdru 
maskiru — » maskaru 
maskittu, malkittu "sacrificial table, altar" jB, 

NA; < sakdnu 
masku (m) "skin" [KUS] of human; "hide" of 

animal; "leather"; "peel, skin" of fruit, plant; jB 

m. hurdsi "gold overlay"; > mussuku 
masku — » also masku 
maskunum mng. unkn. OA 
maskuru Ass., NB maskiru "(inflatable) animal 

skin" NA, NB ? [KuS.BAR.RA] for swimmer or 

raft; < sakdru ? 
maslatu "knife (of a basket weaver)"; < saldtu II 
masliu — » maslu 
maslu(m) "half O/jB; jB urn masil "midday" 

[UD.SA9.AM]; O/jB musi masil "midnight"; OB 

of length, width; < masdlu 
masiu(m), meslum*, OAkk, MA masliu(m) 

1. OAkk, MA "(leather) bucket"; OAkk pi. f. 

2. OB "leather wrapper" for textiles 3.JB (a 
wall socle)?; < salu I 

masmasgallum "chief exorcist" OB lex.; < Sum. 
masma(s)su "incantation priest" M/NA, M/NB 

[(LU.)MAS.MAS]; also as epith. of deity; -» 

masma(s)sutu "conjuration; function, work of 

an incantation priest" jB, NA [MAS.MAS- ] m. 



epesu "to perform an incantation"; of deity DN 

bel m.-ti; < masmassu 
masna "for the second time" Ug.; < sanu III 
masqalillu, masqaliltu "suspension"? jB; 

< suqallulu ? 

masqaltum OA, OB 1. "weighing out; payment" 
2. "balance, scales" 3. "weight, pendant"; 

< saqdlu 

masqalu "weight" Am.; < W.Sem.; -» saqdlu 
masqartum (or maskartum) (an agricultural 

implement) Mari, OB(Esn.) 
lnasqitu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "watering place", 

"irrigation outlet"; "drink, (medicinal) potion" 

2. (leather enema bag); < masqu 
masqium — » masqu 
masqu — » warqum 2 
masqu (m), OAkk masqium "watering place" 

OAkk, O/jB; "sprinkling vessel, watering can"; 

< saqu III 

masqutu j/NB 1. (a watering vessel) 2. "potion"; 

< masqu 

lnasrahu pi. tant. ~ "good health"? OB; 

< sardhu I 

masraktu "votive offering" NA(Urar.); 

< sardku 

masritu, mesritu "riches, wealth" Bogh., jB; 

< masru 

masru "teased" of textile, "roughened" of skin, 

door MA, M/jB; < masdru 
masru(m), mesru "riches, wealth" [NlG.TUKU]; 

also pi.; Bab. in PN; med. transf. "excrement"?; 

jB bel m. "rich man"; is m. "date palm"; astr. 

kakkab m. "Sirius"; < saru II 
massakku — » mussakku 
massaktu (a kind of income payment) NB 
massanu, NA masidnu "tongs" M/NA; NB 

wooden; < nasu II ?; — » masdnum 
massartu(m) "deduction, withdrawal; foodstuffs 

set aside" Bab.; NB (a remuneration for temple 

officials); astr. "diminution" of lunar visibility; 

< nasdru I 

massaru (a container)? jB lex.; < nasdru I 

massatum (a metal weapon)? OAkk 

massitu(m) 'carrying (to)', "delivery" OA, M/jB 
[Hi] MB "delivery" of commodities; "ingre- 
dients)" of drugs, in glass recipe; < nasu II; — » 
massu I 

massitu — » also masitu 

massi'u(m) "rapacious, predatory" O/jB; 

< masd'u 

massiyannu (a sash)? Ug.; < Hitt.; — » 

assiyannu ? 
massu "polished, shining" M/jB, Am.; < masdsu 

massu(m) I 1. OB (a carrying basket or board) 

[GI.GUR.DA (-» gigurdu)] 2.jB (a suction 

tube) 3. also massu, mansu (a symbol or 

signal) [MAS.SU]; < nasu II 
massu II "forgetful" jB; < masu II 
massu — » also massu; masu 
massutu I mng. unci. MA, MB; < masd'u ? 
ma(s)sutu(m) II 1. OB(Susa) (a royal donation 

document) 2. jB "sovereign dignity"?; < massu 
mastakal, OB ammastakal, jB also mallrtakal 

(an alkaline plant) O/jB, NA [(U.)IN.NU.US; 

mastaktu (or mastaqtu) (a wooden object) OB 

lex.; — » maltaktu 
mastaku(m), massaku, mestaku "chamber; cell" 

Bab.(lit.) [AMA], of humans, deities 
mastaku — » also maltakum 
mastaqtu ~ "constriction" jB med.; < satdqu 
mastaqtu — » also mastaktu 
mastitu(m), MA, M/jB also maltitu, NA massitu 

1. O/jB, MA "(allowance of) drink" 2. NA 
"drinking vessel"; < satu II 

mastu(m) (an itching skin condition) O/jB; 

< masdtu 

mastu(m), jB also maltu "drinking vessel; drink" 

O/jB; < satu II 
mastu — » also martu 
mdstu — » mdrtu; masu 
mastutu(m), M/jB maltutu 1. OB "weaving", in 

bit m. "weaving shed" 2. O/jB "textile"; 

< satu III 

mastaru, maltaru 1. M/NB, NA "inscription" 

2. MB pi. f., jB "medical prescription"; 

< satdru II 
mastu — » mestu 

masu(m) I; f. masitu(m) 1. Bab. "forgotten", f. 
also subst. "forgotten thing(s)"; (a part of the 
gall bladder) 2.jB ^masu (a plant name); 

< masu II 

masu(m) II, Ass. masd'u(m), NB occas. wasu 
"to forget" G (Hi) "forget", also in PN; 
"forget, leave ( behind"; "forget about"; 
OA, OB in hendiad. "forget o.s., (do 
unintentionally" Gtn iter, of G D OA, OB 
"allow to sink into oblivion"; jB -» wussum 
S "cause, allow to forget" N "be forgotten, 
neglected"; > masu I, masis; massu II; misu I; 
misutu 1 -; tamsitum; — » misitum 

masu — » also masu; mesu II G 

masu(m), ma(s)su; f. mdstu "twin (brother/ 
sister)" [MAS.TAB.BA] OAkk, Bab. of human, 
OAkk as PN; of deity; image; astr. (the 
constellation Gemini) [MUL.MAS.TAB.BA], 




masku(m), masku "bad, evil" O/jB; OB as PN 

"Ugly"; < masdku; > masiktu 
maslahtu(m), masrahtu (a libation vessel) Bab. 

[DUG.A.SU]; <saldhu I 
maslahu(m), masrahu (a libation tube) O/jB; 

med. "urethra"; < saldhu I 
maslaqtu (a cooking pot) jB lex.; < saldqu I 
masla'tu "infection, epidemic" M/jB; < sald'u I 
masla'u "pitcher, jug" jB lex.; < sald'u I 
masmakannu — » musukkannu 
masmas (a plant) jB 
masnaqtu "inspection" j/NB; < sandqu I 
masradum (a pack-saddle) OA; <sarddu 
masrahtu — » maslahtu 
masrahu — » maslahu 
massaku(m) 1. OB ~ "tow-rope" for boat 2. NA 

mng. unkn., textile item in pairs; < nasdku 
massaku — » also mastaku 
massaru "saw" jB; bel m. (epith. of Ninsar); 

< nasdru 

massatum "princess, queen" OA; < massu 

massis (horse trappings)? MB; < Kass. 

massltu — » mastltu 

massu (a conscript labourer) Alal., Am. 

massum — » also massum 

massu(m), OA massu' urn, jB also massu, 

ma/ensu; f. massutum "leader, expert" Bab. 

(lit.), O/MA [MAS.SU]; <Sum.; > massatum; 

massutu II 
massu — » also massu I 3 
massuhum ~ "inferior quality" OA of metal; 

< masdhu D 
massusu mng. unkn. NB 
massutu "washing" MA; < mesu II D 
massutum — » also massA 

massutu, malsutu l.MB "call"? 2. j/NB "read- 
ing out, lecture"; < sasu 

massu' um -*massu 

masu — » mesu I 

masu — » mesu 

mas'um — » mesu I 

ma'su mng. unkn. jB 

masuktu "mortar" jB; < sdku 

masussu (topog. term)? MB 

maswatu (a type of tree) Ug.; < Ug.? 

masadu (a melting pot) Ug., jB; < sddu II 

masallu; pi. f. "sleeping place, shelter" for 
shepherds etc. M/jB; NA, of tomb; < saldlu; -» 

masarritum (a vessel) Mari; < masarru 

masarru(m) (a vessel) O/jB, NA; < sardru I 

masaru(m), also phps. mazlsdru Bab. G (alu) ~ 
"to stride about"? D (<misru denom.?) 
"enclose, mark boundaries (of)"; "limit" time 
N (phps. different word ?) ~ "become com- 
pact"?; > masirum?; musdrum'-; namsdru 

masdrum — » also masdrum 

masa um — » masu 

masen — » masi 

mashatu(m) (a kind of flour) Bab., M/NA 
[ZLMAD/MA.AD.GA]; < sahdtu I 

masi, also (+ subjunct. -n(i)l) masin, masen 
"(but) since, in view of NA in issu m. "since", 
"as if'?; kl m. "correspondingly, accordingly" 
(— ► also masti. G 6.7); < masu 

masihu "middle"? NB; < Aram.? 

masilu (a musician, phps.) "cymbalist" Ug.; 

masirum (or maslzirum) in annakam m. (a 
variety of tin) OA; < masdrum or masdru ? 

masiru (a shipping due) NB; < Aram.? 

masitu "(that which is) sufficient" jB; < masu 

maslalum (or maslalum) mng. unkn. OB in PN; 

< saldlu 

masrahtu (an emblem) jB lex.; < masrahu 

masrahu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "socle for (divine) 
symbols" 2. "socle" of the gall bladder, phps. 
"bile-duct"? [SUR]; < sardhu II 

massartu(m), Am. also mansartu "observation, 
guard" [EN.NUN/NU.UN] OA rabi massar(d)tim 
"captain of the guards"; sa m., bel m. "guard, 
watchman", NB bit m. "guardroom"; m. 
nasdru(m) "to stand guard", also astr. 
"observe"; "watch" of the night, st. abs. 
massarat "at first watch"; "cultic watch"; m. 
hasim 'guard of the lungs' (= "bronchia"?); 
"depot, warehouse"; "safe custody; proper 
care"; < nasdru; > massarutu 

massaru(m), NA massuru "guard, watchman" 
[(LU.)EN.NUN; (LU.)EN.NU(.UN)] in comb., e.g. 
Am. m. sarri "king's guard"; m. abullim 
"gatekeeper"; m. qisdtimlqisti "forest guard"; m. 
eqlim "field guard"; of deities and divine images 
m. sulmi(m) u baldti(m) "guardian of health and 
life"; m. tidi 'guardian of clay' (= a worm); 

< nasdru 

massarutu(m) "safekeeping" O/jB; < massartu 

massum, masslzzum ? OB 1. (a garment) 
2. (rash, eczema)? 

massuru — » massaru 

masu(m), OAkk, Ass. masd'um "to correspond, 
comply with (; be sufficient, suffice" 
G (Hi) 1. after mala, NA (am)mar (of field 
etc.) "be as much as it amounts to, is worth"; 
"be worth as much as s.o. else"; mala, ammar 
libbi- m. "achieve wishes"; after infin. "be able 



masgaba ru 

to" 2. with ana or dat. "reach" o.'s goal; stat. "is 
sufficient" 3. with ace. "reach" a number or a 
time 4. OA "take responsibility for" 5. with 
kima "become equal to" 6. kl masi "how much 
(does it correspond to)?", math, also after prep. 
(-» masi) 7. absol. masi "it is enough!", also in 
PN; OA before laqd'um and sabdtum "be 
ready, in a position to take" D "make available, 
provide" (-» wussum), OB qdtam m. "make 
o.s. available, get involved" Dt OA "be made 
available" S caus. of G "cause to/let 
correspond"; "cause to suffice"; jB "prepare 
(properly)"? drug mixture; NA "be able to" Stn 
unci. St 1. "set about doing" 2. stat. "is 
within reach, available"; > masi, masitu; 
misitum; mustamsu 
masu(m) "to churn, make butter"? O/jB G; 

> namdsu; namusu ? 
masu — » also widsum 
masullultu — » sulultu I 

masaddu, meseddu, Nuzi masandu; NA pi. f. 
"(yoke-)shaft" M/NB; jB astr. "shaft (of the 
waggon-star = Ursa Major)"; < sadddu 

masadu(m) "to beat; full (cloth, wool)"? Bab., 
OA [SA] G (Hi, OA alu) OA "full"? textiles; jB 
"massage"; of demons etc. "strike" with 
disease; "crush, press in"? foetus, organs 
D "massage"? N pass, of G "be stricken, have a 
stroke"; > masdu II; misdu, misittu 

masahu(m) I "to measure" land, buildings 
M/NB G (alu) "measure, mete out" 
commodities; also Mari "count" people ? Gtn 
"measure out to each" D = G N "be measured"; 

> mashu I.II; masihu; mishu I, misihtu; 
mdsihum, mdsihdnu; mumassihu; namsdhu; 
tamsihu; — » masd'u 

masahu II ~ "to flash, shine, glow" [SUR] jB 
G (u/u) of star, meteor, > mishu II 

masdku — » masdku 

masallu(m) (a groove, channel, conduit)? OB, 
jB lex.; < saldlu II ?; -» musldlu 

masallu (a boat) jB lex.; < Sum. 

mas'altu "questioning, interrogation" j/NB; also 
(a type of commentary); < sdlu I 

masalu(m), MB also meselu "to equal" G (O/jB 
u/u, jB also a/a, MB Hi) stat. "is equal" (to = 
ana); "become equal" (to = ana, -is or dat.); 
MB "become equal", i.e. "smooth", of the sea; 
"be(come) halved, bisected" of time, grain; the 
moon D "make equal, proportionate"; with ana 
"equalize in value", "equal s.o."; "make 
similar, match"; "reproduce, copy" Dt "find o.'s 
match" S "make equal" St "place on a 
level" (with = ace.) N "attain the equivalent 

condition"?; > maslu; mislu, misldnu, misla; 
musdlu; mussulu, mussultu; tamsilu, tamsiltu; 

mas' alu (an oracle)? Ug.; < sdlu I 

masandu — » masaddu 

masanum (an object of precious metal) OAkk 
and in Sum. texts; — » massdnu, musdnum ? 

mas'anum — » mesenu 

masarru "dream" jB lex. 

masartu, NB mdsartu "inspection, (military) 
review" M/NA, NB; NA ekal m. "Review 
Palace, arsenal"; < asdru 

masaru(m) "to drag (across the ground)" OA, 
O/jB G (alu) garments; Nuzi leg. "drag (the 
hem of a garment)" to confirm the validity of an 
agreement; "teasel" fabric; "drive" a vehicle Gtn 
of animal "drag" tail "to and fro"; "drag s.o. to 
death" with animals; OA "delay, draw out" 
action, treatment D, Dtn, Dt — » wasdrum 
S caus. of G; > masru; misertu; masirum; 
masiru; tamsdru; namsartu 

ma'saru "tithe" Ug.; < Ug. 

masasu(m) "to wipe off; clean" O/jB G (alu) 
D "clean"? Dt pass, of D N pass, of G; 
> massu; mdsistu; masistu 1 

masatu "to itch" jB G stat.; > mastu 

mas'atu (a plant with thorns) jB 

masa'u(m) "to take away by force, rob" G (alu, 
jB once Hi) [KAR] from s.o. = ace; "abduct 
s.o."; "loot, pillage, ransack" country, building; 
stat. "is robbed" Gtn iter, of G D — » mussu'u 
S "let s.o. be robbed, cause to be robbed" N "be 
taken away by force"; "be looted, ransacked"; 
"be stolen"; >mas"u; mise'tu; massi'u; 
massutu V 

masd'u — » also masu II 

masdahu, maldahu "procession (street)" j/NB; 

< saddhu 

masdu I, maldu - "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
mas' enum — » mesenu 

masdu I, maldu ~ "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
masdu II "dressed"? f. pi., of hair jB lex.; 

< maMdu 
masdu (a stone) jB 
maseltu — ► meseltu 

masennu, masenu, Nuzi, NA masennu (an 
administrator, a manager) Nuzi, NA, NB 
[(LU.)AGRIG ? (-» abarakku)] 

mas' enum — » mesenu 

mas'ertum mng. unci. OA 

mdserum — » masirum 

masgabaru, masgabu (types of sacrificial goat) 
jB lex.; < Sum. 




masgallu "billy goat" jB lex., NB; -► dassu 
masgallu "pertaining to a billy goat" Nuzi 
masgasu(m), maskasu(m) (a battle mace)? O/jB; 

< sagdsu 
masgibillu — ► masgizilld 
masgikidu — > askikitu 

masgizillu, masgibillu (a sacrificial goat) jB 

[MAS.GI.IZI.LA/LAL]; < Sum. 
masgubbu "sexually mature goat" jB lex.; 

mashaltappu (a priest performing sacrifices)? 

jB; < Sum.? 
mashaltu" "(type of) sieve" jB; < sahdlu 
mashalu(m) "(type of) sieve" O/jB, M/NA; 

< sahdlu 

mashantu, mashandu (a waistband, sash)? jB; 

< sahdnu 

mashatu "stairs, ladder" M/jB; MB PIN Mashat- 

sarri; < sahdtu I 
mashu I "measured, surveyed" NB; < masdhu I 
mashu(m) II 1. OAkk(Sum.) (a beer mug) 

2. Qatna, Am. (a bead)?; < masdhu I 
inashu III "god" M/jB; < Kass. 
mashudu (a class of people)? jB lex. 
mashulduppu "scapegoat, kid as expiatory 

sacrifice" jB [MAS.HUL.DUB(.BA)]; < Sum.; -► 

mashurannu (a garment) Ug. 
mashuru, gen. mashiri (a textile) MA; 

< sahdru ? 
masianu — ► massdnu 

masihanu "the one who surveyed" MB; 

< masdhu I 

masihu; pi. also f. (a measure of capacity, varies 

from 30 to 54 qu, ~ 1 pan) NB; < masdhu I 
masihum "surveyor" OB lex.; < masdhu I 
masiktu — > masiktu 
masirru (a wooden vessel) jB lex. 
masiru (a wheeled vehicle) MA, M/jB; 

< masdru 

masirum, mdserum "a teaseller of cloth" OB 

lex.; < masdru 
masis "in oblivion, forgotten" OB; < masu I 
masis "on both sides" jB; < masu 
masistu modal ptcl. jB; < masdsu ? 
masistu f. "polisher" jB lex.; < masdsu 
masitu, massitu "twin sister" jB; < masu 
masitu — ► also masu I 1 
maskabum; pi. f. "camp" Mari; < W.Sem. 
maskadu (an illness of the joints, arthritis 7 ) jB 
maskadu — > also askadu 
maskakatu(m) pi. tant. "harrow" O/jB [GIS. 

GAN.UR]; < sakdku 

maskantu "ingredients, materials" jB; < sakdnu 
maskantu — ► also maskattu 
maskanu(m) 'place of putting' 1. "threshing 
floor" [KISLAH; MAS.GAN] OB; pi. also f. 

2. "place, site, settlement"; OB PIN Maskan-RN 
etc.; om. of parts of the liver, of the moon 

3. "fetter, shackles, chain"; OB as mark of a 
slave 4. NB "security, pledge", also bit m.\ m. 
sakdnu "to pawn, pledge"; m. sabdtu "to take as 
pledge" 5. Ass., Urar. ('"gW "tent"; < sakdnu; 
— > maskantu; maskattu 

maskanum "deposit" OA; < sakdnu 
maskanutu "state of pledge" NB ana m. sakdnu 

"to pledge"; ana m. sabdtu "to take as pledge"; 

< maskanu 4 
maskartum, maskartum (a piece of jewellery) 

OAkk, OB 
maskartum — > also masqartum 
maskasu — > markasu 
maskasu — ► masgasu 
maskattu(m), NA maskantu "depot; account" 

except OB; OAkk "depot"; O/MA "account", 

m. sakdnu(m) "to open an account"; M/NB 

"depot; stores", PIN Maskandti; NA maskanti 

uqni "substitute lapis lazuli"?; < maskanu 
maskenu — > muskenu 

maskirtum (a drinking vessel) Mari; < sakdru 
maskiru — » maskaru 
maskittu, malkittu "sacrificial table, altar" jB, 

NA; < sakdnu 
masku(m) "skin" [KUS] of human; "hide" of 

animal; "leather"; "peel, skin" of fruit, plant; jB 

m. hurdsi "gold overlay"; > mussuku 
masku — > also masku 
maskunum mng. unkn. OA 
maskuru Ass., NB maskiru "(inflatable) animal 

skin" NA, NB ? [KUS.BAR.RA] for swimmer or 

raft; < sakdru ? 
maslatu "knife (of a basket weaver)"; < saldtu II 
masliu — ► maslu 
maslu(m) "half O/jB; jB um masil "midday" 

[UD.SA9.AM]; O/jB musi masil "midnight"; OB 

of length, width; < masdlu 
maslu(m), meslum 1 , OAkk, MA masliu(m) 

1. OAkk, MA "(leather) bucket"; OAkk pi. f. 

2. OB "leather wrapper" for textiles 3.JB (a 
wall socle)?; < salu I 

masmasgallum "chief exorcist" OB lex.; < Sum. 
masma(s)su "incantation priest" M/NA, M/NB 

[(LU.)MAS.MAS]; also as epith. of deity; -► 

masma(s)sutu "conjuration; function, work of 

an incantation priest" jB, NA [MAS.MAS- ] m. 



epesu "to perform an incantation"; of deity DN 

be I m.-ti; < masmassu 
masna "for the second time" Ug.; < sanu III 
masqalillu, masqaliltu "suspension"? jB; 

< suqallulu ? 

masqaltum OA, OB 1. "weighing out; payment" 
2. "balance, scales" 3. "weight, pendant"; 

< saqdlu 

masqalu "weight" Am.; < W.Sem.; — > saqdlu 
masqartum (or maskartum) (an agricultural 

implement) Mari, OB(Esn.) 
masqitu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "watering place", 

"irrigation outlet"; "drink, (medicinal) potion" 

2. (leather enema bag); < masqu 
masqium — ► masqu 
masqu — > warqum 2 
masqu(m), OAkk masqium "watering place" 

OAkk, O/jB; "sprinkling vessel, watering can"; 

< saqu III 

masqutu j/NB 1. (a watering vessel) 2. "potion"; 

< masqu 

niasrahu pi. tant. ~ "good health"? OB; 

< sardhu I 

masraktu "votive offering" NA(Urar.); 

< sardku 

masritu, mesritu "riches, wealth" Bogh., jB; 

< masru 

masru "teased" of textile, "roughened" of skin, 

door MA, M/jB; < masdru 
masru(m), mesru "riches, wealth" [NIG.TUKU]; 

also pi.; Bab. in PN; med. transf. "excrement"?; 

jB bel m. "rich man"; is m. "date palm"; astr. 

kakkab m. "Sirius"; < saru II 
massakku — > mussakku 
massaktu (a kind of income payment) NB 
massanu, NA masianu "tongs" M/NA; NB 

wooden; < nasu II ?; — > masdnum 
massartu(m) "deduction, withdrawal; foodstuffs 

set aside" Bab.; NB (a remuneration for temple 

officials); astr. "diminution" of lunar visibility; 

< nasdru I 

massaru (a container)? jB lex.; < nasdru I 

massatum (a metal weapon)? OAkk 

massitu(m) 'carrying (to)', "delivery" OA, M/jB 
[Hi] MB "delivery" of commodities; "ingre- 
dients)" of drugs, in glass recipe; < nasu II; — > 
massu I 

massitu — > also masitu 

massi'u(m) "rapacious, predatory" O/jB; 

< masd'u 

massiyannu (a sash)? Ug.; < Hitt.; — > 

assiyannu ? 
massu "polished, shining" M/jB, Am.; < masdsu 

massu(m) I 1. OB (a carrying basket or board) 
[GI.GUR.DA (-► gigurdu)] 2.jB (a suction 
tube) 3. also massu, mansu (a symbol or 
signal) [MAS.SU]; < nasu II 

massu II "forgetful" jB; < masu II 

massu — ► also massu; masu 

massutu I mng. unci. MA, MB; < masd'u ? 

ma(s)sutu(m) II 1. OB(Susa) (a royal donation 
document) 2. jB "sovereign dignity"?; < massu 

mastakal, OB ammastakal, jB also mallrtakal 
(an alkaline plant) O/jB, NA [(U.)IN.NU.US; 

mastaktu (or mastaqtu) (a wooden object) OB 

lex.; — > maltaktu 
mastaku(m), massaku, mestaku "chamber, cell" 

Bab.(lit.) [ama], of humans, deities 
mastaku — > also maltakum 
mastaqtu ~ "constriction" jB med.; < satdqu 
mastaqtu — > also mastaktu 
mastitu(m), MA, M/jB also maltitu, NA massitu 

1. O/jB, MA "(allowance of) drink" 2. NA 
"drinking vessel"; < satu II 

mastu(m) (an itching skin condition) O/jB; 

< masdtu 

mastu(m), jB also maltu "drinking vessel; drink" 

O/jB; < satu II 
mastu — ► also martu 
mdstu — > martu; masu 
mastutu(m), M/jB maltutu 1. OB "weaving", in 

bit m. "weaving shed" 2. O/jB "textile"; 

< satu III 

mastaru, maltaru 1. M/NB, NA "inscription" 

2. MB pi. f., jB "medical prescription"; 

< satdru II 
mastu — > mestu 

masu(m) I; f. masitu(m) 1. Bab. "forgotten", f. 
also subst. "forgotten thing(s)"; (a part of the 
gall bladder) 2.jB "masu (a plant name); 

< masu II 

masu(m) II, Ass. masd'u(m), NB occas. wasu 
"to forget" G (Hi) "forget", also in PN; 
"forget, leave ( behind"; "forget about"; 
OA, OB in hendiad. "forget o.s., (do 
unintentionally" Gtn iter, of G D OA, OB 
"allow to sink into oblivion"; jB — > wussum 
S "cause, allow to forget" N "be forgotten, 
neglected"; > masu I, masis; massu II; misu I; 
misutu*; tamsitum; — ► misitum 

masu — ► also masu; mesu II G 

masu(m), ma(s)su; f. mdstu "twin (brother/ 
sister)" [MAS.TAB.BA] OAkk, Bab. of human, 
OAkk as PN; of deity; image; astr. (the 
constellation Gemini) [MUL.MAS.TAB.BA], 



matu(m) I 

d/mul m (name of n star in the constellation 
Hercules ?); of objects; ^mdstu (a plant name) 
[prob. t'l.MAS.TAB.BA]; < Sum.; >mdsis, 
rndSu -> miidsu 

/iw.f'i/ — > "destitute, robbed" jB; <masd'u 
ma.iutu — > massutu II 
mat — ► mati 
nwt — » me' atu 

matahu "to lift" M/NA G (alu) "pick up, lift" 
objects for transport; "collect" person, thing; 
"lift, raise" eyes; resa m. "lift s.o.'s head" for 
an office; "lift, help s.o. up"; of the new moon 
"ascend" D = G ? N "be lifted"; of moon, stars 
"ascend higher" 
matallu — ► madallu 

mataqu(m) "to be(come) sweet" O/jB, NA 
G (/'//') D "make sweet, sweeten"; > matqu, 
mutqu I, mutqu, mutqltu, mutdqu, mutdqutu 
matdr — ► watdr 
mataru — » watrum 
mataru(m) G stat. only "is spotted, speckled" 

mataru — » also watdrum 
mate — ► maw 
matema — ► matlma 

mati, nwfe, also ratt, immatile (= ina m.), 
ammati "when?"; adf/'J m., OA, MA(Ug.) 
qadu mate, NA ad; immat(e) "until when?", 
also in PN; as conj. "when" (-+ GAG §174e); 
> matlma, mati me; mat mat ma, matimeni 
mat(i)giqu — » kurigiqu 

matlma, matema, matime, immatilema "ever; 
always" [UD.KUR.SE] 1. in questions "at any 
time, ever"; in pos. sentences "sometime"; with 
neg. "never" 2. "always" in the past 3. "for 
ever" in the future; ana m. "for ever"; < mati; 
— » mutima 
matimatima — ► matmatma 
matime — ► matlma 
matime, immatime "whenever" MB(Alal.), Am., 

Nuzi, Bogh.; < maft + -me II 
matimeni "ever" NA, with neg. "never"; 

< matlma 
matitan "all countries" j/NB(lit.) l.jB loc.-adv. 
"in all lands" 2. gen. subst. "of all lands"; 
<maHi I (-+ GAG §61q) 
matlihsum, matlishum (a strap, belt) OA 
matmatma, matimatima, matummatumma "ever 

and ever" OB, Mari 
matnu(m) "sinew, tendon; string (of a bow)" 

O/jB, NA; also used as a drug ? 
matqanu "stand, tripod" Nuzi, j/NB; < taqdnu 

matqu(m); f. matuqtu "sweet" [KU7.KU7] of 
food etc.; of skin diseases; NB in fPN Matuqtu; 

< matdqu 

matqu (an iron object) NB 

matraktu(m) (a stone hammer)? Bab. lex.; 

< tardku 
matru — ► watrum 
mattu — ► mddu 
mattum — ► muttu 

matu(m) I f. "land, country" [mostly KUR (pi. 
NB(roy. inscr.) also MA.DA] 1. sg. "(own) 
home country, territory"; in names of countries, 
DNs, PNs; "flat country" in contrast to 
mountain; "land" in contrast to sea; "(foreign) 
country, territory"; "inhabitants of a country"; 
"area of surface of entrails, e.g. mat ubdni(m) 
"area of 'finger'", mat (ubdn) hast "a. of lung", 
mat tdkaltim "a. of stomach" 2. pi. f. "the 
countries" of a region; "all countries"; > matitan 

matu(m) II m. ~ "sacred precinct"? O/jB 

matu(m), OAkk, Ass. mudtu(m) "to die" 
G [mostly US (NB often wr. GAM)] stat. of 
humans and animals "are/were dead"; "fall" in 
battle; "be put to death, killed, executed"; of 
body tissue "become gangrenous"; of tree "die"; 
NA stat. "is exhausted, spent"?; OA of 
document "become invalid" Gtn pi. subj. "die 
one after another, consecutively" S "put (s.o.) 
to death, kill; kill (involuntarily)"; "destroy" 
plants, harvest; > mltu, mltdnu, mltutu, mltutis, 
mitutdn; mayyitdnu; musmltu; mutu, mutdnu; 
muttatu II; mudtis; ittll-imut 

mdtu — ► me' atu 

matummatumma — ► matmatma 

matuqtu — ► matqu 

maturru(m) "(little) boat" O/jB [GIS.MA.TUR]; 

< Sum. 

matusu (desig. of Marduk's boat) j/NB 

[GIS.MA.(U 5 .)TUS.A]; < Sum. 
matd'u — » matu II 
matis adv. "little" jB lex.; < matu I 
matium — » matu I 
matru 1. Am., jB (a handle)? 2. NB "welt, 

weal"?; < teru 
mattaltu "mirror image, reflection; counterpart" 

jB; < natdlu 
mattalu "reeds used for kindling" jB lex.; 

< natdlu ? 
mart/ — ► matu II 

matu(m) I, OA matium "small, little; 
insignificant, low-value" [lal]; plam m. 
sakdnum "to speak humbly" (to s.o. = ana); 

< matu II 

matu(m) II 



matu(m) II, OAkk, Ass. matd'u(m) "to 
be(come) little" G (/'//') [LAL] of water level 
"become low"; of yield, possessions etc. 
"become less, lessen, diminish"; "grow scarce, 
be in short supply"; esp. as opp. to 
(w)atdru(m); stat. "is lacking, wanting"; pi X 
mati "X is humiliated"; math, "become less" 
(than = ana), mati "minus" in X LAL Y (rdg.?); 
"need, be in need" (of = ace); "be defective"; 
of sight "fail, deteriorate"; of humans "waste 
away, be emaciated" D "reduce, curtail" [LAL], 
stat. "is restricted in o.'s ability" (to do; pi 
X muttu "humiliate X" Dt "be reduced; 
impeded" S "lessen; neglect, disregard (s.o. or", "treat badly, insult" St "suffer reduction, 
meet with loss"; stat. OB "is despised"; 
> matu I, matis; mitu, mitltu; mutu, muddu?; 
muttu; imtu, intatta; samtu; tamtltu 

ma'u(m) 1. OB (a bird) 2. jB lex. (a part of the 

ma"u — > mannu I 

ma'u(rn) ~ "to push ( away"? G ? OB bolt; 
NA unci. D 1. ~ "throw, hurl down"? 
2. "praise"? 

ma'u I ~ "ruler"? jB 

ma'u II "excrement" jB lex. 

ma'u — > mu I 

ma'u(m) "to vomit (bile)" O/jB G (aid) Gtn 
iter, of G 

ma'u — ► also mud'um 

ma'unnu "dwelling, habitation" Am.; < W.Sem. 

ma"uttu; pi. ma"utdti "subsistence 7 (field)" 

NA; tab m. (official in charge of m.); < mdnu; 

= NB mii'untu ? 
nidwu — ► mdmu 
mayyakum "place of copulation"? OB(Gilg.); 

< niaku ? 
mayyaltu(m), mdltum, ma" altu, NA ma" assu 

"bed; stable" O/jB, NA l."bed" [(GIS.)KI.NA] 

2. "litter, sedan (chair)"? [GIS.MAR.SUM] 

3. NA ma" assu "stable"; < ndlu 
mayyalu(m), ma" alu "bed, resting place" Bab., 

M/TMA [(GIS.)KI.NA] euph. for "grave"; m. 

mus(lt)i "bed for the night"; bit m. "bedroom"; 

OB om. (part of the gall bladder); m. Istar (a 

type of grass); < ndlu 
ma(y)yaru(m) "breaking up (of the soil)"? Bab. 

[APIN.SU.KIN] m. mahdsu "to plough (a field)"; 

"field ploughed with a m"; j/NB "plough" 

(employed for this); < neru ? 
mayyitanu "moribund"? jB; < mdtu 
mdzahu — > mezehu 

mazaqu"tosuck"jB, NA G (alu) D "suck out" 
Dtt pass, of D S "let suck"; > mizqu; muzlqdtu; 
— ► namzdqu 

mazaru (a garment) Ug.; < mazdru ? 

mazaru (to treat wool in a certain way) O/jB G; 

> mazru, mizru, mazaru? 
mazdru — > also masdrum; masdru 
maza'u I (a leather bag)? NA 

maza'u(m) II, mazu "to press, squeeze" Ass., jB 
G (OA /'//', jB alu) "press out" beer; "crush" 
drugs in oil D MA "rape" a woman N pass, of 
G "be pressed out"; > mazu I; miz'u, mezu; 
munzu'um; namzltu 

mazianu (a racecourse for horses)? MA 

mazirum — ► masirum 

mazitum — ► mazu I 

maziu (a metal vessel) NA; — ► manzu 

mazium — > also mazu I 

mazkutu "clearance of an obligation" NB; 
< zaku II 

mazlagum "trident, fork" OA 

mazpdn — ► mazzizu 

mazru ~ "felted"? jB lex.; < mazdru 

mazru tu, ma(z)zarutu, mazruttu 1. Bab. 
"basket" (of a gardener etc.) 2. NA "(area or 
state of) cultivation", esp. ina m. ; < zaru II 

mazu(m) I, OA mazium "pressed" OAkk, OA, 
jB [KAS.SUR.RA] as subst. OAkk, jB; OA f. 
mazitum "excessively pressed, cheap beer"; 
(desig. of bread); < maza'u II 

mazum II mng. unkn. OB(lit.) G (ulu) Dt jB ? 

mazu — > also manzu; maza'u II 

mazu(m) G unattested Dt Bab. "to refuse" to do 

mazum "fuller's stick" jB lex.; < zaru 

mazzaltu "clearing (out)" NB; < nazdlu 

mazzaltu — > also mazzaztu 

mazzalu(m) (a pouring vessel) for water, oil 
O/jB; < nazdlu 

mazzarutu — > mazrutu 

mazzassu, mazzastu — > mazzaztu 

mazzattuhlu — ► manzattuhlu 

mazzazanum, manzazdnu(m), mazzuzdnum, 
OB(Alal.) also mazzazzdnum, Susa munza= 
zdnum "security, pledge" O/jB; < mazzdzu; 

> mazzazdnutum 

mazzazanutum, manzazdnutum "(state of being 
a) pledge" OB of slave; < mazzazanum 

mazzaz pdnu(t)tu — ► mazziz pdnuttu 

mazzaztu(m), mazzastu(m), manzaz/stum; 
M/NB manzaltu, pi. freq. manzaldtu; MA 
mazzaltu, NA manlzzassu "position; post"; 
OAkk(Sum.) "office"; NB "term of office, 
shift" [KI.DAG?];. bel m. "office-holder"; jB 




astr. "position" of divine constellations; 
"position" at court, in the cult etc.; of cultic 
object; MB pi. mazzaldt taqmbti "battle 
stations"; < mazzazu 

mazzazu — ► mazzizu; nanzdzu 

mazzazu(m), manzdzu(m) "position" [mostly 
KI.GUB; also NA] "abode, location" of living 
being; "position; post"; med. "faeces" or 
"flatulence"?; astr. "position" of star, planet, 
constellation, "phase" of the moon; om. (an 
ominous constellation); ext. (mark on the lobus 
sinister); "socle, stand" of stele, statue etc.; jB 
"running board" of chariot; math. 
[KI.GUB(.US)] unci.; "pledge, security" mostly 
mazzazdnum; < izuzzum 

mazzazzdnum — ► mazzazdnum 

mazziz panu(t)tu, manlzzaz pdnu(t)tu (— ► GAG 
§59a) "position as a courtier" M/NA, M/NB 

mazzizu, mazzazu, manzazu "standing" (earlier 
— ► muzzazu), in comb. M/NA, M/NB m. pdni, 
NB realized as mazpdn (a courtier) [LtJ.GUB. 
BA.IGI]; NA manzaz ekalle (a courtier); 

< izuzzum G ptcp.; — ► mazziz pdnuttu; nanzdzu 
mazzum — ► massum 

mazzu — ► manzu 

mazzuzdnum — ► mazzazdnum 

-me — ► -ma; -mi 

me — ► me'atu 

-me I after voc. and pron. "hey!" jB 

-me II forms indir. interrog. pron.s, ptcl.s etc. in 
Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. etc.; — ► anummame; 
ayyisamme; ayyumme; kime; mannumme; 
matime; minumme 

-me — ► also -mi 

meamlu — » mamlu 

meammu — » mammu 

meanum, menu, minnu "tiara" O/jB; < Sum.; 

me'atu(m), mat, also me, O/MA metu(m); pi. 
me'dtufm), mdtu(m), Mari metum "(one) 
hundred" [ME] as numeral; followed by object 
counted or unit of measure; NB rab me 
"centurion"; OA loc.-adv. (ana) metum n "n per 
cent"; — ► metd 

meburku(m) "halfa grass" OAkk, jB; folk etym. 

< mu I + burku 

mededu "thorn" jB lex.; < ededu 

medehtum ~ "spotted condition"? of gall bladder 
OB; < edehu 

medelu "bolt, bar" M/NB [GIS.SU.DES]; < edelu 

mediru — » midru III 

medu, NA madu - "to become visible" M/NB, 
NA G stat. "is known" (-> edit II G) D "look 
after; observe"; "take friendly notice" (of s.o.); 

"look up to"; NB "watch" N NB "become 

medutu (desig. of animal hides) Nuzi 
megeru — ► makdru I 
megiru — ► mekiru 

megutu(m) "negligence" O/jB; < egu in 
mehdndtu — ► mehu I 
mehertu, mihirtu 1. M/jB "produce, income, 

production" 2. M/jB "complaint against" 3. jB 

ina meherti- "upstream of 4. MA "(woman) 

of equal rank"; < mahdru 
mehhu — ► mihhu I. II 
mehirtu — » mdhirtu 
mehratum OA 1. "copy" of tablet, oath 

2. "equivalent" usu. in silver, < mahdru 
mehretu(m), NA, occas. NB mehratu "opposite 

side; front" Bab., NA [IGI- ; GAB] 1. after prep. 

ina m. "opposite"; ana m. "towards the 

opposite side, against"; also adi m., istu m. 

2. without prep, "opposite" 3. as prep. 
"toward(s)"; "in the presence of 4. "facade, 
frontage (of a building)"?; < mahdru 

mehritu — ► mehru 

mehru(m) I, mihru(m); pi. m. & f. [GABA.Rl] 
1. "copy, duplicate" of tablet 2. "answer" 

3. musical "refrain, response" [GIS.GI4.GAL] 

4. "equivalent", math. "equal number"; 
"(person) of equal status"; of omen 
"counterbalance" 5. NA "colleague", esp. qanni 
m. "among colleagues" 6. for — ► mehretu 
7. "weir, barrage" 8. "presentation" (type of 
offering) 9. "adversity, unfavourable incident"; 

< mahdru; > mehru, mehrutu 
mehru II (a conifer) jB, NA 

mehru(m) "(of) equal (rank)" OB, f. mehritu as 

fPN; < mehru I + -i 
mehrutu, mehruttu "equal rank" Am., Bogh.; 

< mehru I 

mehsu(m), mahsu (a metal cup with a lid)? 
O/jB; < hesu 

mehsu(m), mihsu(m) "blow; textile" [SIG] 
1. "blow, strike"; "attack" of demon 2. Nuzi 
"welt, weal" 3. "thrust, impact" of tool, weapon 

4. "prick, sting, bite" of animal, plant 

5. "doorpost"? 6. (type of engraved gem)? 
7. "(woven) fabric, textile" [TUG.SIG]; 

< mahdsu 

mehu(m) I; occas. Aram. pi. mehdndtu "storm" 
Bab. sa m. said of Adad; tib(ut) m. "onset of a 
storm"; transf. of battle etc. 

mehum II "evening (offering)" OAkk, 
OB(Elam); — ► tamhu 

mekeku (a wooden scraper) jB lex.; < ekeku 



merestu II 

mekelu mng. unkn. jB, NA ? , NB ? G; D 

mekeru — ► makdru I 

mekiru, megiru "irrigator" jB lex.; < makdru I 

mekku, mikku (type of glass) Ug., NA 

mekku(m), mikku(m) O/jB 1. (a reed sieve) 
2. "drumstick" or "stick (for a hoop)" 3. (part 
of animal's harness) lex. 4. (type of tool) lex. 

meku(m) I (or meku(m)l) ~ "instruction"? 

meku II, miku (a bitter plant) jB 

meku III (a type of song) jB lex. 

meku IV (a siege instrument) Bab. lex. 

meku(m) V, maku "to neglect" O/jB, Mari, Am. 
G (('//) "neglect"; "be negligent" (towards 
= ana) Dt = G ? St 1. ~ "pacify"? a country 
2. of part of the lung, mng. unkn.; > mekum; 
mikitu I; temkum 

mekum, mdkiu "inactive, idle man" OB, NA; 

< meku V 

meku — > also meku I 

mekutu(m) "want, lack, shortage" jB; < eku II 

melammu — ► melemmu 

melammu (a shining garment) jB; < melemmu 

inelelu "play" jB; < melulu 

melemmu(m), also malemmu, M/NB melammu, 
mostly pi. "fearsome radiance, aura" Bab.(lit.) 
[ME.lAm] of deity, demon; m. nasu(m) "to 
wearm."; of king m. sarrutim "royal radiance"; 
of temple; of planet Saturn; of person "glow of 
health, healthy glow"; < Sum.; > melammu 

melesu(m) ~ "excitement, exhilaration"? O/jB; 

< elesu 

melestu, melistu, meseltu (part of the tongue)? jB 

lex.; < lasu II 
inelitu, melittu "step, stairway" Mari, jB; < elu HI 
melqetu(m), Ass. malqetu (a tax or perquisite)? 

O/jB, MA [SU.TI.A]; < lequ II 
meltltu — » mestitu 
meltu — » mestu 
melu(m) "height, altitude" Bab. [SUKUD] 

1. "(measured) height" of door etc. 2. "ascent, 

way up"; "step" of staircase, ladder 3. "high 

place, hill"; < elu HI 
melu "poultice (hung round neck)" jB, NA; 

< e'elu ? 

meluhhu "of Meluhha (type)"jB lex.; < PIN 
melulayu "playful" jB lex.; < melulu + -ay (— ► 

GAG §56p) 
melultu(m) "game, play" O/jB, Nuzi; of cultic 

games, sport; transf. of battle; < melulu 
melulu(m) "to play" (with = ace.) O/jB, NA 

(pret. immelil, Ass. immalil, pi. immel(i)lu; 

imper. melil; ptcp. mummellum) irreg. vb.; 

> melelu, melultu, melulu, melulayu, mummellu 

melulu "player, actor" jB; < melulu 

memeni, also mimilenu, menimeni "somebody, 

who(so)ever" NA for — ► mamman; with neg. 

"nobody"; more rarely for mimma "something, 

any(tfiing)"; with neg. "nothing" 
memltu, memetujB lex. 1. (term for a girl) 2. (a 

mendiu (a musical instrument) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
menestu "weakness, famine" jB; < menesu 
menesu ~ "weakness" NA; < enesu; > menestu, 

menesutu "(condition of) weakness" M/jB; 

< menesu 
menimeni — » memeni 
mensu — > massu 

menu(m), manu(m), OAkk mand'um "to love" 
OAkk, O/jB G (;'/(') OAkk in PN D lex. 
"flatter"?; > menum'-; minutum II; mumannum 

menum "love"? OAkk subst. in PN; < menu ? 

menu — ► meanum 

menunianum (a type of textile) OA 

meqiqdnu — » miqqdnu 

meqitu "eye paint" Am., Bogh.; < equ 

meqiu — » makku 

meqqu —* maqqu 

mequm "cosmetics" OB; < equ 

merdnu — > mirdnu I 

meranu — ► merenu 

merdnu — ► merenu 

merastum — ► merestu I 

merasu — > meresu I 

mer'atum — » mdrtu 

merditu, merdetu, marditu j/NB 1. lex. m. hurri 
mng. unkn. 2. NB (a cultic ceremony or 
procession) 3. lex. (a stepladder) [GIS.MAy]; 

< redu I 

merehtu "aggressiveness, insolence" j/NB; NB 

in PN; < erehu 
mereltu — » merestu II 
merenu(m), merdnu "nakedness" O/jB; of 

country "barrenness"; esp. loc.-adv. with pron. 

suff. merenussu "in naked, wasted state" O/jB; 

< eru III 

merenu, merdnu "naked" jB; < merenu + -I 
meressu "naked" jB; < erissi- and merenu 

(mixed form) 
merestu(m) I, OA merastum "planting, 
cultivation" OA, O/jB [APIN- ] OA "sowing 
time"; OB eqlum m. "arable land, farmland"; 

< meresu I 

merestu II, mereltu "wish, need" M/NB "daily 
needs, requisites, necessaries"; "consignment" 
of silver or commodities; NB in col. ina meresti 
"with intent, deliberately"; < eresu II 

meresu(m) I 



ineresu(m) I, Ass. merasu "cultivated land" 
Bab., M/NA "(year of) cultivation" opp. to 
fallow; bit m. "cultivated land"; < eresu I 

meresu II "wisdom" jB; < ersu I 

meresu III "desire" MB; < eresu II 

mer'etum — » mdrtu 

merginanu, me/irgirdnu, jB(Ass.) margirdnu (a 
medicinal plant) M/jB; — » merzinu 

merhum I (an official, phps.) "judge" OAkk, 
OB; OAkk in PN; > merhutum 

merhu(m) II, mirhum "ergot, stye (in the eye)" 
O/jB; < marahu 

merhu III mng. unkn. MB 

merhutum "office of the merhum" Mari; 

< merhum I 

meritu(m), miritufm), mer'ltu "pasture" O/jB; 

< re' u 

ineritu(m), miritu(m) "musical instrument from 
Mari" OAkk, O/jB; OAkk, OB in Sum. texts; 

< PIN; — » mdritu 
mer'ltu — » merltu 
mermeri mng. unkn. Ug. 
merqu — » mirqu 
merrltum mng. unkn. OB 

merru jB 1. lex. "wind" 2. (a type of song); 

merru (a plant) jB lex.; var. of — » erru ? 
mersu(m), mirsu(m) (a cake) ingredients: dates, 

sesame, oil etc. [NINDA.I.DE.A/Am]; OB fPN 

Merslya "Little cake, 'Sweetie pie'"; < mardsu 
mertu — » martu 
mertu — » martu 
mertu — » martu 

mertu "scrapings"? jB; < mardtu 
meru "hundred" OB(Susa) 
merit — » mdru; miru I 
meru "pregnancy" jB; < aru IV 
mer'um — » mdru 
mer'uttum — » mdrutu 
meruwdtum — » martu 

merzinu (a medicinal plant) jB; — » merginanu 
mesallu(m), jB usu. emesallu (desig. of salt) 

O/jB; < Sum.; — » ummisallu 
mesehtu "allocation (document)" jB lex.; 

< esehu 
meseltu — » melestu 
meserru — » misarrum 

mesertu "confinement, siege" jB; < eseru II 
meseru(m) "confinement; enclosure" O/jB; OB 

"imprisonment"; bit m. (ritual enclosure); 

"(feeling of) isolation"; < eseru II 
mesitu(m) 1. OB(Susa) 'purification', "clearing" 

of claims 2. jB "water for washing"; < mesu II 


meskannu — ► musukkannu 
meskertum "barrage, dam"? OB; < sekeru I 
messam — » misissam 
messetu "distance" O/jB lex.; < nesH II 
messu (a trap)? jB lex. 
messutu "identification" MB; — » wussum 
|- mesu(m) I, Ass. mas'um, masiu(m), masd 
j a "washed, clean, pure" [LUy] of object, 
-£ substance; OB fPN Mesitum ?; of metal, 
.;-■•! mineral "refined, purified"; OB(Susa) leg. 
' "cleared^; < mesu II 

mesu(m) II, Alal., Ug. also malesu, A£&, 

masd'u(m) "to wash, clean(se), purify" G (('/;).- 

[LUH] "wash"; "wipe away" tears, blood; 

"refine" metal, mineral; OB(Susa) "clear" of 

claim Gtn iter, of G [LUtJ.MES] D "purify, 

cleanse" — » wuss&m Dt pass, of D "wash o.s." 

SD "wipe away" N of crime "be washed 

away"; > mesu I; mesitu; misu I; musdtu; 

masdtu, massutu, massu'um; nemsu, nemsetu; 

mesu(m), mesu (a type of tree) O/jB [GIS.MES 

(— » musukkannu)]; — » mesu; misena 
mesu — » also misu I 
mesu, mdsu pi. tant. "cult, rites" M/NB; — » 

misu I 
mesu, mesu MA, j/NB G of god "to hurl down" 

human; "crush" stone, plant; "destroy" N pass. 

misu — » also mesu 
mesukkannu — » musukkannu 
mesukku l.jB, NA (a bird, phps.) "falcon" 

2. MB (pi. f. mesukketi), Am. (bird- shaped 

mesharutu — » mesherutu 
mesheris "during childhood" O/jB; < seheru 
mesherutu, mesharutu "childhood, youth" j/NB; 

< seheru 
mesiranu (desig. of horse) NA 
mesirtum in sa m. (an occupation) OB lex. 
mesiru "drawing"? NA; < eseru 
mesiuri (a plant) jB lex. 
mesu — » wisum 
mes "where?" jB; — » is; is 
mesaris — » misaris 
mesaru — » misaru 
mesarutu — » misarutu 
mesdaris — » masdara 
mesdugudu — ► mestegudd 
meseddu — » masaddu; mesetu 
mesedi — » mesetu 




meseltu(m), mulaseltu, OA masdltum; pi. 

meseletu "whetstone" O/jB [NA4.BAR.DU.E ?]; 

meselu — » masdlu; musdlu 
mesenu(m), OAkk mas'anum, OA mas' enum 

"sandal, shoe" OAkk, Bab., OA; <senu; -» 

mesequ(m) "strickle" O/jB for levelling grain in 

measuring-vessel; OB siq m. kabrimlraqqiml 

biruyim "heavy/light/medium level measure"; 

meseris — » misaris 
meseru — » misaru 
mesestu — » misertu 
mesetu(m), mesitu(m) - "opening, passageway 

in a wall"? OA, OB, Bogh., Ug. 1. OB, Susa 

math. mng. unkn. in surface calculations 2. OA 

(a narrow storeroom) 3. Hitt., Ug. in LU 

mesedi, mesetti (an official, phps. orig. in 

charge of a storeroom ?); rab m. (overseer of 

mesgum "rabies" Mari; < segu II 
mesha(t)tu — » misihtu 
mesitu — » mesetu 
meskalallii (a table) lex.; < Sum. 
meskalu (a type of door) jB lex. 
meski (a type of door) jB lex. 
meslu — » mislu 
meslum — » maslu 

mesretu pi. tant. "limbs" M/NB [A.UR]; < saru II 
mesritu — » masritu 
mesru — » masru 
mestaku — » mastaku 
mestegudu, mestegurru, mestldugudu (a heavy 

table) jB lex.; < Sum. 
mestitu, melaltitu - "assignment, ration" j/NB; 

< setu II; — » mestu 3 
mestu(m), meltu, mistu, maslltu Bab. 1. "drying 

(process); dried state", sir m. "dried meat"; 

nun(e) m. "dried fish" 2. jB "bedstead"? 3. NB 

= mestitu; < setu II 
mesu — » mesu II 

mesu (a club of mesu wood)? jB 
mesu — » also mesu; misu 
mesu(m), mesu "to disregard, scorn" Bab. 

G (pret. imes, imis, im'es) "neglect" deity, 

human; "fail" in o.'s duty Gtn iter, of G D = G 

N "be neglected"; > temesu 
mesu — » also mesu 
mesurru (a topog. term) NA 
meta "a hundred times" OA; -» me'atu 
metaqtu — » meteqtu 
metaqu — » metequ 

metellu "lordship, power" jB; < etellu; — ► mezezu 
metellutu(m) "rulership, power of a ruler" O/jB; 

< etellu 

metegto;' NA metaqtu "march-past, advance" 

MB, NA; < etequ 
metequ(m), NA metaqu "route, passage" O/jB, 

NA of troops, vehicles; < etequ 
metu — » me'atu; mitu 
metum — » me'atu 
metenu(m) ~ "flour bin" OAkk(Sum.), O/jB; 

< firm 

metlutu "manhood" M/jB; < etlu 

metu (a divine garment in the cult) NB 

metu — » also mittu 

me'um (a bird) OB 

mezehu, meldzahu "sash" j/NB, for divine 
statues, priests; < ezehu 

mezezu ~ "wrath, fury" M/jB; < ezezu; — » metellu 

mezu "beer brewer" Bab. lex.; < mazd'u II 

mezura, misuru (material of armour) Nuzi; — » 

-mi, -me suff. in citation of dir. speech (— » GAG 

-mi, -me ptcl. in interrog. clauses 

middu — » mddu 

miammu — » mimmu 

middatu(m), mindatu(m), maddatu "measure" 
of volume, length, area, time Bab., NA qan m. 
"measuring reed"; m. sa ammati sa en (a 
bronze measure of 1 cubit); "dimension, 
measure" of body, limb; < madddu I 

midde — » minde 

middu h/'ru — » minduhru 

midinu — » mindinu 

midirtu; pi. midrdti "garden plot" jB; < midru I 

midlu "process of salting; salt meat" Bab. lex., 
NA; < maddlu 

midru(m) I (a type of land) OA, Ug., jB; 
> midirtu 

midru II (a disease)? jB; < maddru II ? 

midru III, mediru (a type of bread) M/NA 

migirtu — » magirtum 

migru(m) "consent, approval, agreement" OB 
ina m., jB ana m. "voluntarily"; MA Id migir 
"against o.'s will"; j/NB ina migir libbi 
"gladly"; OA pi. f. ina migrdti "on (s.o.'s own) 
accord, initiative"; OB in PN; "who is favoured 
by, favourite of a deity etc. OAkk, OB in PN; 
of king; < magdru 

mihhu(m) I, mehhu(m), mihhatu (a type of beer) 
used for libations O/jB, NA; < mahdhu 

mihhu II, mehhu mng. unkn. jB 

mihhuru(m)"offering" OAkk(Sum.), OB, NB; 

< mahdru D (-» GAG §55o) 




mihiltu — » mihistu 

mihirtu — » mehertu 

mihistu, mihislltu; pi. mihsdtu, NB also mihiletu 
"strike" M/NB 1. "blow; wound"; jB river 
name iA Mihsat-Era; (an abrasion on the gall 
bladder) 2. "(cuneiform) wedge; sign" 
[GU/GU.SUM]; < mahdsu 

mihru — » mehru I 

mihsu — » mehsu 

mikdu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mikiltu "percentage due on produce"? MB; 

< makdsu ? 

mikitu I "neglect, absence"? j/NB; < rneku V 
mikitu(m) II (or miqitu(m)) mng. unkn. OB, 

mikku — » mekku 
mikku — » mekku 
miklu mng. unkn. NA 
mikru(m) I "irrigation; irrigated land" O/jB; 

< makdru I 

mikru II (or miqru) "(horse's) girth-strap"? 
Nuzi, jB 

miksu(m); pi. f. & m. "tax (on produce)" Bab., 
M/NA [NIG.KUD.DA] 1. OB "due" payable by 
tenant 2. "duty, tax"; MB bit m. "tax depot"; 
M/NA "customs duty"; m. kdre nebere "quay 
and ferry dues"; NB (shipping dues), ('")ra/> 
m. "tax collector, inspector"; < makdsu 

mikum ~ "seductive (feminine) charm(s)" OB 
of Istar 

mila, mili "times" Am. in 7 u 7 m.; < W.Sem. 

mildu — » wildum 

milhu "extraction, tearing out" NA; < maldhu IV 

nj/7/m — » also m/7'w 

mi7i — » mila 

milihtu "(cattle) theft"? jB; < milhu 

miliktum "advice" OB(lit.); < maldku II 

militu "corpulence" OB; < malu IV 

milku(m); pi. f. "advice, counsel; resolution, 
intelligence" [GALGA] "advice" given by deity, 
in PN; NB ina zeri Id m. "with unconsidered 
hate"; of person, king "reason"; "council", jB 
hit m. "council hall"; "plan, decision"; 

< maldku II 

millatum "looting, pillage" OB om.; < maldlu I 

millu mng. unkn. jB 

miltu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < maldtu 

milu(m), NA mil'u; pi. milu, NA mil' dni Bab., 
NA 1. "high water, flood(ing)" [ILLU; A.ZI.GA; 
A.MAy] mil kissati "maximum level of high 
water"; transf. m. beri "mile-high flood" of 
speech 2. "fullness" m. irti(m) 'fullness of the 

chest' = "success"; OB ina mil libbi 
"lightheartedly"?; < malu IV; > milutum 

mil'u, milhu f. "saltpetre" M/jB, NA 

mil'u — » also milu 

milutum in me miluti "flood waters" OB math.; 

< milu 
mimelinu — » memeni 

mimma, Am., Nuzi, NB also mimmuli and sim. 
"anything, something; everything, all" [NIG. 
NAM] 1. "something"; m. + subst. "any"; m. Id, 
m. ul "nothing; not at all"; adv. m. Id m. 
"somehow" 2. "every(thing), total(ly), all" 
rarely of persons; m. annim "all this"; m. sa "all 
that" 3. as rel. pron. "all that"; m. sumsu 
"anything", m. s. ul(a), Id "nothing at all" 
4. Nuzi, Am., Ug. mimmu/i/a sumlnsu often 
with second pron. suff. "all that belongs to"; 

< min(u) I + -ma; > mimmu; NA — » memeni 
mimmamu/a/i "everything, all" 0/jB(lit.); 

< mimma 
mimmi — » mimma 
mimmu — » mimma; mimmu 

mimmu, Am. also miammu, partly declined 
1. before gen. or pron. suff. "all, anything (of)" 
possessions; "all things", OAkk in PN; OA 
"anything of/from" 2. rarely absol. "all, 
everything"; m. mala "all that" 3. as rel. pron. 
"all that"; "whatever"; < mimma (-» GAG 

-min ptcl. indicating unreality OA, esp. in condit. 
and final clauses; summa-min "if it were 
that..." (-» GAG §§152d, 162a); O/jB -» 

minam — » minu I 

minanu ~ "reckoned"? jB; < manu IV ? 

mindtu — » minitu 

mindatu — » middatu 

minde, midde, also manda "perhaps" Bab., Am., 
Bogh.; OB etc. in PN; < min ide "what do I 
know?"; Mari etc. — » wuddi 

mindinu(m), midinu(m) and sim. (a wild cat, 
phps.) "tiger" or "cheetah" O/jB [UR. 

mindu I (a plant) jB lex. 

mindu II "measured amount, ration" NB; bel m. 
"quartermaster"?; < madddu I 

mindu — » also mundu 

minduhru, midduhl'ru "residue, sediment"? 

minihu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

minitu(m); pi. OB milanidtum, Mari minetum, 
later mindtu "measure, dimension" Bab., NA 
[SID] 1. sg. jB "reckoning"; NB astr. "measur- 


misu(m) I 

able part" 2. pi. "(normal) dimensions"; eli m. 
"beyond measure"; ana m. "in relation to, 
according to"; NB tupsar mindti "architect"?; 
"(period of) time, moment" 3. pi. "limbs, 
physique" [UB.NIGIN/NIGIN.NA]; < manu IV 

minnu — » mednum; minu II 

minsu, minsi "why?" M/NB(lit.); NB in PN; 

< min(u) I + -su(m); — ► missum 
minsu — » minu I; missum 

minu "who?" Am.; < W.Sem. 

minu (a pustule)? jB lex. 

minu(m) I, Bab. mostly minu(m) "what?" [math. 
EN.NAM; M/NB also EN(.NA)] OAkk, OB, 
MA, Nuzi, NB in PN; with ina, OB imminim, 
MB ina m. "with what?", jB immine "how, by 
what means?"; ana m. (MA ana'ini), assum m. 
and sim., OB also minam "why?"; with pron. 
suff.; milium sa "what is it that?"; NA, NB 
before rel. clause m. sa, NB also m. ki "what- 
ever; all that"; > minsu, missum; minumme; 
mimma, mimmu, mimmdmu; minde; munu I; — » 
ammini; mdminu; missam 

minu(m) II, NA also minnu "number" Bab., NA; 
(analinalsa) Id m. "without number, countless"; 
NB "payment (by instalments)"?; < manu IV; 
— » almin 

minu — » minu I 

minumme "all (of), each (of)" MB(Alal.), Am., 
Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. occas. for — » minima; m. sa 
"all that"; Bogh. "whatever; everything that"; 

< minu I + -me II; — » mannumme 
minutu(m)I Bab., M/NA [SITI(.MA)] 

1. "count(ing); number" 2. math, "calculation" 
3. astr. "calculated time", esp. Id m. of 
unexpected appearance 4.jB m. nikkassi 
"settlement (of accounts)" 5. "recitation" of 
incantation 6. "form, physique"; < manu IV; — » 
minutum II "desire, love" OB lex.; < menu 
minzer, minzahar (a term for a horse) MB; 

< Kass. 

minzu mng. unkn. MB 

mipdru — » gipdru 

miqittu(m) "(down)fall" [RI.RI.GA; SUB] "col- 
lapse" of building; "strike (of lightning)"; 
"attack (of disease)"; "fallen (soldier), corpse"; 
"deaths of livestock, epidemic (among 
animals)"; "dead animal; carcass"; < miqtu 

miqitu — » mikitu II 

miqqanu, meqiqdnu (an insect, phps.) "moth" 

miqqu "hole, cavity" jB lex. 

miqru — » mikru II 

miqtu(m); pi. miqtu "fall" [SUB]; "collapse" of 
wall; OB, NA (pi. miqtdni) "driftwood", 
"(plant) detritus" on river; "fall" of meteor, star, 
OB miqit parzillim "fallen piece of (meteoric) 
iron"; "incidence" of fire, Gira, rit. miqit me u 
isdti "onset of water and fire"; OA miqit 
niggallim 'falling of the sickles' i.e. "(start of) 
harvest"; jB "dry rot" on wall; OA "what fell to 
(s.o.)", i.e. money, profit; miqit pt(m) 'what fell 
from the mouth' = "impudence, effrontery", m. 
pi rasu "to become impudent"; m. temi 
"despair; loss of reason"; in desig. of diseases 
"failure"? of part of the liver; m. erri, m. libbi 
(intestinal diseases), m. or miqit same 'fallen 
from the sky', phps. "falling sickness, 
epilepsy"? [AN.TA.SUB.BA; — » antasubbu]; 
name of demon Miqit; < maqdtu 

miranu(m) I, merdnu(m), later also murdnu 
"young dog, puppy" OAkk, Bab. [UR.TUR 
(.RA)]; "cub" of lion or hyaena; Nuzi transf. in 
PN; < muru 

miranu II (a plant) jB lex. 

mirgiranu — » mergindnu 

mirgu (an alliaceous plant, phps.) "leek" j/NB 

mirhum — » merhu II 

miriqtu(m) I; pi. mirqetu "damaged part 

building O/jB; < mardqu 
. miriqtum II (a container) OP ' Uf-K d V? S&vd r«-f 

miritu — » meritu 

mirqu, merqu 1. MB (a type of flour) 2. jB/NA 
(a fine glass); < mardqu 

mirsu — » mersu 

mirtum (an agricultural tool) OB 

mirtum "breeding cow" OB; < miru I 

miru(m) I, meru "breeding bull" O/jB; OB in 
Sum. texts only; of deity; OB(Susa) "breeding 
ram ? "; > mirtum 

miru II "fattening (process)" j/NB; < maru II 

miru III, muru(m) (part of the intestines) O/jB 

miru IV mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mirutu in ana miruti "for viewing, to see" (the 
king) Am.; < W.Sem.? 

misarrum, mileserru(m), also musarrum; pi. m. 
& f. "belt" [KUS.E.IB]; also "(metal) band" 
decorating doors 

misissam, messam "sheep's stomach" Bogh., jB 

misissanu (a plant) jB lex.; < misissu 

misissu, misissu, MB missam in m. tdmti 
"meerschaum, sepiolite" M/jB 

missam — » misissu 

missatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

misu(m) I, mesu "washing; purification; (a type 
of refined metal)" O/jB [LUH] kasap m. 


>:/o r"4 

irnsum II 



"refined silver"; mis qdte "(ritual) hand- 
washing"; mis pi "mouth-washing" [KA.LUg. 
yu/U.DA] of sacrificial animal; of human; of 
divine statue; < mesu II; — ► mesu 

misum II (a kind of fish) OB 

misuru — » mezura 

misaru, misirru — » misru 

misitum "equivalent" OB; < masu 

misratu — ► isratu 

misru(m), misirru, misaru; pi. m. & f. Bab., 
M/NA 1. "border, boundary"; NB bel m. 
"(adjoining) neighbour"; "boundary mark"; 
"band, dividing line" on figurine etc.; jB pi. f. 
"limit" of time (— » masdru D) 2. "territory, 
region"; ana m. mdti turru "to reconquer" 
3. M/NA (an ornament); > masdru ? 

misru — ► musru 

misu — » wisum 

misu tarn ma ~ "as a small company"? Am.; 

< wisum 
misahu — » mishu I. II 
misaris — ► isaris 

misaris, mllesaleris "in justice, justly" M/jB; 

< misaru 
mlsarru — » misaru 

misartu(m) "justice" OAkk, jB; OAkk as PN; 

< misaru ? 

misaru NB for — » isaru I 

misaru(m), also mesa/eru(m), mlsarru(m) 
"justice" [NIG.SI.sA] 1. of deity, esp. Samas; as 
DN 2. m. sakdnu(m) "to establish just order, 
bring about justice"; OB (royal decree 
promulgating justice) 3. OB(Alal.) arah m. (a 
month) 4. OB (a part of the body)?; < eseru; 
— » mlsartu 

misarutu in m. aldku "to obtain justice" jB 
[NIG.SI.SA- ]; < misaru 

misdu(m) 1. OB (part of a doorpost) 2.jB rit. 
"massage"; < masddu 

misertu(m), misirtum, NB melisestu (a small 
net) Bab. lex. ; < masdru ? 

misertu — » also misirtu 

misertu(m), mlsirtu(m) 1. 0/jB lex. "standard 
^(-measure, vessel (holding 1 sila)" 2. OB 
(regular festival contribution of flour); < eseru 

misestu — » misertu 

mise'tu(m) "forcible removal; pillage" Ass., 
M/jB; < masd'u 

misha(t)tu — » misihtu 

mishu I, misahu "measured area" for building 
assignment NB; < masdhu I 

mishu II, misahu "flash, illumination" jB; ~ 
"train" of meteor, star; "glitter" of fabric; 
"glow" of person; < masdhu II 

mishu III mng. unkn. jB rit. 

misihtu, mi/esha(t)tu; pi. mishdtu "measurement; 

dimension" j/NB "size, length" of building; 

"distance"; NB "measured (plot)" of land; 

< masdhu I 
misirtu(m), misertu(m) "produce (of the sea and 

rivers)" O/jB 
misirtum — » also misertu 

misirtu - 

• misertu 

♦ misissu 

misittu "(medical) stroke" j/NB "apoplectic 
stroke; coronary"; of parts of the body 
"paralysis (caused by a stroke)"; m. rdbisi 
(stroke caused by the r. demon); < masddu 

misitu "oblivion" jB; < masu II 

misitum "confusion" OB; < eM IV 

misla adv. "in half OA; < mislu 

mislanu pi. tant. 1. "half (shares)" of profit O/jB 
[SU.RI.A; also IGI.2.GAL.LA.A 7 ] 2. (a drainage 
tile) lex.; < mislu 

mislu(m), meslu; pi. m. & f. "half; middle, 
centre" [BAR]; OB loc.-adv. milium "half; NA 
pi. f. ina mesldti sa MN "in mid-MN"; 

< masdlu; > misla, mislanu 
mismunnu "sealed bulla" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
misqu (a drinking vessel)? Ug.; < Ug. 
missam "where to?"? jB lex.; — » ayyisa; mlnu I 
missum, minium "why?" OAkk, OA; OB lex.; 

OAkk in PN; < mlnu I; — ► ammlni; minsu (— ► 

GAG §67g) 
missu — * also mlnu I 
missulatam mng. unkn. Mari 
missulu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < masdlu Gt ? 
mistannu "head money, reward (for capture)" 

MB( Alal.); < Indo-Iran.? 
mistu —* mestu 

misu "army, troops" Am.; < Eg. 
misu I, mesu 1. MB "oblivion" 2. NB (joint of 

meat)?; < masu II 
misu II "night" Am.; — » musu 
misuhhu (a dye)? Nuzi, for textiles; < Hurr. 
misu rum I (an object in a temple)? OA 
misuru m II (an official)? Nuzi 
misutu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < masu II ? 
mitahsutu — » mithusutu 
mitanu "deceased" NB; < mltu + -an + -/ 
miteku (a weapon)? jB lex. 
mitgaru "favourable, propitious" j/NB [SE.GA]; 

< magdru Gt 

mitgurtu(m) "agreement, mutual understanding" 
Bab. [SE.SE.GA; MUNUS.SE] Id m. "discord; 
disobedience"; < magdru Gt 

mitguru(m) 1. OB "(previously) agreed"? 
2. Bogh., jB "harmonious"; < magdru Gt 




mitharis "in the same manner" O/jB [TES.Bl] to 
take, distribute, pay "in equal shares"; 
"simultaneously"; "similarly"; "altogether, 
totally"; < mithdru 

mithartu(m) 1. OB math, "(side of a) square" 
[IB.SA; LAGAB 7 ] 2. O/jB "totality", "mankind"; 
mitharta "altogether"; < mithdru 

mitharu(m) "corresponding (to one another); 
like (one another)" [LAGAB]; "symmetric(al), 
proportionate, of the same size" [tes.BI.ME5]; 
of fever "equally high"; "uniform, homo- 
geneous, even"; "of equal rank, equivocal"; 
"square": of features "regular", OAkk also in 
PN; "proportionate to"; M/NA ana mithdr st. 
abs. "equally, one-to-one"; of periods of time 
"(of) equal (length)"; Id m. "diverse, of uneven 
quality" [NU.TES.A]; < mahdru 

mitha(s)sutu — » mithusutu 

mithummu —* muthummu 

mithurtu "convergence, coincidence; harmony" 
j/NB astr. "conjunction, opposition" of celestial 
bodies; "joining of waters"; lisdn m. "harmony 
of languages", DN sdniq(u) m. "who controls 
the m." of languages, of Nabu, Ninurta, Nergal; 
"(harmonious) mankind"?; < mahdru 

mithusu "fight, combat" M/jB, NA; also ref. to 
hunting; < mahdsu Gt 

mithusutu, NA also mitha(s)sutu, mitahsutu 
"battie" jB/NA; with sederu "to line up (troops) 
for combat"; with epesu "to fight, wage war"; 

< mithusu 
mitinnu —* mltu 

Mitirunnu (a month) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

mitluktu "advice, deliberation" j/NB; 

< maldku II 

initluku "circumspect, prudent" j/NB; 

< maldku II 

initru I "strong, powerful" jB, of opponent 

mitru II 1. jB lex. (a reed)? 2. Nuzi (a tree)? 

initru (a garment)? MB; < mudru or Ug.? 

mitu(m), Ass. metu(m), Nuzi once mitinnu 
"dead" [OS, NB often wr. GAM; BA.OS] transf. 
of the (politically) powerless, of city or 
country; "dead person; dead animal"; "appar- 
ition of dead person"; OA "insolvent"; Emar pi. 
(as if subst.) mltu, of ancestors; < mdtu; 
> mltdnu, mltutu, mltutis, mltutdn 

mitutan "the dead (gener.)" NB; <mltu; -» 

mitutis "like death" jB in iksuddu {=kasdduG) 
mltutis "they became (still) as death"; < mltutu 

mitutu(m) "(state of) death" Bab., NA; "(form 
of) death" in m. qdtesulramannisu "suicide"; 

< mltu; > mltutis 
mitetu — > mitltu 

mitirtu, also mitru, jB also mitratu "watercourse, 
canal; a type of irrigation" M/jB 

mititu(m), mitetufm), Nuzi also mitutu "decrease, 
reduction" Bab., M/NA; "reduced yield, 
shortfall"; "shortage; loss" of troops, animals, 
materials; "under-performance" of work; OB 
"flaking, peeling off of colour, coating; NB 
mitltl "my humble self; < matu II 

mitratu —* mitirtu 

mitru — » mitirtu 

mittu(m), mlletu (a divine weapon) OAkk, O/jB, 
texts; also as cultic object 

mitu(m) 1. O/jB "low level" of water 2. OB 
"loss" during transport; < matu II 

mltu —* also mittu 

mitutu — » mitltu 

miya, mlyati, ema'e "who?" Am.; < W.Sem. 

mizqu (a bowl)? Ug., jB; < mazdqu 

mizru "felt"? jB lex.; < mazdru; -* mezura 

miz'u, mlzu, OB(Alal.) mizzu* (a sweet alco- 
holic drink) jB, NA; < mazd'u II 

-mu — » -ma 

mu — » muk I 

mu I, OAkk, OA md'u pi. tant. "water" 
[A(.MES); also A.HI.A] me kabrutim "mass of 
water"; m. ndri "river water", m. musi "dew"; 
in names of canals; "watering place"; rit. me 
qdti "water for (washing) the hands"; OA sa 
md'lsu (desig. of gold, textiles); of other 
liquids: "(body) fluid(s), secretion", "amniotic 
fluid", me marti "gall"; "sap" of plant; me seri 
"meat broth"; in representations as a decorative 
element; — * mdmu 

mu II pi. tant. 7 "(cultic, cosmic) order, rules" 
Bab.; OB in PN; < Sum.; -> ella-me 

mu III 'm«-word' jB lex.; desig. of ptcp.s; < mu- 

mu IV sg. (an object) OB 

mu'arrirum "auxiliary force" Mari; < na'arruru 


muasu "to check"? NA; < Aram. 

muatis "towards death" OA; < mdtu 

mudtu — » mdtu 

mua'um in Id m. "not to want (to)" OA G after 
infin.; after subst. in ace. rare Gtn iter, of G; — » 
lemu II 

mubabbilum; pi. mubabbilutu "juggler" or 
"acrobat"? OB; < babalu D; > mubabbilutum 

mubabbilutum "role of juggler" Mari; 

< mubabbilum 

muballitanu "that keeps alive; maintainer" MA; 

< baldtu II D 

muballi(t)tum mostly f. 1. OB "cage" for a lion 
2. Mari (part of a canal, phps.) "weir" 3. lex. 




"life ? -boat" 4. Am. "smelling bottle" 5. OB as 

fPN; < baldtu II D 
mubannitum "benefactress" OB; < banu II D 
mubannu, mubennu; pi. mubanni, Aram. 

mubanniya 'who beautifies', "preparer of 

offering tables"? j/NB [LU.DIM] i.e. temple 

cook; < banu II D 
mubannutu "office of the mubannu" NB; 

< band II D 

mubarrimu "worker of coloured textiles" NA 

lex.; < bardmu I D 
mubarritum "observation corps"? Mari; 

< baru I D 

mubarru 1. "commentary"? 2. (a temple 7 
official) NB; Bogh. rab m. "overseer of the 
m."; < bam I D; — > mubirru 

mubassiru(m), NA also mupassiru; pi. 
mubassiru "messenger" Mari, NA; < bussuru 

mubattiru (a worm or grub)? jB; < hutturu II 

mubbibum; pi. mubbibu "census official" Mari; 

< ebebu D 

mubbirtu "(female) accuser" NA; < abdrn III 

mabe'isu — ► mubesu 

mitbeimu — ► mubannu 

mubesu, mubessu 1 , mube'isu'- "implement for 

stirring" MA; < besu D 
mube'u (or mupe'u) (an official, phps.) "inves- 
tigator" Nuzi in LU m.; < bu'u II ? 
mubirru/u (a prof.) MB; = mubarru ? 
mubu "thickness" NA; < ebu II 
mudaburu, mudabiri — ► madbaru 
mudadum "beloved" OB as PN only; < W. 

Sem.?; — ► madddu II 
mudakkiu (a (metal) object) NA; < deku II D ? 
mudakku — ► mudekku 
mudallihu (an official)? NB; < dalahu 
mudammiq(a)tu(m) (a wooden implement) 

O/jB, NA; < damdqu D 
mudammiqu (a craftsman)? Mari; < damdqu D 
inudanutu in Id m. "ignorance" NA; < mudu 
mudarriktu "woman thresher" NA; <dardku 

mudasu(m) "list of names, register" O/jB [MU. 

DA.SA]; < Sum. 
inudatu (payment due from a mudu) Ug.; 

< mudu 
muda'um — ► mudu 
inudayu, mudu (a wooden object) jB lex.; — ► 

mudbaru — ► madbaru 
muddu — ► mudu; mundu 
muddu "deficit, arrears"? Nuzi; — ► mHfiJ 
muddu — ► also njwdK 

muddultu — ► mundultu 

muddulu(m), mundulu "salted 7 (meat)" OAkk 
(Sum.), jB; < maddlu D 

mudekku, mudakku ~ "inciter, agitator"? MB; 

< <fe/ti3 II D 

mudessu "life-giver" OB lex.; < rfeiiJ D 
mudidlu, mudidlu, mudillulu "individual line" jB 
lex. of text 

mudissum "deceptive, oppressive"? OB lex.; 

< ddsu D 

mudru (a mourning garment)? jB lex.; < Sum.; 
= MB mitru ? 

mudu (or muddu), esp. m. sarri (a courtier), 
"acquaintance" of the king Ug.; > mudatu; — ► 

mudum (a garment) OAkk(Sum.); < Sum.? 

mudu — ► also muddyu 

mudu(m), OAkk muda'um, OA mudi'um, 
occas. muddu; pi. mudu, NB muddne; f. st. 
constr. mudeat, muddt "knowing, wise" 
[(GAL.)ZU] with dependent gen. "knowing, 
aware of ("; "experienced"; mudut qabli, 
tdhdzi "battle-tested, experienced in combat" 
soldiers; m. kaldma etc. "omniscient" in divine 
and royal epith.s; absol. "intelligent, knowing"; 
"competent, well-versed"; "expert"; "acquain- 
tance"?; Id m. "stupid, ignorant"; stat. "is 
learned" OAkk in PN; "is versed" (in = ace); 

< edu II G ptcp.; > miidutu, muddnutu; — ► 

mu du -* mu uddu 

mudulu (a pole)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

mudutu(m) "knowledge, awareness (of" 

Bab.; < mudu 
mu'erru(m), muwerrum ~ "leader (of an 

assembly)" O/jB [GAL.UKKIN.NA; (LU.)A.GAL] 

(an official); of deities, esp. Papsukal; OB as 

PN; < wdrum D 
mu'errutu "leadership (of an assembly); 

command" M/NB; of kings; of Marduk; 

< mu'erru 

mu'ertum; OB pi. mu'eretum "order, com- 
mission" for goods ? OA, OB; < wdrum 
mugabbu — ► mukabbu 
mugallitu(m) "troublemaker; intimidator" Bab.; 

< galdtu D 

mugammertu 'that gathers'?, i.e. "the sea" jB 

lex.; < gamdru II D 
mugammerum "collector" of soldiers, i.e. 

"conscription officer"? OB; < gamdru II D 
mugannisum ~ "haughty, sneering person" OB 

lex.; < gandsu D 
mugarru — > magarru 




mugdasru, mugdesru "powerful" j/NB; 

< gasdru Gt 

mugerru "two-wheeled vehicle, chariot; wheel" 
M/NA [GIS.GIGIR ?]; nangar m. "cartwright"; 

< qardru ?; — > magarru 
muggu — > mungu 

mugguru D "to tear down" NA, building; 

< Aram. 

muggusu(m) D mng. unkn. O/jB 

mugi(l)lu (a container)? MA in m. sa urqe "m. 
of greens" 

mugu, Bab. mostly mungu in rab m. (a high 
official) NA, NB 

mugu — > also mungu 

mugubbu — > immugubbu 

muhabbiltu 'that damages', i.e. (a bad omen)? 
jB"; < habdlu II D 

muhaddum "who gives delight, joy" OB as PN 
only; < hadu III D 

muha"idu "watcher" jB lex.; < hidtu D 

muhalum (a foodstuff)? OA 

muharrisu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < hardsu I or 

muhattipum mng. unkn. OB; < batdpu D 

muhessu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < hasu IV D 

muhhelsitum "slippery ground" OB; < nehelsu 

muhhu(m) "skull; top" from OAkk on [UGU] 
1. as subst. "skull", med. also "brain"; "surface" 
of organs; "upper part" of object; OB math, 
(upper width or surface-area of a body) 2. after 
prep. (— > GAG §115h): ina muhhi, muh "on, 
in, on top of; "over, above"; of debt, duty 
"incumbent on", OB ina m. PN sasum "to call 
s.o. to account"; talk, laugh, write "about"; live 
"at s.o.'s expense" 3. "with regard to, con- 
cerning; on account of; NB "in accordance 
with"; Am. often muhhi on its own 4. ana m. 
"in addition to", math, "plus", "with respect to", 
"toward(s)"; "until"; "onto" ( or s.o.); 
"per"; "against"; "referring to" 5. M/NA sa 
muhhi X "official in charge of X" 6. as adv. 
M/NB, NA: ina m. "(up)on it"; "over, above 
it"; "in addition"; "about it, on that subject"; ana 
m. "upon it"; "in addition" 

muhhu — > niahhu 

muhhuris, NA mahhuris "as an offering" jB, 
NA(roy. inscr.); < mahdru D 

muhhurtu, OA ma(h)hurtum "opposite, facing 
(side)" OA, M/jB; < mahdru D 

muhhuru "offering" MA, jB; MA Muhhur-ili 
(8th 7 Ass. month); <mahdruD; OA -> 

muhhusu; f. muhhuslstu "provided with 
fittings"? jB lex.; < mahdsu D 

muhhutum — > mahhutu 

muhru l.jB (an offering) 2. NA "appeal"; (a 

prayer) 3.JB (a cultic building) [KUN.SAG 

(.GA)]; < mahdru 
muhru — > mahru I 

muh tan bu "growing" jB; < handbu Gt 
muhterkun "female (animal)" jB lex.; < Elam. 
muhtillu (a garment) M/NB 
muhurra'um "receipt" of commodities OAkk; 

< mahdru 

mu'irtu ~ "subject, dependant"? Bogh.(Hitt.) 
mu'irtuttu ~ "government, administration" 

muk I, muku, also mu NA after 1 sg. to introduce 

dir. speech; — > md; nuk I 
muk II (a plant) jB lex. 
mukabbirum, muktabbirum "boaster, exag- 

gerator" OB lex.; < kabdru D, Dtn 
mukabbu, mugabbu "stitcher, tailor" j/NB 

[LU.TVJG.KAL(.KAL)]; < kubbu II 
mukallimtu "scholarly commentary" j/NB, NA 

[NIG.PA.DA]; NB (an extract from the land 

register)?; < kullumu 
mukallu — > mukkallu 
mukannisum "subjugator, subduer" OB, MA in 

PN; < kandsu I D 
mukanu(m) (part of a loom)? O/jB 
mukanzibtu (a water clock) jB lex.; 

< kazdbu I D 

mukarrisu, NB mukarrisu (a metal vessel for 

liquids) NA, NB; < kardsu D? 
mukarsitu (a metal item, phps.) "cooler" NB; 

< kasu III D ? 

mukassidu "pursuer, persecutor"; < kasddu D 
mukattimtu l.jB rit. (a net)? 2.jB lex. (desig. 

of a door); < katdmu D; — > kdtimtu 
mukiddum mng. unkn. OB lex.; < kddu I or 

mukillu(m), st. constr. mukil "holder, support, 

grip" Bab. 1. of objects (a vessel stand); m. 

dalti 'holder of a door'; m. sipri (a sleeve)?; m. 

resi(m) (part of the liver) 2. of person, deity, 

demon: m. abbuti "intercessor, advocate"; m. 

appdti, asdti "chariot driver, rein-holder"; m. 

bdbi(m) "gatekeeper"; m. resi(m) "constant 

attendant", m. res damiqtim "good spirit", m. 

res lemutti(m) "evil spirit" [SAG.0UL.yA.ZA]; 

< kullu in 

mukinnu(m) "witness" Bab.; NB m. sarri mng. 

unkn.; < kdnu D 
mukinnutu "testimony, evidence" j/NB, NA; 

< kanu D 

mu(k)kallu, gukallu (a priest or scholar) jB 
mukkidu jB lex., syn. of ukkudu 




mukku, muqqu "poor quality, waste wool" O/jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
muklalu — » maklalu 
mukru (or muqru) (a loincloth) lex. 
muktabbirum — » mukabbirum 
lnuktassassu "overpowering" jB; < kasdsu I Rtn 
muku —* muk I 
mulabbitu mng. unkn. jB 
Mulahhisu "Whisperer" as name of god jB/NA; 

< lahdsu D 

mulammidu "master (of an apprentice)" jB lex.; 

< lamddu D 

mulappitu (an implement) NA; < lapdtu D 
mula'u(m) ~ "complementary payment" to fill a 

quota O/M A; < malu IV 
muldamu (or muldamulu) (an invertebrate) 

Bab. lex., syn. oilummu 
muligu —* mulugu 
mulku "kingship"? Am.; < W.Sem. 
mullahtu — » mallahtu 
mullilu(m) "purifier" O/jB, NA 1. (a priest) 2. (a 

cultic' cleaning implement) [SANGA4]; < elelu 

mullitum "she who raises" OB of Istar in fPN; 

< elu III D 

mullu(m) I "filling (up), replenishment" Bab., 
Nuzi, Bogh. "compensation"; NB m. mullu "to 
make compensation (for)"; Ug. "compensation 
(blood money)"; < malu IV D 

mullu(m) II (an object) OB; < Sum. 

mulluqtum mng. unkn. OB in fPN 

mullusum "with the hair plucked/torn out" 
OAkk in PN; < maldsu 

mullutu (a desig. of a person) jB lex. 

mulmullu, malmallu "arrow" M/NA, M/jB 

mult. . . — » must. . . 

multarrihu —* mustarhu; mustarrihu 

multu —* mustu 

mulu "fullness" O/MB in PN; < malu IV 

inulu(m) O/jB, Bogh., NA [DU6] 1. "height" 
2. "rise, hill(ock)"; Mari, of acropolis 3. "climb, 
ascent"; < elu III 

mulugu, muligu (a type of dowry) M/NB, Nuzi 

inulugutu ~ mulugu Nuzi 

muluhhu 'tearing out' jB om. uncert.; 

< maldhu IV 

muluhum, mulu'um ? (a type of wood)? OA 
mulutu? "rule(rship)" NB; < Sum. mulu + -utu 
mulu'um —* muluhum 
mum (an emblem of Ea) MB 
muma"eru; f. muma" ertu "commander, ruler; 
satrap" j/NB, NA [LU.GAL.UKKIN]; < wdrum 

muma"erutu "office of satrap" [LU.GAL. 

UKKIN- ] NB; < muma"eru 
mumannum "flatterer"? OB lex.; < menu D 
mumarriqanu, mumarraqdnu "guarantor" NB; 

< mardqu D; — » murruqunu 
mumarrltu — » muwarritum 
mumassu — ♦ muwassum 

mumassihu (a measuring instrument)? jB lex.; 

< masdhu I D 
mumassu —* muwassum 

mumbium "boaster, braggart"? OB lex.; 

< ebu II D 
mumerrltu — ♦ muwarritum 
Mumitu jB DN; = Mammltu ? 
mummallittu -* walddum D 
mummdtu —* mummu II 

mummellu "actor 7 , player" jB lex.; <melulu 

mummenu (a trader)? jB lex. 

mummertu, mummirtu "(female) matchmaker; 

procuress" MA; < amdru I D 
mummidu(m) mng. unkn. OB lex. and as PN; 

< emedu D? 

mummilu "stirring, exciting; whirling; obscur- 
ing"? jB of deities; lex. of storm; < wamdlum D 

mummirtu — ♦ mummertu 

mummu I ~ "life-giving force"? M/NB, NA of 
deities, e.g. Ea, Istar, Papsukal, Marduk; DN 
^Mummu, the vizier of Apsu; MB (a symbol of 
Ea); jB "destination, use, purpose"?; (a school), 
(bit) m. ~ "(sculpture) workshop of a temple"; 
jB mar m. "pupil, apprentice scribe"; < Sum. 

mummu(m) II; pi. mummdtu 1 (a scraper)? O/jB 

mummu III "someone, something" Bab. 

mummu IV "noise"? jB 

mummu -* also mammu 

mummu(n)nu — ► mammannu- 

mumt. . . —* also mund. . ., munt. . . 

mumtalkum, mundalku, NA muttalku; f. 
muttaliktu Bab., NA 1. "deliberate, circum- 
spect" 2. "counsellor, sage"; < maldku II Gt 

munabbum, munambu(m) (a lamentation priest) 
O/jB lex.; < nabu II D 

munaggiru(m), munanlmgiru(m) "denouncer, 
informer" O/jB; < nagdru II D 

munaggirutu "activity of a denouncer" jB; 

< munaggiru 

muna'Msu "veterinary surgeon" jB; < nesu D 
mundmdtu -* munattu 
munambu -* munabbum 
munamgiru —* munaggiru 
munammiru -* munawwirum 
muna(m)mu ~ "abundance"? jB 
munangiru —* munaggiru 




munappihtum "bellows"? OB; < munappihu 
munappihu(m) "lighter of fires; rumour- 
monger" O/jB lex.; < napdhu D 
munappilum "digger" OB lex.; < napdlu I D 
inunaqqitu "libation vessel" NA; < naqu D 
munassiku; f. munassiktu "biting (dog)" jB; 

< nasdku D 

munattu; pi. mundmdtu "morning slumber" jB; 

adv. munattis "awake" 
munawwirum, munammiru "brightening, 

cheering (person)" OB in PN only, jB lex.; 

< nawdru D 

mundabru (or mundapru) ~ "powerful" jB lex.; 

< dabdru Gt ? 

mundagru "compliant" jB; < magdru Gt 
mundahsu, mundahhisu, NA muttahsu 

"fighting; fighter" jB, NA; < mahdsu Gt 
inundahsutu "soldiering" M/NB; < mundahsu 
mundalku — ♦ mumtalkum 
mundalkutu "deliberation, circumspection" 

M/NB; < mumtalkum 
mundapru — ♦ mundabru 
inundu(m), muddu(m), mindu (a type of flour) 

OAkk, Bab. [ni'] 
mundultum, muddultum (a type of bed) Bab. 

mundulu —* muddulu 
munedu — ♦ immunedu 
munehhu "who repulses, subduer" Ass., M/jB; 

< ne'u D; — » muneu 

munertum "murderess" OB lex.; < niru D 
mune'u in siparri mune'e mng. unkn. NB; -♦ 

munehhu ? 
mungapru "superior"? jB lex.; < gapdru N 
mungu, NA mu(g)gu (a disease causing) 

"cramp, stiffness" jB; < magdgu 
mungu -* also mugu 

inunhiatum mng. unkn. OB, as field name 
muniqu "lamb" or "kid" NB; < enequ; -* uniqu 
munnabtu(m); f. munnabittu(m); pi. munnabtu, 

MB(Alal.) also munnabdtu, Ug. munnabtutu 

"fugitive, refugee"; Ass., M/NB also as PN; 

< abdtu II N (-♦ GAG §971); > munnabtuttu 
inunnabtuttu "refugee status" Bogh.; 

< munnabtu 

munnagru "hired man" NA; < agdru N 
inunnarbu, munnerbu "fugitive, runaway" jB; 
"fleet( -footed), swift" of deity, demon, king; 

< nerubu 

munnisu "weakening, debilitating" jB; 

< enesu D 

munt. . . -* also mund. . . 
muntdqu —* mutdqu 

-munu "(n-)placed; (n-)year-old" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

munu I, manu (a type of bed) jB lex.; 

< Sum.(Emesal) 

munu II (a foot disease) jB 
munu I "what?" NA occas. for -» minu I; in PN 
munu II "larva, caterpillar" jB, NA [ZA.NA] 
munutu(m); pi. munudtu "(ac)count(ing)" Ass., 

OB; OB "check, count(ing)"; OA "quota, 

dividend"; < manu IV 
munutuku "childless, without issue" M/jB [MU. 

NU.TUKU]; < Sum. 
munutukutu "childlessness" M/jB [MU.NU. 

TUKU- ]; < munutuku 
munzazdnum —* mazzazanum 
munzetu —* musdtu 
munziqu —* muziqu 
munzirru — ♦ muzzirru 
munzizu —* muzzazu 
munzu'um "squeezed dry, exhausted"? OB lex.; 

< mazd'u II D 

mupaddu "(sheep) offering for the naming (of 

s.o.)"jB lex.; < Sum. 
mupahhirum "who gathers, collector" OB; in 

PN; <paharu II D 
mupallisum "who diverts, interferes" OB; 

< paldsu D 

mupallisum "breacher" OB lex. in mupallis 

bitdtim "burglar"; < paldsu D 
mupaqqiranu "claimant" NB; < baqdru D 
muparritu (a butcher)? Bogh.; <pardtu D 
mupassiru —* mubassiru 
mupassu, mupessu "washerman, cleaner" NB; 

< pesu II D 

mupassiru(m) OB lex. 1. (profession concerned 
with textiles) 2. in m. sundtim "dream- 
interpreter"; < pasdru D 

mupattilum "(yarn-)twister" OB; <patdlu D 

mupattitu 'opener' (an implement for cult- 
ivation) jB lex.; <petu II D; -♦ mupettum 

mupazzirum "smuggler" OA; <pazdru D 

mupeggu "slanderer"; < pagu II D 

mupessu —* mupassu 

mupettum "person regulating a sluice-gate"? OB 
lex.; "open-mouthed"? OB in PN; < petit II D; 
— » mupattitu 

mupe'u —* mube'u 

muppalsihum (an occupation) OB; < napalsuhu 

muppalsu "looking (benevolently) on (s.o.)" jB; 

< paldsu N 
mupparku —* naparku II 

mupparsu "flying, winged" OB, jB; of bird, 
Anzii; Mupparsu (name of Marduk 's horse); 

< naprusu II 



murqu II 

muppisanu "who committed" (sorcery) MA; 

< epesu II D 

inuppisu; f. muppistu "who does to (s.o.), 
harms (s.o.)" jB, NA "bewitcher, sorcerer, 
sorceress"; "slanderer"; NA "dealer, agent"?; 

< epesu II D 

muppis(u)tu "witchcraft, spell" jB; < muppisu 
muqabbu "who laments; wailer" jB lex.; 

< qabu II D 
muqadu — » maqqadu 

muqallilum "who belittles, humiliates" OB, jB; 

< qaldlu I D 

muqallipum "dehusker (of grain)"? OB lex.; 

< qaldpu D 

muqallum "roaster (of grain)" OB lex.; 

< qalu II D 

muqappil ze 'roller-up of dung' = "dung beetle" 

jB lex.; < kapdlu ? + zu I 
muqarribum — » muqerribum 
muqaru(m) mng. unkn. O/jB; also as PN 
muqattertu "censer, thurible" j/NB; 

< qatdru II D 

muqerribum, OA muqarribum "transporter, 

delivery agent" OA, OB; < qerebu D 
muqHp)pu(m) "guarantor" OAkk, jB lex.; 

< qidpu D 
muqlalu — » maklalu 
muqqadu — » maqqadu 

muqqelpitu(m), muqqalpitu(m) (vessel) "going 
downstream" O/jB; OB sa m. (captain of a boat 
moving downstream); ana m. "downstream"; 
"from top to bottom, from top to toe"; 

< neqelpu 

muqqu(m) I ~ "weakened, wearied" O/jB; 

< muqqu II 

muqqu(m) II "to weary, tire; wane" O/jB; OB 
"obliterate, disregard" fault, crime; "be slack", 
"delay" journey, action; of person "age"; MB in 
PN; stat. jB of troops, limbs "are slack"; 
> muqqu I 

muqqu — » also mukku 

muqqutum 1. OB lex. "wasted (through a 
disease)" 2. Mari mng. uncert.; < maqatu D 

muqru — » mukru 

muqtablu "fighter" Bab.; < qitbulu 

muqu — » emuqu; muqqu I 

muquttu(m) ~ "claim falling due" Bab.; 

< maqatu 

murabbianu, murabbdnu 1. MA "foster-father" 
2. NA "educator, tutor"?; < rabu II D; -» 
muribbdnu ? 

murabbitu(m) "foster-mother" O/jB; < rabu 

mura(d)du, occas. murradu "descent, way 

down" j/NB; < warddum 
murakkisu "binder of sheaves" jB lex.; 

< rakdsu D 

muraku, Nuzi also muruku "length" M/jB, Am., 

NA [GID(.DA)]; < ardku 
murammiktum "washbasin" OB; < ramdku D 
murammiku — » muremmiku 
murammu (a tool) NB used for brick-making; 

< ramu III D ? 
murdnu — » mirdnu I 

murappidum "one who makes difficulties" OA; 

< rapddu II D 

muraqqitu "(woman) maker of perfumes, 
spicer" M/NA, NB; rab muraqqidtu "chief of 
the female perfume makers"; < muraqqiu 

muraqqiu, muraqqu - "maker of perfumes, 
spicer" M/NA [(LU.)i.RA.RA]; < ruqqu 

muraritu "vegetable plot"? MA; < murdru 

muraru(m), murartu (a bitter vegetable, phps.) 
"endive, chicory" O/jB; < mardru I; > muraritu 

murassu I 'who does wrong' j/NB 1. "quar- 
reller, cantankerous person" 2. "wild cat" 
[SA.A.RI] f. murassitu; NB as PN; < rasu III D 

murassu II (a worker) NB 

murattib(t)u "soaking vessel" = "mash tun"? 
MB, jB lex.; < ratdbu D 

murdinnu — » amurdinnu 

murdu — ♦ murudu 

murdudu (a plant) Bogh., jB [ll.MUR.DU.DU; 
Bogh. MUL.DU.DfJ]; < Sum. 

muredu — » murldu 

muremmiku, NB also murammiku ? "bath atten- 
dant"? MB(Hana); < ramdku D 

murhu, murru, murikua (a garment) lex.; 

< marahu ? 

muribbanu (a function or prof.) NA/NB; -» 

murabbianu ? 
muridu, muredu (a function or prof.) Bogh. 

muridum "person descending"? OB; 

< warddum 
murikua — ♦ murhu 

murinnakum mng. unkn. OB; < Sum. 
murkigu (pulmonary disease) Ug.; < Sum. 
murkunas (a garment)? Nuzi 

murnisqu "select young animal; war horse" 
jB/NA; < mum + nisqu (-» GAG §59a) 

murqannu — » murruqiinu 

murqu I ~ "intellect, reason" jB; Id m. "lack of 
reason; foolishness"; < mardqu ? 

murqu II NB occas. for murruqu 

murqu — » also wurqum 

murradu — » muraddu 




murranu(m), NB lex. ufrjrdnu, jB lex. also 
burrdnu l.jB, NA (a tree or shrub) 
[GIS.MA.NU.SIG7.SIG7], jB also amurrdnu 
2. OAkk(Sum.) (source of an oil); = 1 ? 3. lex. 
(a stone (object))?; < murru ? 

murraqutu "release, clearing from claims" NB; 

< murruqu 2 

murratum (or hularratum) (a weapon)? OAkk 
murrihu "urgent" jB in um murrihti "hasty, 

urgent storm"; < ardhu I D 
murru Ass., M/NB, Am., Bogh. 1. "bitterness" 

2. "myrrh" [(GIS.)SIM.SES]; <mardru\\ 

> murrdnu 1 
murru — » also murhu 
murru I D "to be silent" jB lex. 
murrum II 'one who uncovers' OA in murri 

qablltim "uncoverer of the jar" (to do 

accounts); < eru III D 
murru — » also aru VI D 
murruqu NB 1. of silver "refined" 2. "released 

from claims" 3- "clear, intelligible"; < mardqu 

D; — » murqu II 
inu(r)ruqunu, murqannu etc. NB for — » 

murrurtu "slander"? Ug.; < mardru I D 
murrutu (or hurrutu ?) (a plant) NB used to 

make flour during famine 
mursu(m); pi. mursdnu "illness, disease" [GIG] 

of various parts of the body, e.g. murus 

qaqqadi "head disease, headache", m. sinni 

"dental infection"; m. libbi(m) "heartache, 

sorrow, distress"; < mardsu 
murta'Mmu "thunderer" (name of Adad) jB lex. 

(< NA for *murtammimu ?); < ramdmu Gtn ? 
murtamu, jB lex. also mustamu; mostly in pi. 

murtdmu "loving each other, lovers, friends" 

M/jB; < ramu II Gt 
murtappidu(m) "wandering, roving" O/jB; of 

animals, of ghost of a dead person [KIP-du ? 

of weapon; < rapddu II Gtn 
inurtasnu ~ "thunderous, roaring" of Adad jB; 

d Murtasnu (name of Adad); < rasdnu Gt 
murtassu "who wrongs continuously"? jB lex.; 

< rasu III Dtn 
murte'dtu — » re'u Gt 

inurtu, mustu "young female animal" MA, MB; 

< mum 

nulrtu — » wu'urtum 

muru "rainstorm" Ug. lex.; < Sum. 

inuru(m) "young animal; young bull; foal (of 

donkey or horse)" [DUR]; also transf. of king; 

lex. mur me (an insect); > murnisqu, murtu 
mum — » also erium; miru III 
inur'u (an official)? Nuzi, Ug.; < Ug.; > murutu 

mur(u)du(m) "lattice, grating" O/jB in river, 

"(golden) filigree"; < Sum. 
muruku — » muraku 
muruma pi. (a textile) Ug. 
muruqunu etc. -» murruqiinu 
murus "bed" jB lex.; -» marsu 2 
murusu "man" jB lex.; < Sum.? 
murutu "function of muru official" Nuzi; 

< mur'u 

murzanum, muruzdnum, murzinum (a wooden 
object) OAkk(Ur III), OB 

murzumurza (or ha/urzuha/urza^) (a garden 
plant) NB 

musabbiktu "woman basket-weaver" jB lex.; 

< sabdku D 

musahhiptu (a hunting net) jB lex.; < sahdpu D 
musahhirtum mng. unkn. OB fPN ?; 

< sahdru D ? 

musahhiru "buyer, buying agent" NB; rab m. 

"head of the buying agents"; < Aram. 
musahhum "troublemaker"? OB in PN; < sehu 

musakkiltu (or musaqqiltu); pi. musakklqqildtu 

(topog. term) NA, rdg. uncert.; < saklqdlu D or 

akdlu St ? 
musallihtu; pi. musallihdtu (a libation vessel) 

M/NB, N A; <saldhu ID 
musallimu "conciliable, placatable" jB; 

< saldmu II D 

musammehtu "woman mixer" (of dough 7 )? 

NB; in bdb m. (name of a gate 7 ); < samdhu D 
musaqqiltu — » musakkiltu 
musarriru — » sardru D; sarrirum 
musarrum — » misarrum 
musarru — » musaru 
musaru (a disease)? jB lex. 
musaru — » also musaru; musaru 
musdrum — » musdrum 
musassianu "who has proclamation made" MA; 

< sasu D 

musatu, munzetu "(used) washing water" j/NB 

"toilet, lavatory"; bit m. "lavatory"; rdbis m. 

"demon of the lavatory"; < mesu II 
musazkirum — » musazkirum 
musellum "supplicant" OB lex.; < sullu I 
museppum "supplicant" OB lex.; < suppu II; -» 

also suppu I D 
musiktu (or musiktu) (a stone object) Ug. lex. 
musiqqum "who makes narrow, confines" OB 

lex.; < sidqum D 
muskum " bad, evil"? OB; < masdku ? 
musku — » also musku 




mussah(hi)ru 1. OB(Susa) (a household 
utensil) 2.jB "(benignly) turned to( wards 
s.o.)", of goddess; < sahdru Gtn, N 

mussaltu -* musta'utu 

mussdtu —* esu D 

mussipu ~ "scoop" MA; < esepu D 

mussiru(m) 1. MA (part of a stove) 2. lex. (part 
of a plough, phps.) "seed funnel" 3. Mari, jB 
lex. (a cultic functionary); < eseru II D ? 

mussu — ► mesu II D; wussum 

inussuku "wretched, pitiful"? jB; MA also PN; 

< masdku D 

musukkannu, mes(uk)kannu, occas. 

mas(ma)kannu, (u)sukkannu "Magan-tree", 

phps. "Dalbergia sissoo" Bab., NA [GIS.MES. 

MA.KAN.NA (-♦ mesu)]; < Sum.?; -♦ usukannu 
musukkd'u — ► musukku 
musukku(m), usukku; f. (m)usukkatu "ritually 

unclean; impure person" O/jB [U.ZUG; f. 

MUNUS.U.ZUG]; < Sum. 
musukku, OA musukkd'u pi. tant. 1. OA, OB 

"poor quality (silver)"? 2. OB mng. unkn.; 

< masdku 

musabbi(t)tu 1. jB lex. (part of a loom) 2. NB 

(a bronze implement); < sabdtu D 
musa'Mranu, musdrdnu "frog" Qatna, jB 

[BIL.ZA.ZA]; med. also used as drug; "(figurine 

of a) frog" 
musallu NA for — ► masallu or musldlu ? 
musallu — ► also mussdlu 
musallu "liar, evildoer" jB lex.; < selu I D 
musdne -* musu 
musappertu 'she who shapes', i.e. "woman 

hairdresser"? jB lex.; < sapdru D 
musappiu "dyer" NA; < sapu II D 
musdrdnu —* musa" irdnu 
musarrihtum "wailing woman"? OB; < sardhu 

ID;-* sarrihtum 
musarrirtu(m), musarristu; pi. musarriratu (a 

libation vessel) O/jB, NA, usu. metal; 

< sardru I D 

inusarum (or musdrum) (a metal object) OA; 

< masdrum or masaru ? 
musd'u —* mum 
musehhu — ► musihhu 

musihhu(m), musehhu(m) "clown, jester" O/jB 

lex.; < siahu D 
musiptu; pi. musipeti (a garment) NB; 

< suppu II ? 

musium I (a departure tax) OA; < wasum; -* 

musium II (an official) OA 
musiu — ♦ also musu 

muslalu(m) "siesta(-time); midday" Bab. 
[AN.BIR9(=NE)]; acc. as adv. "at noon"; 

< saldlu; — ♦ musallu; sumsulu 
musru, misru "Egyptian" jB lex. 
mussabru —* muzzapru 

mussaltu, musseltu jB lex. 1. (a term for the gall 
bladder, phps.) "gallstone" 2. (a mineral); 

< mussdlu 

mussalu, musallu "quarrelsome; troublesome" 
jB; of a stone; < sdlu Gt ?; > mussaltu 

musseltu —* mussaltu 

mussu — ♦ masu D; musu; wussum 

mussusu —* muzzuzu 

musu(m) (a garment) OA ? , M/NB; pan m. (part 
of the garment); < wussum ? 

musu "exudation" jB 1. lex. (a stone) 2. med. 
"discharge" at the foreskin 

musu(m), M/NA musd'u, NB also mussu, Ug. 
musiu 1 ; NB pi. musdne "exit" Bab., M/NA 
[KI.E; ZAG.E; KI.TA.E.A]; "way out"; "going out, 
departure"; "escape route", sa Id muse 
"inescapable"; "outflow, outlet"; NB "exit tax", 
a canal charge; astr. "rising" of star; "yield" 
(< W.Sem.); OB m. sattim "end of the year"; 

< wasum; OA — ► musium I 
musa —* musu 
musabbistu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

musabsu "that calls into existence; creator" jB 

lex.; f. also DN; < basil S 
musabtu (a room in a house, phps.) "toilet" jB; 

< wasdbum 

musabu(m) "dwelling, domicile, abode; seat (of 

honour), throne"; < wasdbum 
musadbibu, musedbibu 1. MB "that causes s.o. 

to litigate" 2.J/NB, NA "that causes s.o. to 

speak (sedition)"; < dabdbu II S 
musadbibutu "instigation" NA; < musadbibu 
musaddinum "tax collector" OB; < naddnu II S 
musaddu "that causes negligence"? jB; 

< nadu III S 

musadgil(ann)u "who transfers ownership (of to s.o.)" NB; < dagdlu S 
musadiru "frightening" jB; < adaru II S 
musaggisum "murderer" OB lex.; < sagdsu D 
musahhinu, musehhinu; NB pi. musahhindnu 

"brazier, stove" j/NB [ZABAR.SEN.DIL. 

KUM.MA]; < sahdnu D; — ► musehhittu 
musahhitum mng. unkn. Mari 
musahizu(m) "who gives instructions; trainer" 

Bab.; < ahdzu S 
musahlilu "that causes to shout with joy" jB; of 

bull;~< aldlu IH S 
musahripu "early ripening (date palm)" jB lex.; 

< hardpu I S 




musakilu(m) 'that lets eat, feeds' Bab., M/NA 
1. "supplier of food" to people 2. "feeder, 
fattener" of animals, birds 3. Mari, Bogh.(Hitt.) 
(a kind of knife); < akdlu S 

musakilutum "feeding (of animals)" OB; 

< musdkilu 

musalittu "midwife" jB lex.; < walddum S 
musallilu "plunderer" jB lex.; < saldlu I D 
musallimanu "delivery man"? M/NA, NB; NA 

"healer"?; NB as a prof.; < musallimu 
musallimu(m) O/jB 1. Mari "that delivers safely; 
safe-conduct, escort" 2.jB stat. of deity 
"safeguarding, preserving (s.o.'s) health"; 

< saldmu II D 
musallu —* mussallu 
musalmu -* muselwii 

musalu(m), Am. meselu; jB pi. f. "metal mirror" 
[NIG.SU.ZABAR]; also (a wooden object); 

< masdlu 
musalwu — ► muselwu 

inusainhisu, musanhisu; pi. musamlntyisu, 
musamhisutu "inciter to fight, troublemaker" 
NA, NB; < mahdsu S 

musamhisutu "sedition" NA; < musamffisu 

musamqi(t)tu; pi. musamqitatu OB "(agri- 
cultural) sieve"; jB lex. sa m. (an agricultural 
worker); < maqdtu S 

musamru "that fattens" animals jB lex. of Adad; 

< maru II S 

musamsu "wandering by night, wakeful" jB; 

< sumsu 
musanhisu —* musamhisu 
musanmirtu "lamp" NA; < nawdru S 

musa n nit u, musennitu; pi. musennetu "dam" 

diverting water flow NB; < sanu IV D 
musannu(m) mng. unkn. OB lex., NB; 

< sanu IV D ? 

musanum (a wooden object) OB; — ► masdnum 
inusappiktu (vessel for pouring) oil ? jB lex.; 

< sapdku D 

musappilu(m) "that lowers" OB lex., jB; 

< sapdlu D 

inusapsihu (part of a door) NB; < pasdfru S 
inusapsiqtu "having difficulty" in childbirth 

Bogh., jB; < pasdqu S 
musapzertu 'that hides' jB lex. (term for a door) 

lex.; < pazdru S 
musaqqiltu "scales" NB comm.; < saqdlu D 
musaqqu I "that raises" jB; < saqu II D 
musaqqum II "(man) that waters" animals Mari; 

< saqu III D 

musarbidu 'that makes roam'? jB lex., desig. of 

official ?; < rapddu II S ? 
musardu "leaking" jB, of basket; < redu I S 

musdridum -* musarritum I 

musarisam "per m«5o;-measure" OB; < musaru 

musarkisu "(military) procurement officer"? 

NA/NB; < rakdsu S 
musarkisutu "office of musarkisu" NA; 

< musarkisu 

musarqidu "dizzying"? jB; < raqddu S 
musarritum I (or musdridum) (prof, connected 

with trade) OA; < sardtu D ? 
musarritu II "that tears" (garments) OB lex.; 

< sardtu D 
musarru — ► musaru 

musartu mng. unkn. Bogh. in asar m. 

musaru —* isaru II 

musaru, musaru, NA also mussaru; pi. 

mussare, NA also mussardni "(royal) 

inscription" M/NB, NA [mu.SAR]; < Sum. 
musaru(m), mus/sa(r)ru "(flower, vegetable) 

bed" Bab. 1. "garden(-plot)" OB ana m. 

sakdnim and sim. "to divide up in beds" 

2. (surface measure = 12x12 cubits) [SAR] 

3. (cubic measure = 12x12x1 cubits) [sar] 

4. jB (term for) "buttocks"; < eseru or Sum.?; 
> musarisam 

musasnu "regulated, diverted" NA of canal; 

< sanu IV S 

musatpilu "calumniator" jB; < tapdlu S 
musatu(m) "combed-out hair, carded wool" 
O/jB [SIK.SAB]; also "(cloth of) carded wool"?; 

< mustu 

musazkirum, musazkirum "official swearing in 
(a witness), taking an oath (from s.o.)"? Mari; 

< zakdru S 

musazziqu "troublemaker" jB; < nazdqu S 
musazzizum "(person) that makes (s.o.) attend" 

(an accounting procedure)? OA; < izuzzum S 
musebirtu mng. unkn., phps. "ferry" NA; 

< musebiru 

musebiru(m) 1. OB "that brings (s.o.) across" 

the water 2. MB (an aqueduct)?; < eberu I S 
musedbibu —* musadbibu 
musedu ~ "that informs"? jB lex.; of deity; 

< edit II S 

musehhinetu pi. "stoves" NB (pi. of musehhinu 
or musehhittu); < sahdnu D 

musehhinu -* musahhinu; musehhinetu 

muselbu, muselimu —* muselwu 

muselitu -* muselu 6 

muselmu —* muselwu 

museltu —* meseltu 

muselu 'that raises' M/NB 1. (a doorkeeper) 
2. "winnower" 3. (priest performing incantation 
for the dead), "necromancer" 4. (an (agri- 




cultural) implement) 5. (part of door closure) 
6. (a cloud formation), also f. muselitu; 

< elu III S 

muselwu, muselmu, musalw/mu, occas. 
muselbu, muselimu "(field) surveyor" Nuzi; 

< lawum II S 

museniqtu(m); pi. museniqdtu, Alal. museniqtdti 
"wet nurse" [um.ME.GA.lA] of woman, 
goddess, also "mother animal suckling"; 

< enequ S 
musenmtu — ► musannitu 

musepisu(m) "overseer, foreman" Bab. 
"organizer of a ritual"; NB "workshop"?; 

< epesu II S 

musepisutu(m) 1. OB "supervision, direction of 
work" 2. jB "organization 7 of a ritual"; 

< musepisu 

museqqilum "(deity) in charge of weighing" (in 
the nether world)? OB(Susa); < saqdlu D 

museribtum 'that brings in' (desig. of a feeder 
canal) OB; < erebu I S 

inuseriduni 'that conveys down' OB; muserittu 
"oesophagus" jB; < warddum S 

muserisu -» "cultivation inspector" MB; 

< eresu I S 
muserittu —* museridum 

uiusertu(m) 1. Mari "overlooking window"; also 
"overlooking" in jB apti m. 2. jB 'she who 
leans in' (name of a demon); < surru 

musesitum 'that brings out' (desig. of a drainage 
channel) OB; < musesu 

musesu, musesi'u 1. NB "drain"; pi. musesdnu 
2. NA (an ornament)? 3. OB "one who leases, 
tenant" 4. OB, Mari, NB (an official); 

< wasum S 

musesertu "palm broom" jB lex.; < eseru S 
museseru jB 1. "that puts in order" 2. "draining 
freely" of water ? 3. mng. unkn. lex.; < eseru S 
musetiqtu 'that lets pass' mng. unkn. NB; 

< etequ S 

musezibtu 1. in sa musezibti "shield-bearer" NA 

2. "life-belt"? NB; < musezibu 
musezibu(m) "saving, rescuing; saviour"; of 

deity in PN [MA, NB (mw-)KAR]; of human; 

< ezebu S 

musgallu, mussugallu 'great serpent', (mythical 
beast) jB [MUS.GAL]; also used as a drug ?; 

mushalsitu, mushelsitu "slippery place"?; 

< nehelsu S 

mushistum 'that makes hasten'? OB of goddess; 

< hi a sum 

mushussu(m) -» "serpent-dragon" Bab. [MUS. 
yuS] (a mythical monster) jB; (a constellation); 

musihhu (a water-clock) jB lex.; < siahum I D 

musihtum (a vessel) Mari; < siahum I D 

musiktu — ► musiktu 

musimmu — ► sidmu D 

musis "at night" jB; < musu 

musitis (or musitas), musitan "during the night- 
time" jB; < musitu 

musitu(m); pi. musidtu, musdtu "night(-time)" 
[GE6]; ace. "at night"; rit., invoked as person; 

< musu 

muskallimu "teaching, explaining" jB stat.; 

< kullumu SD 

muskallu (a large fish net) jB lex.; error for 

suskallu ?; < Sum.? 
muskasat "at night towards morning" OB lex.; 

< musu + kasdtu 

muskenu(m), maskenu; Mari f. muskettum ? 
"dependant, bondsman of the palace; poor man" 
OB leg. (a social class) contrasted with awilum 
and wardum; jB, NA "pauper"; < W.Sem.?; 
> muskenutu; — ► sukenu 

muskenutu(m) O/jB, Bogh., NA 1. "depend- 
ence on the palace, status of a muskenum" 
2. "impoverishment, poverty", m. aldku "to sink 
into poverty, become poor"; < muskenu 

muskinnu (a belt)? jB lex. 

musku, musku (a tree and its wood) jB, NA 

musku 'snake-eater' jB lex., desig. of a bird of 
prey; < Sum. 

muslahhutu "art of the snake charmer" jB lex. 

mus(la)lahhatu jB 1. "female snake charmer" 
[MUS.LAJJ4(.LAH4)] 2. lex. (a worm)?; 

< muslalahhu 

mus(la)lahhu "snake charmer" M/jB [(LU.) 

MUS.LAfl4/5; once MUS.LAHg]; < Sum. 
muslalu(m) (archit. construction, phps.) "stair- 

case(-gate)" Ass., OB; < saldlu II ?; — ► 

musmahhu (a mythical serpent) jB [MUS.MAH]; 

musmidu "making numerous" jB lex.; < madu S 
musmitu "murderous, death-bearing" jB as epith. 

of deity; < matu S 
musnigum (or musniqum) mng. unkn. OB om., 

substance filling spleen 
muspalu(m) "depth" of an excavation; 

"depression (in the ground)", "lowland" O/jB 

[TUN/TUL.LAL]; < sapdlu 
muspisu "conjurer"? jB lex. 
musqalpitu mng. unkn. jB; < neqelpu S 




mussakku(m), massakku "incense" O/jB used 
by dream-interpreter, as opiate ? 

mu(s)sallu (a clay tube, pipe)? NB 

mussarrutu "craft of wood inscriber, engraver 7 " 
Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 

mussaru — > musaru 

mussaru(m) (a semiprecious stone, phps.) 
"serpentine" Bab., M/NA [(NA4.)MUS.GIR; MB 
NA4.NfR.MUS.GfR ?]; m. zaqdni (a variety of 
m.); in m. "'eye'(-stone) of m"; < Sum.? 

mussipu (an incantation priest) jB; 

< wasdpum D 

mussu "(female) breast" Qatna, jB, akal m. 

(breast-shaped roll, loaf of bread)? 
mussu — > masu II D; wussum 
mussugallu — > musgallu 
mussuku "leathery" jB; < masku 
mussultu "likeness, replica"; < masdlu D 
mussulu(m) 'made to resemble' OAkk, M/NB, 
NA 1. OAkk as PN 2. "image, likeness" of 
(sick) person, object 3. "mirror"; < masdlu D 
mussuru mng. unkn. Am. 
mussuru — > also wasdrum D; wussurum 
mussu 'tu; pi. mussudtu "ointment" jB; 

< mussu' u 

mussu'u D "to rub" part of body jB, with s,th. = 

ace. Dtn iter, of D; > mussu' tu 
mustabbabbu(m) "blazing"? OA, O/jB of 

Lamastu and other demons; jB lex. 

d Mustabbabbu; < sabdbu I Rt 
mustabiltu(m), multdbiltu jB 1. (desig. of the 

tongue)? 2. summa m. (name of commentary 

series on liver omens) 3. OB (type of due or 

tax); <wabdlu St 
mustablakkitum "sheaf-turner" OB lex.; 

< nabalkutu II Stn 

mustabrltu, muttabritu 'enduring', i.e. "sea- 
worthy ship" jB lex.; < bitru II St 

mustaddinu 'that ponders' jB lex. of deliberate 
person ; < naddnu II St 

mustaggisu — > muttaggisu 

mustahalqu -» "deserter" NB; < haldqu 

mustahhizum "infectious" Mari; < ahdzu Stn 

mustahlilu — > muttahallilu 

mustahmitu — > hamdtu III Stn 

mustahtu, multahtu "escapee, survivor" 
j/NB(Ass.); < sahdtu I Gt 

musta'ltu — ► musta" u 

mustakkitum (a trader)? OA; < sakdtu Dtn 

mustalu(m), mustelum, multdlu "who considers; 
deliberate" Bab.; of deity, in PN; of king; Mari 
f. pi. as subst. "discussions"; jB m. as subst. 
"adviser, councillor"; < sdlu I Gt 

mustalutum, multdlutu "consideration, 

deliberation" O/MB; of deity, king; OB "con- 
ference, council"; < mustdlu 
mustamkiru "trader" jB lex.; < makdru II St 
mustamsu "that makes an effort" jB; < masu St 
mustamu "who considers well, gives careful 

thought" jB; < awum St 
mustamu — > murtdmu 
mustannintu — > mustasnintu 
mustannu "hostile" jB; < sanu IV Gtn 
mustappitu "treacherous" jB; < sapdtu Gtn 
mustaprisu — > muttaprisu 
mustapsu(m) "wrestler" O/jB; < sapdsu Gt 
mustapsiqtu "(woman) having difficulty (in 

childbirth)" MA, jB; < pasdqu 
mustaptinnu, multaptinnu (a potter's tool) jB 

lex.; < Sum.? 
mustaptu "treacherous" jB lex.; < sapdtu Gt 
mustaptutu "treachery" jB; < mustaptu 
mustarhu, multarhu, Bogh. multarrihu 

1. M/NB(Ass. roy. inscr.) "presumptuous, 

arrogant" 2. Bogh., NB of deity "proud, noble"; 

< sardhu I Gt 
mustarhutu, multarhutu, Bogh. multalerrihutu 

"arrogance" MB, Bogh.; < mustarhu 
mustarilu (name of planet Mercury) j/NB [prob. 

mustarrihu(m), multarrihu "praising o.s.; self- 
important, conceited" O/jB; MB in PN of deity 

"proud"; < sardhu I Gtn/Dt 
*mustarrihutu — > mustarhutu Bogh. 
mustarriqu 'that steals in', i.e. "(secret) lover" 

jB; < sardqu I Gtn 
musta(r)ristu (a bird) Bogh. lex. 
mustaship(t)u, multaship(t)u (a stone) jB; NA 

[NA4.MUNUS.LA] also as a drug; < sahdpu St 
mustasimu — > summu II St 
mustaskinu, multaskinu jB lex. (desig. of god, 

of potter's tool); < sakdnu Stn 
mustasnintu, Susa mustannintu (part of the 

liver) jB; < sandnu St 
musta"u; f. musta'itu "idle, at leisure" MB 

fPN; < suta"um 
*musta"iitu, multa'utu, multa"itu, NA 

mussa"itu "leisure, relaxation" M/jB(Ass.), 

NA; < musta" u 
mustebilum mng. unkn. OA; < wabdlu St 
mustelum — > mustdlu 
mustemiqu(m), multemiqu "devout supplicant" 

muste(n)nium 1. OB lex. (a vessel) 2. jB 

mustenu, mustennd "having reached puberty; 


m ustepisu 



mustepisu; f. muslltepis/ltu jB 1. "sorcerer, 
bewitcher; sorceress" 2. adj. "crafty" of fox ; 

< epesu II St 

mustepisutu, multepisutu "magical ritual" jB; 

< mustepisu 

mustertum "waking time, morning" Mari; ace. 
"in the morning"; < eru St 

mustesertu, MA multesertu l.jB "(woman) 
having normal childbirth"; < eseru St 1 2. MA 
"repair, maintenance", of chariot; < eseru St 2 

muste"u "repeatedly searching, deliberate" jB; 
<se'u Gtn 

mustezzibu — ♦ ezebu Stn 

musti(n)nu(iTi) "urethra" O/jB; aban m. "bladder 
stone"; OAkk mng. unkn.; < sidnum Gt 

mustu — ♦ miirtu 

mustinnu (a plant) jB lex. 

mustu(m), multu f.; pi. mustdtu "comb" 
[(GIS.)GA.RIG] m. sipdtim "wool comb"; OB 
sinni m. "tooth of a comb"; > musdtu 

musu(m) "night" [GE6]; ace. musa(m) "at night"; 
miisamma "yesterday night"; Mari musam 
musanima "at dead of night"; urrulali u 
musulali and vice versa miisurri "day and 
night, continuously"; sat m. "night-time", also 
(the second watch of the night); massarti, 
massardti sa m. "watch(es) of the night"; ina 
milsi masil, masli "at midnight"; > miisis; 
musitu, musitis; sumsu; — ♦ misu II; muskasdt 

mus'u (an animal) jB lex., equated with kusu'u 

musumnia mng. unkn. OB 

musurri — ♦ miisu 

muta'imu — » mute"imu 

mutamu — » mutawum 

mutanu(ni) "epidemic, plague" Bab., NA 
[NAM.ClS.MES; US.MES]; < mutu 

niutaplu(m), mutappilu(m) "that intercedes for; 
intercessor" in PN, of deity; < apdlu I Gt(n) 

mutaqqinu (a gardening tool)? NB; < taqdnu D 

mutaqu(m), muttdqu, muntdqu "confectionery, 
sweetmeat" Bab., NA; sa m.(-su) "con- 
fectioner" [(LU.)NINDA.KU7.KU7]; < matdqu; 
> mutdqutu 

mutaqu; pi. mutaqdtu "passage(way), street" 
j/NB; < etequ 

mutaqutu "service as a confectioner" NB; 

< mutaqu 

mutawum, jB mutamu ~ "eloquent"? O/jB lex.; 

< awum Gt 

mute"imu, muta'imu "master, ruler, prince" 

NB(Achaem.); < tu'umu II 
mutellum — ♦ muttellum 
muterru jB, NA '( re ) tumer ' 1- lex. (a bolt) 

2. lex. (wooden part of a fowler's net) 3. NA 

"poker" 4. m. gimilli "avenger" 5. m. temi 

"adviser; agent"; < tdru D; mutertu 
mutertu(m); pi. muterretu Bab. 1. "leaf of a 

door"; pi. "double door"; NB bit m. "portico" 

2. (a fowler's net); < muterru 
muthummu, mithummu "fruit(s), product(s) of 

a garden" M/jB [NIG.SA.SA(.HI.A)] 
muti(ina) "ever" OA, Bogh.; — » matima 
mutinnu — » muttinnu 
Mutir (a month) OAkk 
mutku mng. unkn. jB lex. 
mutlellu "that rises; lofty, exalted" j/NB, of deity; 

< utlellu 

mutnennu "who prays much, pious" M/NB; 

< utnenu II 

mutqltu (a sweet bread)? NA; < mutqu 

mutqu I "sweet thing, sweetness" jB in akal m. 
"sweet bread"; < matdqu; — ♦ mutqu 

mutqu II "head louse" jB 

mutqu(m) "sweet bread" Bab. [NINDA. 
KU7.KU7 ?]; < matdqu; > mutqitu; -» mutqu I 

muttabbiltu jB 1. "female servant" 2. ~ "fur- 
niture" 3. lex. pi. (a slide for battering ram) 
4. lex. (a hunting net); < muttabbilu 

muttabbilu(m) "servant" O/jB; < wabdlu Gtn 

muttablakkatum "rebellious" OB; 

< nabalkutu II Ntn 
Muttabriqu -» hardqu Ntn 
muttabritum mng. unci. Mari 
muttabritu -* also mustabritu 

muttaddinu "salesman, seller" jB lex.; 

< naddnu II Gtn 

mutta'du, muttddu ~ "attentive, submissive" jB; 

< na'ddu Gt 

muttaggisu(m), once mustaggisu "bustling, 
restlessly busy" O/jB of human, demon; 

< nagdsu Gtn 

muttah(al)lilu(m) and sim. "roaming around; 

prowler, vagabond" Bab.; < haldlu III Ntn 
muttahsu —* mundafosu 
mutta'ilu mng. unci. jB; < itulu Gtn 
muttakkipu "goring" jB of demon; 

< nakdpu Gtn 

muttaklu "trusted person" jB; < takdlu N 
muttakpu "goring" jB of animal, storm; 

< nakdpu Gt 
muttalku — ♦ mumtalkum 

muttalliktu(m); pi. muttallikdtu(m) 'regularly 
moving' 1. OA, O/jB (a mobile group); 
"expeditionary force"; (a group of harvest- 
collectors)?; (a group of herdsmen); OA 
uncert. 2. MB/MA, NA "course, way"; OB 
math, (a coefficient); jB (slide, rails for 




battering ram) 3. Bogh., jB (a sliding door); 

< muttalliku 

muttalliku "mobile, movable, agile" jB; of 
person "roaming, restless"; "travelling"; lex. of 
oven "portable"; "movable furniture"; 

< aldku Gtn 
muttallitum —* muttellu 
muttallulu — ♦ muttellum 

muttallutu "superiority" Bab. lex.; < muttellu 
muttan(an)bitu "bright, shining" jB; < nabdtu 

muttaparsidu — ♦ muttaprassidu 
muttaplisu ~ "inspector" OB lex.; < paldsu Ntn 
muttaprassidu, muttaparsidu "fugitive, home- 
less" jB; < naparsudu Ntn 
muttaprirru "roaming around" jB; <pardru, mustaprisu "winged, flying" M/jB 
[DAL.DAL] of bird, insect; transf. of fire; 

< naprusu II Ntn 
muttdqu — ♦ mutaqu 

muttarrittum; pi. muttarriddtu(m) "perpen- 
dicular (line)" OB math.; abbr. mu-ut; 

< warddum Gtn 

muUHarrltu (a woman hairdresser)? jB lex. 
muttarrum, muttarrium "guide; leader (of a 

caravan)" OA, OB; < warum II Gtn 
muttaru (a canal) jB lex.; < warum Gt 
muttasrabbitu "drifting about" jB; < nasarbulu 

muttassitu "arrogant"? jB; < wasdtum 
muttatiku "habitual fornicator" jB lex.; < nidku 

muttatu(m) I "half of parts of the body etc.; 

field; number of objects, people; OB occas. 

"one-third"; OA (a half-container on one side 

of a donkey; half of a standard donkey's load ?) 
muttatu II "dead (animal)" NB; < mdtu 
mutteklemmu "ever-frowning" jB; < nekelmu 

mu(t)tellum, muttallulu ~ "princely, noble" 

Bab.(lit.) of deity; of human, in PN; of falcon; 

of divine or human speech, order etc.; 

> muttallutu 
muttellu, muttillu - 'that roams around' jB, NB?; 

OB f. muttallitum (a servant)?; < ne'ellu Ntn 
mutte(r)ritu (a tool) jB lex. 
muttetendu "conspiring, conspirator" jB; 

< emedu 

muttikku, muttiku (person suffering from a 
venereal disease)? jB lex.; < nidku Gtn; -* 

muttillu — ♦ muttellu 

muttll(t)u (a demon) jB [KIN.GAL.UD.DA]; 

< itulu ? 

mu(t)tinnu "choice wine" jB; < Sum.(Emesal) 
muttis "in front, before (s.o.)" O/jB; < muttu 
muttu(m) "front (part)" OA, O/jB; Bogh. "front 

side" of the body; with poss. suff. "before 

(s.o.)";> muttis 
muttu(m), mattum (a pole) O/jB lex.; -+ 

mandu I 
mutturu — ♦ watdrum D 
mutu(m) [DAM] m. 1. "husband", m. ahdti 

"brother-in-law"; in PNs 2. "man, warrior"; 

> mututu I 
mutu(m) "death" [(NAM.)US]; jB d Mutu (demon 

Death); m. simti(m), m. ilisu "natural death"; 

OB aran mutim "capital punishment"; bit m. 

"grave"; < mdtu; > miitdnu 
mutussu (a warrior) jB lex. 
mututu(m) I O/jB 1. "status of a husband" in 

ana assiitim u m. ahdzum, naddnum "to take, 

give as wife and husband" 2. "manliness, 

bravery"; < mutu 
mututu II mng. unkn. NA 
muta'Mmu, mute" emu, mute"e'u. "lawgiver" 

NB(roy. inscr.); -+ temu denom.? 
mutappilu(m) "slanderer"; < tapdlu D 
mutd'u —* mutu 
mute" emu — ♦ muta" imu 
mutibtu 'that beautifies', (desig. of a door) jB 

lex.; < tidbu D 
muttarridum? (a transporter) OA; < tarddu Gtn 
muttu "very little, too little" Bab.; < matu II 
mutu(m), Ass. pi. tant. mutd'u "deficit, missing 

sum; deficiency, shortage" Ass., O/jB [NA 

LAL- ?]; < matu II; — » muddu 
mu'(ud)du "(large) quantity; multitude" jB/NA; 

< mddu 

mu"untu "rations, sustenance" NB; <mdnu; 

NA -+ ma'uttu 
mu'uru in m. seri "hunting" MB(Ass.); -+ 

bu" uru I 
mu'uru — ♦ warum D 
muwarritum, M/jB mumalerritu, namritu (a 

weapon or tool) O/jB, Am., Nuzi; < aru VI D 
muwassum, mumasslssu ~ "inspector of 

slaves"? O/jB lex.; jB of DN [MAS.SU.GAL]; 

< wussilm 
muwerrum —* mu'erru 

muza'Mztu "distributer" MB as fPN; < zazu D 
muzakkum 'cleaner' Mari, desig. of an 

implement; < zaku II 
muzannitfu (or musannipu) mng. unkn. OB lex. 
muzaqqipu (an agricultural occupation) OB lex.; 

< zaqdpu D 

muzibbu 'letting flow' j/NB, desig. of a water- 
clock; < zdbu D 

muzibtu 226 

muzibtu "drainage" NB; < zdbu 
muziqatu (a disease)? jB lex.; < mazdqu 
muzlqu, munziqu "raisin" M/NB [(GIS.) 

muzzapru (or mussabru) 
"malicious") jB of lips 
< zapdru (or sabdru I) Gt 
muzzazu(m), muzzizu(m), munzizu "standing" 
(later — » mazzizu) 1. OAkk, pi. muzzdzu "wit- 
ness" 2. OA ~ "guarantor of appearance"? 
3. "standing (on duty), serving", OB muzzaz 

very bad" (or 
words, person; 

blti "servant"; muzzaz ekallim "courtier"; m. 
bdbi (a tax collector) 4. OB muzzaztum 
(part of a necklace); < izuzzum 

muzzerru, munzerru "enemies" O/jB; < zeru Gt 

muzzuzu (or mussusu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 


na- as nominal prefix — » GAG §56b, c, h 

-na 1. OAkk, OB subjunct. suff. GAG §83c 
2. OB in prohibition after Id 

na'adu(m) "to be attentive, concerned" G (i/i) 
"pay attention" (to = ana); "be concerned, 
worry" (about = ana); stat. "is worrying(ly 
bad)" of physical condition, disease, assets Gtn 
iter, "be constantly worried" Gt "watch 
carefully"; "observe strictly" (divine) order 
D OA, OB "alert, notify" s.o. (about = ace), 
"inform, advise" (of = ace.); Bogh. "start a 
war"? Dtn "alert in each case", Am. "start wars 
repeatedly" S OA "indicate to s.o. the 
inadmissibility, impropriety of an action"; OB, 
j/NB "inform"; NA (of deity) mng. unkn.; MB 
-> ddu S Stn OA iter, of S; M/NA mng. 
unkn.; > na' du; na'dis; nayyddu; ni'ittum; 
mutta'du; ta"ittu 

na'ddu — » also nddu 

na'alu(m) ~ "to moisten" O/jB G (i/i) eye, tree; 
>na'ilu; riiluYL; nayydlulV 

na'amu(m) ~ "to advance boldly"? jB G (i/i) of 
soldiers; > nd'imum 

na'apu(m) "to be(come) dry, wither" O/jB 
G (ulu) of land, wood Gtn iter, of G of roots 
"wither repeatedly" Dt "be made to wither"; 

> na'pu; nipu 

na'arruru(m) N "to go to assist, bring 
reinforcements" OB, Am. (-» GAG §101g-i); 

> ne'rdru, ne' rdrdnum, nerdrutu; mu'arrirum; 
— » ardru III Ntn 

na'aru(m) "to roar, snarl" O/jB G of lion, demon 

D, Dt = G; > nd'eru; — ► nahdru II 
na'asu(m) "to chew up, gnaw" O/jB G (i/i) 

drugs D = G 

na' dm — » ndsu 

na'asu "to have difficulty breathing, wheeze"? 
M/jB G (i/i) D = G ?; > ni'su 

na'dsum — * also nesu 

na'd'um — » ne'u 

nababtu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

nababu "to play the flute"? jB G (ulu) 

nabddis — » napddis 

nabahu "to bark" j/NB G (ulu) of dog, demon 
Gtn iter. ofGD~G 

nabakum (or nablpdklqum) "to bring (in, 
along)" OB(lit.) G (Hi, alu) a person 

nabalis, ndpalis "on dry land" jB; convert "into 
dry land"; < ndbalu 

nabalkattanu jB "insurgent, rebel"; NB 
"contravener (of contract)"; < nabalkattu 

nabalkattu(m) "crossing" Bab., NA [KI.BAL; 
NB BAL] "crossing" of terrain; (illegal) 
"crossing" of wall, "burglary"; "(ladder) for 
crossing, climbing"; "uprising, insurrection, 
desertion"; "reversal, retreat"; NB "fallow part" 
of field; NB astr. "excess"; "revolution" of 
planet; < nabalkutu II 

nabalkutu(m) I "having crossed over" O/jB; 
"having exceeded" a certain age; "inverted, 
awry" of part of body; < nabalkutu II 

nabalkutu(m) II, nubalkutu "to cross over" 
N [BAL; Nuzi KI.BAL] (Mari stat. also 
nabalkat) 1. "cross, traverse" terrain, mountain, 
frontier, "ford" a canal, also transf.; "go 
across", vent, "come across" 2. jB of witchcraft 
etc. "befall" (s.o. = ace.); ina libbi- n. "come 
into o.'s mind" 3. Mari "change o.'s mind", "go 
over" to s.o.'s side; "revolt, defect" (from = 
ace.; eli, seru- ; ana muhhi; itti) 4. "resist" an 



nabu(m) II 

order; "oppose" (s.o. = ace); "be in breach of 
contract" 5. of parts of the body "turn over, be 
inverted"; of earthquake; "roll" eyes; "turn" to 
flee 6. jB nabalkut dini "perversion of justice" 
7. of interest rate "change" 8. "overflow", NB 
"go beyond, exceed", also math., astr.; OB of 
delivery "pass time limit"? Ntn iter, of N 
[BAL.BAL; BAL.MES] S caus. "send" or "bring 
across, transport" cattle 7 , ships; "forward" 
letters; "transfer ( into (another 
container)"; "copy" text; "cause, allow to 
defect"; "foment rebellion"; pi ...s. "incite (s.o. 
to do"; OA "cause to commit breach of 
contract"; "displace, upset, remove" object, 
frontier; "overthrow" throne, government; 
"reverse, overturn" judgement; "make 
ineffective" spell; NA "extend past time limit" 
Stn iter, of S OA "repeatedly transport" letter, 
"try repeatedly to move" St Mari pass, of S "be 
transported"; Nuzi mng. unkn.; > nabalkattu, 
nabalkattdnu, nabalkutu I; sutabalkuttu; 
muttablakkatum; mustablakkitum {-* GAG 

nabalum (part of a chariot) Early Mari; -> 
nubdlum ? 

nabalu "dry land, mainland" MA, M/NB 
[PA.RI.IM]; < abdlu; > ndbalis 

nabdqum — ► nabdkum 

nabaru, nabdrtu(m) "(fish-)trap" O/jB, "cage" 
for lions etc.; < baru I 

nabasis "like red wool" jB; < nabasu 

nabasu(m), nabassu, nabasu, napdsu 
"red(-dyed) wool" Bab., NA [SIK.yE.MED/ 
ME.DA]; > nabasis 

nabassuhum — » namassu'um 

nabasu — » nabasu 

nabatu(m) "to be(come) bright, shine" Bab. 
G {ulu) of celestial body, divine weapon D 
"make bright" Dt pass, of D S "make shine" 
face, statue; temple fafade, building, object 
St jB "be illuminated, lit" N, Ntn (mostly Hi) 
iter, of G "(repeatedly) come alight"; 
> muttananbitu; nibtu; nambatu 

naba'um (type of reed mat)? OAkk(Sum.) 

naba'u(m) ~ "to rise, well up"? O/jB G {ulu) of 
Tigris flood; > ndbi'u I; namba'u; nib'u 

naba'um — » also nabu II; ndbi'u II 

nabazu "to bleat" jB G {ulu) of goat 

nabbillu — » nappillu 

nabbu — ► nabu II 

nabhatum — ► naphatum 

nabhatum — » nahbdtu 

nabihum (a gold ornament)? OAkk(Sum.), OB 

ndbihum — ► ndbi'u I 

nabirium — ► nabrium 

nabium — ► nabu I 

nabi'u(m) I, ndbihum "who rises, revolts" O/jB; 

< nabd'u 

nabi'u II, ndpi'/hu "plunderer" jB, of city, land 
nablaltum "mixing vat" Mari; < baldlu 
nablalu (a reed stirring-stick)? NB; < baldlu 
nablatu(m) 1. O/jB "subsistence" 2.jB "healing, 
cure", mehis la n. "incurable wound"; 

< baldtu II 

nablis "like a flame" O/jB; < nablu I 

nablu(m) I "flash of fire, flame; fire-arrow" 
O/jB, also as DN; transf. and in simile of 
rainbow, king, dog; jB (a flame-symbol)?; 

> nablis 

nablu II (desig. of wool) NB; < Aram.? 

nablu III (a vessel)? jB 

nabnitu "creation" M/NB, NA(lit.), by god(s); 
"(all) creation, creatures"; "progeny" of king; 
"product(ion)" of gold, image; "shape, figure, 
physique" of king, statue; < banu IV 

nabramu (a piece of furniture) lex.; 

< bardmu II ? 
nabraqqu — » namruqqu 

nabrartu, naprartu (a reed mat) jB lex.; 

< bardru or pardru ? 

nabraru, napraru "plain, open country" jB; 

< bardru or pardru ? 

nabritu(m) I 1. OA (an object) 2.jB lex. (part 

of plough); < nabru 
Nabritum II "Bom on the day of the nabru 

offering" OB fPN; < nabrium 
nabritum III ~ "inspection" OA; < baru I; -> 

also nebrltu 
nabrium, nabru(m), nabirium OAkk, Bab. 

1. OAkk(Sum.) (an offering, a festival) 

2. OAkk, OB(Esn., N.Mes.) (a month) 3.JB 
lex., NB (a copper vessel)?; > Nabritum II 

nabru, napru (part of plough) jB lex.; 

> nabritu I 

nabru — » also nabrium 
nabruqqu — » namruqqu 

nabsium "deposit" OAkk, OA; ana n. ezdbum, 
naddnum "to leave, hand over on deposit"; 

< basu 

nabtu, nebtu ~ "horizon" jB; < bedum ? 

nabu(m) I, nabium "called, authorized person" 
of king; in PN "called" by a deity; Bab., M/NA 
as DN [ d AG; d MUATl]; also a star; < nabu II 

nabu(m) II, OAkk, OA naba'um "to name; 
nominate; decree" G {Hi) [SA4] "name" 
persons, things, places (+ 2 ace); "invoke" 

nabu(m) I 



deity; with mala "(as much as) is named", i.e. 
"exists"; "call s.o. (to" of deity, esp. in 
PN; of deity "nominate" king/deity to his/her 
office; "decree, ordain" rulership, fate, 
judgement; NB "declare" conversion rate 
D "lament, wail" S "cause to name" N "be 
named"; "be called (upon)"; > nabu I; nibul, 
nibitu, nibutu; nubu; munabbu; tabbitum 

nabu — ► also nebu I.II 

nabu(m) I, nebu "insect eggs" 1. O/jB "nit", jB 
also as drug 2. lex. "butterfly eggs" 

nabu(m) II, nabbu "deity, god" Bab.; < Elam. 

ndbudu — ► abdtu II N 

naburris "like battlements" jB; < naburru 

naburru (or napurru) "battlement(s)" jB(Ass.); 
> naburris 

nabutum "escaped; fugitive" OB; also PN ?; 

< abdtu II N 

ndbutu — » also abdtu II N 

na'butu — » abdtu II N; nahbutu I.II 

nadabaktu — ► natbaktu 

nadabdku — » natbdku 

nadadu(m) G {Hi) NB "to cede, give way"? 

< Aram.? D OA "search for"?; MA "drive 
together, round up"? horses; > nidittum) 

naddku — » naddqu 

nadal (or natal) (a garden plant) NB 
nadanis "for giving" OAkk; < naddnu II 
nadanu I "gift" M/NB, Bogh., Ug. "gift, 

payment, tribute"; < naddnu II infin. 
nadanu(m) II "to give" G (pres. OAkk and 
occas. later inaddan, Bab. inaddin, inanlmdin, 
Ass. iddan; perf. ittadin, Ass. ittidin, pi. 
ittadnu, NB, M/jB rarely ittannu, vent. MB 
onwards ittanna, NB also ittannu; pret. iddin, 
vent. wr. OB in PN, MA rarely idinnafm); NB 
before pron. suff. also inaddassu, taddassu; 
imper. OAkk, Bab. idin, pi. idnd, NB innd, 
Ass. din; Am. also W.Sem. pass, iu-da-anlna; 
Bogh. also Ass. forms (-» GAG §102j-l)) 
[mostly SUM; in PNs MU, AS] 1. of person 
"give, hand over, offer"; "pay" silver, interest; 
"leave, cede" to s.o.; "put at s.o.'s 
disposal" soldier, porter; "deliver"; "give s.o. 
(in marriage)"; of deity "grant" offspring, 
(long) life, prosperity; "confer, bestow" 
rulership on king; "commit, entrust (to s.o.)" 
sceptre, land; "deliver" enemy; "give" order, 
advice, reason 2. "sell", also ana kaspim, 
analas-simim n. 3. awdtam, qabam n. 
"promise" 4. math, "give" a result 5. with ana + 
infin. or ace. infin. "allow, permit" to do 
6. with parts of the body: with idu O/jB 
"endeavour", NA "give o.s. up"?; with libbu 

"encourage"; pdni n. "turn the face toward", 
"give attention to", NB "reveal o.s."; Mari, Am. 
"get ready to travel (to)"; pd(m) n. "give o.'s 
consent"; OA sepe n. "set out" for Gtn iter, of 
G "give, grant repeatedly"; "sell repeatedly" 
S "cause to give", esp. "collect, make to pay" 
tax, debt etc.; "recover" silver, payment Stn iter, 
of S OB "collect repeatedly" St 1 OB "be col- 
lected" St 2 (pres. mostly ustaddan, rarely 
ustanaddan) [SUM.SUM.MES] jB "intermingle" 
liquids; "exchange (advice) with one another, 
confer"; "ponder" N "be given, granted"; "be 
delivered"; "be sold"; > nadnu, nadinu, 
nadintu; nidnu, nidintu; nddinum, nddindnu, 
naddinu, nddittu, nddinatu; naddnu I, nadanis; 
nudunnu; madddnum, maddattu, mandittu 1 -; 
musaddinum, mustaddinu; muttaddinu; 
sadduttu; tadduntu; — > taddnu 

nadaqu (or naddku) mng. unkn. jB lex. 

nadarruru -* dardru I N 

nadaru(m) I "to be wild, furious" O/jB G stat. of 
demons N [SU.ZI] inchoative "become wild, go 
on the rampage" of animal, god, demon Ntn 
iter, of N [om. also IDIM(.MES)]; > nadru; 
nanduru I 

nadarum II "to vow" OB; < W.Sem. 

nadasum mng. unkn. OB lex. 

nadd'um — ► nadu III 

nadbdku -* natbdku 

naddinu "generously giving"? jB lex.; 

< naddnu II 

nadianu "the one who laid out" a garden MA; 

< nadu III 

nadimmu (a stone-cutting tool) jB lex.; < Sum. 
nadinanu(m) "the one who gave" Bab.; "seller"; 

Nuzi "deliverer, supplier"; < nddinum; -* 

nadinatu "(woman) who has sold" NB; 

< naddnu II 

nadintu(m), nadittu(m) "gift" O/MB; < nadnu 
nadinu "extra, additional gift"? NB; < nadnu 
nadinum "giver, donor; seller" OAkk, OB, 

Nuzi; < naddnu II 
nadiru -* nadru 

na'dis "attentively, piously" jB; < na'du 
nadittu -* nadintu 

nadittu "(female) seller" NB; < naddnu II 
naditu(m) 1. OAkk, Bab. "'fallow' (i.e. 
childless) woman" [LUKUR]; OB "celibate 
(priestess)" {-* gagu) 2. O/jB lex. (a ware- 
house) 3. OA "deposited document"; < nadu" I 
nadium -* nadu I 




nadnu "given" NB in PN; < naddnu II; 
> nadintu; nadinu 

nadru(m), nadiru "wild, aggressive" O/jB; 
< naddru I 

nadu(m) I, OAkk, OA nadium "placed, laid 
(down)" [SUB] 1. of document "deposited"; jB 
of foundation "laid"; of saliva "spat out" 2. OB 
of bag "dropped"? 3. of field "fallow"; of 
building, city, region "deserted, abandoned" 
4. lex. (desig. of headdress)? 5. lex., of person 
"fallen"?; < nadu III 

nadu II, nadu (a stele)? lex.; < Sum.; — » nam 

nadu(m) III, OAkk, OA nadd'um "to throw 
(down); lay down" G (///) [SUB] 1. "throw 
s.o.," esp. into (= ana or ace.) fire, water, 
prison; "cast" lot, net; of hot oil "bubble" 
2. "emit, throw up, expectorate" bile, mucus, 
"spit"; "sweat, discharge" moisture etc.; "utter" 
noises, "recite" incantation 3. "drop" prey; 
"throw off, shed" skin, clothes; "let drop" parts 
of the body; of bird "let hang" wings; aha(m) n. 
"be idle" 4. "knock over, upset"; "knock out" 
teeth: "repel" army 5. "reproach s.o. (= eli) for, accuse s.o. (= eli) of 6. "reject, desert"; 
"disobey, ignore" orders; "neglect" field; 
"abandon" house, nest; "stop, give up (doing" 7. "lay down"; "pour, fill (in)" liquids, 
flour, earth; OA "lay down, deposit" goods; 
M/NB "lay" foundations; "lay out" building, 
garden, sleeping place, abode; "pitch" camp; 
"lay" eggs 8. "impose"; "(put) load" (on) 
animal; with 2 ace. "put s.o." in chains; "put on" 
jewellery; "fasten" a lock, bolt; "set" fire (to); 
"bring about" need, trouble; with qdtu "lay 
hands on s.o.,", "desecrate" temple; "write, 
set down" in writing; OB math, "put in, enter" 
number; MB "launch" boat; "apply" irrigation 
water 9. various: OA with inu "keep (o.'s eyes) 
on, be attentive"; OB ina napistim n. "put in 
mortal danger"; NB with libbu "take to 
heart"; "recommend warmly"?; M/jB 
"apply, put on" colour; Nuzi "sentence s.o. to" 
10. stat. of person "is lying down, laid up, ill"; 
ana dinim nadi "is in dispute, at issue"; Qatna 
of gem "is set, mounted"; Am. of metal "is 
incorporated" Gtn iter, of G [SUB.SUB] OA 
qdtam itaddum "deposit the respective 
share(s)"; stat. "is covered with" spots etc. 
(= ace.) S caus. of G "cause (s.o.) to give up, 
force s.o."; "hinder s.o." in doing; "bring 
to a standstill" Stn iter, of S, NB "leave fallow 
repeatedly" St pass, of S N pass, of G "be 
thrown (away), laid down" [SUB]; >nadd\, 
naditw, nddidnu; nidu, niditu, nidutu; mandu II, 

manditu; musaddu; nudud'um; nuddidtu; 
saddu atum; tadditum 
nadu IV D "to cast s.o. out, expel" Am.; 

< W.Sem. 

nadu — » also natfi. IV 

nadu(m), nayyddu f. 1. OAkk, Bab., NA 
"( water- )skin" [KUS.UMMU(=A.EDIN.LAL)] 

2. Mari "leather pouch" [KUS.EDIN.NA] 

nadu — » also nadd II; na'du 

nadu(m), na'ddu "to praise, celebrate" G (pres. 
indd, pi. inaddu, pret. indd, M/NB also ina" ad, 
i"ud; prec. lu-'a^-ad OB in PN) [I; NI.TUKU] 
"extol" deity, king in PN Gtn iter, of G NB 
D = G Dtn iter, of D "praise repeatedly" Dt "be 
praised" St "sing praises antiphonally" N "be 
praised"; > sanudu; sutanidu; tanidu, tanattu, 

na'du(m), nadu "attentive, reverent" Bab.; of 
king, deity; OB of dog "watchful"; jB horse, 
king na'id qabli "devoted to battle"; < na'ddu; 

> na'dis 
naduhhu — » natuhhu 
nadunnu — » nudunnu 

na'duru, nanduru "darkened, obscured, 

eclipsed" jB; < addru I N 
nadusu ~ "scion, offspring" jB 
na'eltu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
na'eru(m), nd'lhiru, ne'iru "roaring" O/jB of 

lion (figure), deity; "screeching" of bird; 

nagabbis "into the depths of the water" jB; 

< nagbu I 
nagabbu — » nagbu I 
nagabtum — » naqabtum 

nagabum ~ "to store up"? Mari; < W.Sem.?; 

> nagbu II 

nagagu(m) "to bray, bellow, bawl" O/jB G (a/u, 
ulu) of donkey etc., demon, human sufferer; 

> nuggatu; naggigu; tangagtu 1 

naga(h)hu jB 1. lex. (a plant name) 2. n. satti (a 

disease) 3. ~ "barbarian" 
nagallum (or naqallum) (a title or function of a 

person) OB 
nagalmusu ~ "lofty, exalted"? jB lex.; — » 

nagaltu, negeltu "to awake, wake (up)" intrans. 

M/jB (pret. iggeltu, later also iggelti, Ass. 

iggalti; jB perf. (vent.) ittegeltd) (— » GAG 

nagalu ~ "to glisten, (be a)glow" M/jB G of star, 

animal D "make glow" N of star; of person 

"glow"; transf. of heart, liver "burn"; 

> nangulu; naggdlu; mangdlu 1 - 




nagamarute — » nagmuru 

naga(p)pu(m) 1. O/jB "sheaf, bundle" 2. Mari 

mng. unkn. 
nagargallu "master joiner" jB of deity; .< Sum.; 

— » nagdru I 
nagarruru — » qardru N 
*nagarsu N (or gardsu N ?) ~ "to run about in 

confusion" jB S "confuse, upset" offerings ? 
nagaru(m) I, nan/mgdru, naggdru "joiner, 

carpenter" [(LU.)NAGAR] maker of furniture, 

doors, boats; M/NA n. pdsi "adze-worker"; NA 

n. mugirri "wheelwright, cartwright"; NB as 

family name; < Sum.; > nagdrutu; — » 

nagaru(m) II G NA mng. unkn. D "to 

denounce" O/jB; > ndgiru, ndgirtu, ndgirutu; 

mangdru II ? ; munaggiru, munaggirutu; 

nagarutu (prof., craft of the carpenter) jB, NA; 

< nagdru I 

nagasu(m) "to go to( wards)" O/jB G {ulu) of 
men, animals Gtn (///) "wander, travel about" 
[DAG.DAG] D jB of woman mng. unkn. Dtn jB 
"roam around" N ~ G jB; > nugussu; 

nagbu(m) I, nagabbu 1. OAkk, Bab., NA 
"underground water" [IDIM], "source, head- 
waters" of a river; deified [ d IDlM] (= Ea) 
2. Bab. "(the) whole, entirety" of wisdom, cult; 
of people; > nagabbis 

nagbu(m) II ~ "stored" Mari, jB lex., of grain; 

< nagabum 
naggalapu — » naglabu 

naggalu "glowing" MB in PN; < nagalu 

naggdru — » nagdru I 

naggigu, nangigu, ndgigu "that brays, braying" 

jB lex., of donkey, man; < nagdgu 
nagimu — » ligimu 
nagirtu "(female) herald" jB, of goddess; 

< ndgiru 

nagiru(m) "(town) crier, herald" [LU.NIMGIR, 
NA often LU.NIMGIR, 600(=DIS+U)]; also of 
deities, transf. of animals; jB, NA (a high 
official), n. rabu "chief herald", n. ekalli "palace 
herald"; < nagdru II 

nagirutu, nammigirutu (office of the herald) jB; 

< ndgiru 
nagissu — » namgissu 

nagitu "district" j/NB; also in PINs; NB bdb n. 

(a city gate or quarter in Uruk); < nagu I 
nagiu — » nagu I 
naglabu(m), NA also nag(ga)lapu Bab., M/NA 

1. "razor, shaving blade" [Gte] 2. "hip", du. 

"flanks" of animal [(UZU.)MAS.SILA; OB also 
Su.I]; astr. (part of moon); < gullubu II 
nagmaru(m) 1. OB "final payment" 2. M/jB 
"end" (of a month) 3. MB "completion" of 
work; < gamaru II 
*nagmuru; pi. nagamarute "completed, finis- 
hed"? NA; < gamaru II N 
nagum (a bird) OB 
nagu(m) I, NA nagiu; pi. nagu, NA nagidni 

"region, district; coastal area" Bab., M/NA; jB 

"island"?; > nagitu 
nagu(m) II, negu "to sing joyfully, carol" O/jB 

G {ulu, jB also Hi) Gtn; > nugu; nigutu; 

nagubinakku (a stone vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 
nagurtu "hire"? NA, of persons; < agdru 
nahabu — » nahbu 
nahalaptu — » nahlaptu 
naha(l)littu (a garment)? MA; rdg. uncert. 
nahallu(m), nahlu(m) "stream, wadi, gorge" 

Bab., M/NA; OB also in PIN 
nahallulu — » haldlu III N 
nahalsu — » nehelsu 
nahalu(m) I "to (pass through a) sieve, sift" 

O/jB G {alu) D ~ G lex.?; > nahlu; nehlu; 

nuhhulu; mahhalu 1 , mahhaltu 
nahalum II "to share out, transfer property" (to 

s.o. = ace.) G (///) Mari D ? OB ext. mng. 

unkn. N pass, of G ? Mari; < W.Sem.; 

> nihlatum 
nahansu in kardn n. (a type of wine) NA 
nahaptu — » nahhaptu 
naharbusu "to freeze" intrans.? jB Ntn iter.; 

< hurbdsu denom. 
naharmumu "to break down, collapse" M/NB 

N; S "cause to collapse" 
naharmutu(m) N "to dissolve, melt, 

disintegrate" intrans. O/jB, of ice, tablet, person, 

dream S trans, "melt, dissolve"; also transf., 

naharsusu N ~ "to collapse" jB S caus. 
naharu(m) I ~ "to be shrivelled, withered"? 

O/jB, MA G MA stat. of document "is 

invalid"? D "make shrivel, cause to wither"?; 

transf. "invalidate"; -» na'dru D Dt "be made 

to shrivel"?; > nahru; nuhhuru 1 
naharu(m) II "to snort" jB G {ulu); > nahim; 

ndhiru, ndhiranu, nehru; nuhhuru'-; — » na'dru 
nahasu(m), j/NB nehesu "to (re)cede; return" 

Bab. G {Hi) [LAL] of troops "withdraw, yield"; 

of entrails "recede, be sunken"?; in chariot 

malfunction — » narkabtu; of flood "subside, 

abate"; MB of wall "cave in"; NB "deduct"; NB 




"flow back", of payments into treasury; of field 
"revert (to s.o.)"; "withdraw, shrink from" (an 
oath); j/NB of celestial bodies "retrograde"; 
Am. "halt, stop s.o." Gtn jB iter, "subside 
repeatedly" of flood Gt jB "pale, blanch"? D ~ 
"retch"? (Dt -♦ duhhusu Dt) S NB 1. "send 
back, return" (s.o. or 2. "let recede"; 

> nahsu; nihistu 

nahasu(m) "to be(come) luxuriant" Bab., MA 
G (//;') "prosper, thrive, be healthy", also in PN; 
infin. "health, prosperity"; Nuzi "be pleasing" to 
s.o. D "grant prosperity, health", NB also in PN 
N OB lex. "become prosperous, happy"?; 

> nahsu; nuhsu, nuhsanu; nuhdsu 
nahatu(m) "to be(come) small, diminished" 

O/jB G (stat. nahut) "be of inferior quality", of 
field; with libbu "be(come) despondent, 
fainthearted" D "diminish, reduce"?; "castrate"? 
bulls; "clip" wings; > nahtu; nehtu 1 -; nuhhutu; 
nihittiP-: tahhittu 1 - 

nahbaltu "pit(fall)"? jB; < nahbalu 

nahbalu(m) "trap" O/jB "pitfall" for lions etc., 
"box-trap"; n. tdmti "trap of the sea"?; 

< habdlu IV; > nahbaltu 

nahbasu (an oil flask) jB, NA; < habdsu II ? 
nahbastum (a reed object) OAkk(Sum.); 

< habdsu II 

nahbasu (a chaff-cutter)? jB lex., NB; 

< habdsu II 

nahbatu(m), nabhdtum, nahpdtum (a leather or 
reed carrying-case) OAkk(Ur III), O/jB; 

< habu IV 

nahbu, nahabu (a drinking vessel) M/NB, NA;